Newspaper Page Text
(The following beautitui lines were
written by Mr. W. E,' bristian, editor
of the Charlotte Democrat, in ier->ry
of his wife, the late lawn-ited Mrs.
Julia Jackson Christi .. ..-all
Once there was a Sp
When she was .':
With :: -ning song f
And bl :ring eyes f
And golden smiles k
The sky was happy
'Twas Atril chant a
W ien she we
The sum-ner came v r r- wr d :and
W aen she waz h-r':
Her cheek was by a het ai;.i fued.
And her eyes went cut of Wom.
And clouded hours died in gloom,
She waked not to her baby's cry,
Dark lashes o'er-swept tired eye,
She was not here.
Nestling, lift your little head,
And call her here;
Leaves are crimsoned, falling, dead,
Heart and bough grow bleak and bare;
Frosty spangles edge the air,
'Call her to our autumn nest,
For our warmth lay in her breast,
When she was here.
Then, came winter to my home.
With her not here; -
Nor will another spring time come,
For joy then quivering, now is dead,
My darling and my heart are weA;
Leave them-frozen into one;
Keep away-both song and sun;
For she's not here. ,
SIGN THE CLEMSON BILL !
A Call on the Governor to Respect the
Wishes of the People.
The News and Courier.
The Cotton Plant, the organ of the
Farmers' Alliance in South Carolina, is
of the opinion that when the. General
Assembly meets, Governor Richardson
will veto the bill providing for the es
tablishment of the Clemson College.
The Greenville News is "informed that
Governor Richardson during last summer
positively declared his purpose to sign
the Clemson bill." We do not know
what course Governor Richards intends
to pursue, but in our opinion he should
gn the bill without hesitation.
The State has accepted the Clemson
bequest, the contest of the will has been
determined by the courts in favor of the
State, a bill has been passed by the Legis
lature providing for the establishment of
the college under the terms of the will,
the people of the State have declared
themselves to be in favor of the founda
tion of a separate agricultuPal college
for the education of the bous of farmers,
and Governor Richardson should not
hesitate to give his approval to a meas
ure which is deserving of his favorable
consideration upon every ground of pub
lic policy. The governor wilt have three
days after the Legislature meets with
which to return the bill with his veto.
hIf e declines to approve the bill, the
probability is that the Legislature will
not be able to pass it over his veto, and
the case will then be car ried to the court
-of final resort---the ballot box. It is
easy to see that a more d:w&geroijs issue
could not be injected it.to the politics of
this State. As the Gre-".." l1e New Nways:
"Decided and united "a"x." -c hy A:: ance
men for their own intere-- ;,-uli -- cure
.the election of Cleas-. C. t eg men
'from neatly every c .un' -. State,
and a governor wh " ' . . eto a
bill directly i-a the ir -- r cmers
-and the farmers' sons.".
-The farmers of tie S .t- re that
-the Clemson College a . e- 4oished.
They have a righs - -: a.; .t their
'wishes will be con e p e i . Their
knumbers, their wear , a -i *c 'sipport
~which they give to the g.. aerosun. t will
'tethem to - ogcition. Ther e may
ces of cpinion in re
'foroan a wr~ ural
~college, but the farme F~hat provis
-iou shall be made for the education of
their sons, and the very just and proper
iequest should be granted. Gover'nor
.'IChardson's veto of the Clemson Col
+1ege bill would be a fatal political blun
der, that could not be excused upon any
ground of public policy or of econonmy.
We do not believe that he will withhold
his ap otthink that, i~
upo ths qestonhe can refuse
to comply with the reasonable expecta
tions of the farmers of the St*e. Fail
1stre to establish the Clemson College will
* eopardize the- future success and useful
ness of every other educational institu
s'1on -under State control in South Carom
lina, and will cause widespread dissen
tion and dissatisfaction among the
- -The farmers want the college, and they
-ouhgt to have it.
'WATTEESON WAS JOYOUS.
The Happy Little Song He Sang in the
LomsvniL, Ky., Nov. 6.-Following
is the Courier Journal's editorial com
tnme on the Dembecratic victories of
The returns 'ste one's breath away.
As was once said by a distinguished citi
zen of Kentucky on a famous occasion,
-"(Groundswell be damored ! It is an earth.
.-quakelI" Such will certainly be the feel
-.lg among the Republicans of the United
States this morning.
They have lost here and they have lost
there. They have been caught coming
and they have been caught going. They
are down in the East and they are d'own
in the West. It is so bad that the new
-states, not even the Montana steal, will
avail, them anything whatever. It is a
Democratic cyclone from Cape Cod to
Kalamazaoo, from Alpha to Omega, from
hell to breakfast!
~ Nothing but Democratic gains. Dem
ocratic victories every w bere. In Mlassa
chusetts. In New York. In New Jer
sey. But best of all, ao:d oie::sed of all,
in Ohio and Iowa. Ev'en Nebraska is in
'We take nio account of Virginia, be
cause we have never regarded the result
there as in the smalles degree uncertain.
From the first Mahone's dno was setaled.
He was playing the gambler's last stake,
and the loss of -all 'w'a- iunevitable. This
will be the end of him.
The defeat of Formk' ir.. Ohio seems
tobe conceded at this be ': -:hbree t'clock
a. m. The tidings ai~ rt j.y to
many hearts, and no -h - emo
cratic hearts, either... -..... was
an ug'y partisan. 1b - . seen a
thorn in the side of :., y .:::al as
sociates. too. This a e ,i ai up. It
cooks his goose. NY : r wdll he
worry anybody--no' ev ii S ennamh, But
terworth or Grosverm'r I mr ime nim to
obscurit'.y. It removes thrr fr--i the list
of presidential p' a.bzliies. It is his
That this is an r'f Se'r is very true.
But the significance of ywserdays vote
can not be overstated. Halif a year ago
the administration seemed inmpregnable.
Six inonths of bluizdering, not unmixed
with scandal, have done the business for
Mr.Harrison and his political family. The
people- have been outraged. The peo
ple -have been disgusted. And this is
the beginning of the end.
So, hurrah for the red, white and blue
and shurrah for the unterrified Democ'
racy, and down with boodle, fraud and
In an interview on the el'ection re
sults, ex-President Cleveland said in
Washington last night: "It is evident
the leaven of tariff reform has at last
leavened the whole lump. Enough for
me to say, I am satisfied with the re
ults. The verdict in Virginia mdi,
sates that the South is still faithful to
che Democracy of Jefferson and Jack
He Undertakes to Convert the Sultan
-A Mill ion Dollars to Make a Chris
New York Times.
In course of time the world may real
ize the scope of that good man, Colonel
Elliott F. Shepard, editor, manipulator
of stage company stock, religious cru
sader, and politician.
The latest revelation concerning the
notorious moralist is to the effect that he
once had an idea of converting to the
Christian faith no less a person than the
Sultan of Turkey, and that not by the
sword, as the crusaders of old sought to
effect their purpose, but with the jingle
of good American dollars, some of them,
having in time gone by belonged to
William H. Vanderbilt.
One beauty about this incident in the
Colonel's career is its absolute truthful
ness, which can net be said of some
things told of public and historical char
acters like Mr. Shepard.
It seems that when the Colonel was
abroad some four or five years ago he
visited Constantinople, and there he was
entertained by the wife of a Pasha. The
pious Colonel studied the Turkish char
acter and the Mosle.n creed at length,
and his tender heart bled at the thought
that so mahy human beings knew not the
blessing of Christianity. On his return
to this country he put into practice a
plan that had suggested itself on the
He wrote to the Pasha's wife request
ing her to inform his majesty, the Sul
tan-dearly the Colonel loves these
words- that he, Colonel Shepard, would
present him, the Sultan, with $1,000,000
in cash if he would embrace Christian
"Embrace" was the word the Colonel
used, and, considering his well adver
tised reputation for morality and mod
esty, it would seem that he might have
employed a term less susceptible of a
double significance. In his letter Mr.
Shepard gave as his reason for writibg
to the lady in question the fact that her
husband was close to the Sultan, and
conseq.ently could easily find an oppor
tunity to make the proposition.
On his return to this country, Colonel
Shepard conveyed the idea to his friends
that while his reception in all the Euro
pean countries was enthusiastic, it was
in Turkey alone that he made what the
atrical people term a "hit." "Had this
been the case. however, he would have
known," said a prominent Turkish trav
eler yesterday, "that a Christian, no
matter how high his rank, would never
be able to approach the Sultan on any
thing like intimate terms. And the
Pasha to whose wife the Colonel's letter
was written, never speaks to his imperial
master except in relation to the stables,
for his duties are connected with the
When the Pasha's wife received the
letter her amusement was unbounded,
and she told about it with great glee at
a public reception. Not so her husbarnd,
the General. He looked at the matter
in an entirely different light. What, ask
Mohammed's viceregent to forsake his
creed? The very idea caused a cold per
spiration to break out on his forehead,
and sent floating through his mind vis
ions of the bowstring, the rack, and the
cool waters of the Bosphorus.
Yesterday a reporter of the Times
asked the Turkish traveler already re
ferred to what would have resulted had
the Pasha transmitted the Colonel's mes
sage to the Sultan. "Why," was the
reply, "the thing is absurd on the face
of it; but, for the sake of argument,
suppose that the offer had been made to
the Sultan. The Pasha would have been
dismissed instantly, and would have been
wonderfully fortunate had that been the
end of it."
It is not known whether Colonel Shep
ard had a certified check for $1,000,000
made out in tevent of tuapecu
Swi ness to "embrace"
AN INFANT MURDER.
Deadly Use of a Gun by a Boy Tbi
Years Old in Charlotte.
CHARLtrE, N. CO ~r ~- er
ful tragedy ,- ...eated at Biddles.
. ne western suburbs of Char.
lotte, at about half past ten o'clock
this morning. Wesley Hunter is. a
colored man who lives with his wife
and two children in Biddlesville. The
eldest child is a boy of three years,
and the other was only a babe of six
months. This morning Hunter's wife
went into the yard to get some wood,
and left the babe propped up in front
of the fire. The three year old boy
was also in the room, and an old fash
ioned musket heavily loaded sat in a
corner of the room. Their mother had
hardly left the room when she heard
the gun fire, and rushing in found the1
babe dead upon the floor with half of]
its head entirely shot off. The gun
occupied its same position in the cor
ner, and the three year old lad stood1
in the floor as cool and calm as if1
nothing had been done. As his mother
came in he ran up to her and exclaim
ed: "Oh, mother, gun fell down and
A Probably Fatal Row.
Cwuro, Nov. 10.-Last night while
a crowd of negroes were holding a festi
val at the house of Munroe White, about 4
half a mile from this place, a row en
sued, which may result in the death of
ene of the participants. It seems that i
White ordered one of the negroe*Tom
Turne-, to leave his premises, and as 1
Turner started off White shot him twice,]
ne shot striking him in the arm and thee
other making a very dangerous wound in
the side. The direction of the ball could
not be determined by the attending sur
eon, Dr. 0. G. Falls, who .considers it
a very serious wound. White was, later
last night, committed to jail by Trial i
Just'ice Wardlaw. The trouble was one
f long standing, and a woman is said
to have been at the bottom of it. t
A Colored Man's Fidelity. a
The fidelity of a former slave to his
old mistress is well illustrated in the
ase of David Hicks, a modest and
prosperous colored man who lives in
the upper section of the county. He
was owned during the wan by a lady
who was then in prosperous circum
stances and was the owner of many
other slaves. The tide of fortune
urned and not long ago saw the lady ~
reduced to abject poverty and aban
:oned by her relatives, who allowed .
er to go to the poor house. Hicks
gratefully remembered the kindnesses ~
f his mistress and he could not bear ~
to see her spend her last days in anr
alms house, and so he took her to his
cme, cared for her until she died and
then had her decently buried. The
story was heard from his own l ips by
several, and those who knows Hicks
believe what he said. Instances of '
this kind are cheering illustrations of C
the fact that a black skin does not
shield a black heart.
Ex-Speak'er Carlisle is quite sure that
the recent elections havegvindicated the
wisdom of Mr. Cleveland's policy and
mphasized Mr. Cleveland's command
ng prominence in the Democratic party.
The country seat of the late John E.
Owens, in Maryland, was recently j
sold at public auction for $28,000. The
house and grounds, consistin~g of 208
acres, with improvements, cost Mr.
Owens $125,000. The house alone cost
him $60,000. In one room was a large
walnut bedstead that he had built in i
the room, and which went with the
hs,. ai was tno big-to be removed.:
A STORY OF liORROR.
&BLOODY BATTLE IN A COURT
The Killing of Henry Miller, Dr- Wal
ker and his Wife-The Unfbrtunate
Lady Shot Dead by Her Husband's
Special Dispatch to the Baltimore Sun.
STA1.xTOx, Va., Nov. 10.-No tragedy
has ever occurred in Virginia having
more sensational elements about it than
the Walker-Miller affair Friday, at
Brownsburg, in Brockbridge county, 22
miles from Staunton. It w:s a sudden
and bloody happening, which took place
in the midst of a judicial proceeding in
stituted for the preservation of peace
and good order in an eminently law-abid
ing community. bot in the very presence
of the justice who beard the peace case,
two persons were butchered, another was
so badly wounded that he died in ten
hours after the affray, a third was mor
tally wounded, and two others were
hurt. The distressing feature of the
whole is that a modest and innocent
woman was cruelly done to death beside
her husband, who had been rendered
helpless in the fight. Bad as tlge other
features of the slaughter were, her mur
der, in cold blood, is the one episode of
the tragedy which naturally excites the
greatest indignation and resentment in
HOW THE TROUBLE BEGAN.
The trouble began with a gross insult
offered this unfortunate lady in her own
house while her husband was sick. Henry
Miller, it is stated, went on Wednesday
last to Dr. Zachariah J. Walker's house,
in Brownsburg, for medicine, which Mrs.
Walker compounded in the surgery, and
while doing so Miller attempted to kiss
her, offering other indignities, which
were repulsed. She refrained from tell
ing her husband until Friday morning
last, when he was well.
The information made Dr. Walker very
angry, and he started out with a colored
man servant and a Shotgun. to kill, let
ting it be generally known that he in
tended to shoot on sight. Towards noon
Henry Miller heard of the matter, and
procured a warrant from Justice E. B.
Bosworth, and it was in the hearing of
this peace case before the magistrate that
the tragedy took place.
THE HEARING BEFORE THE JUSTICE.
The hearing was held in a building
known as the Academy, a large struct
ure on a commanding eminence, not five
hundred yards from the residence of Dr.
Walker. Justice Bosworth sat in a room
where the Friends of Temperance and
other societies held their meetings. The
room was fitted up with stands for the
officers of secret societies, and on the
table of the presiding officer still rests a
large gilt-edged Bible and a hymnal for
religious meetings. The size of the hall,
as it may be called, is about 35 feet
square, and it was full of men when the
hearing began. Mrs. Walker eat on a
bench in the furthest corner. Her hus
band sat on a chair, and Henry Miller,
who had sworn out the warrant, was
The magistrate, who is an experienced
afficial and a man of high worth, heard
both sides of the peace case, and Mrs.
Walker had to corroborate the statement
that her husband had threatened the life
f the complainant. The justice said he
would require Dr. Walker to give bail
in $500 to keep the peace for twelve
On refusal to do this, the justice said
here was no alternative but to send him
to jail,much as he disliked personallyto do
so. Dr. Walker replied, "That's what I
want you to do, bat I would like to get
my dinner before going.'' This. was
igreed to, and Dr. Walter said, "There
s one other request I wish to make, and
I~hat is to be allowed to slap Henry in the
Of couree the justice told him that
ould not be done there, but Dr. Walker
persisted that he would do so, and, ris
ng. he put his hand to his hip pocket
md drew a revolver.
A DESrERATE BATTLE.
This weapon he seemed to be trying to
ock, when David Miller, a son of the
:omplainant, wrenched the pistol from
aim. Ins'tantly there was a shuffle of
reet on the floor and a rush of parties to
gether and great excitement, and then a.
pistol shot was fired in the room. Mr.
A. Gould, who was . an eye witness and
;he first to advance to the aid of Dr.
Yalker, says David Miller fired this shot,
d that the bullet struck Dr. Walker in
;he back. There is good reason to sup
ose that Dr. Walker was wounded with
ais own pistol. Justice Bosworth, who
;ook the weapon from David Miller after
he affray, says that every chamber of
he revolver was empty.
Justice Bosworth says the scene in the
-oom was indescribable. Every one
eemed to be more or less involved in it,
~ither as peacemaker or antagonist. Pis
ol shots were rapidly fired, men were
triking or menacing each other with
iplifted chairs, and when the firing got
sot not a few ran out of the room. Mr.
ould says when Dr. Walker was first
ired upon he ran forward with a chair to
trike down David Miller, but was quick
y surrounded and defeated in his pur
>ose. Justice B->sworth says the first
hing he saw was Dr. Walker stabbing
Ienry Miller with a large dirk knife,
leaing ctdly blows with unstinted
Dr. Walker held his enemy in his
,rms part of the time wuile he stabbed
nd stabbed. They were both powerful
nen and remarkably strong, the Doctor
ieing about 55 years of age, and Miller
.bout 60 or 70. 'Ihe blows which the
)octor gave caused Miller to turn pale,
o reel and fall oackwards. Dr. Walker
hen crossed the room to a bench resting
gainst the side of the wall, on which
Le laid down.
MRS. wALKER KILLED.
Mrs. Walker, who had been in the ex
reme corner opposite, went to her hus
and's side, and taking a bottle of sal
olatile from a hand bag she carried,
ent over her husband and administered
be restorative. While she was doing.
is wifely and womanly act she received
fatal pistol shot, and slipping down
eside the bench where her husband lay,
ied in a sitting position. Dr. Wallrer,
2 his solicitude for his wife, managed to
et down from the bench to the floor,
nd was lying there beside her when he
ceived the pistol shots which caused
is death. Justice Boswell says he saw
Villiam Miller, 23 years of age, son of
[enry Miller, go to Dr. Walker as he
v beside his dead wife, and shoot him.
ome witnesses say William Miller stood
ver the prostrate pair and poured three
r four shots right into Dr. Walker as
.e lay on the floor helpless beside his
rife. Mr. Gould corroborates the state
aent and says he interposed and tried to
hame William Miller, begging him not
o shoot a dying man, and that he
ralked away after discharging his
reapon tbree times. Henry McCormick
.nd John B. Lavelle both say that James
tiller, one of the brothers present with
heir father, killed Mrs. Walker. These
ritnesses state that James Miller said:
-You caused the death of my father,
.nd you shall all die together."
WHAT DRi. GEORGE SAYS.
Dr. Joseph George, of Augusta county,
iear the Rockbridge line, who is attend
eg all the surviving victims of the
lreadful butchery, and made the post
whic. Di. !i .a.!er istd on H. Miller w:a
n r.d f. ,-aed dirk, wAh a pointed
blade about six inches long and about
one inch wide With this weapon Henry
Miller was stabbed ten times, first in the
heart, then in the liver, and all over the
breast. There were three or four in the
liver, two or three in the lungs, and the
blade of the weapon was found broken
oft in the lower part of the victim's back
bone. The broken blade had to be
pulled out with a pair of horse shoe
pinchers. Dr. George thinks that the
heart thrust was the first of the knife
wounds Miller received, and that Dr.
Walker must have held him while the
others were dealt.
The autopsy showed that Dr. Walker
had received in all seven bullet wounds,
and his arm had been broken below the
elbow with a chair.
Though be lost conciousness for a few
minutes in the court room, Dr. Walker
quickly recovered and was carried down
to his home. He knew that his wire,
whom he called Bettie, was wounded.
He asked if she was dead, umen asked if
Henry Miller was dead, and said: "I,
too, have a mortial wound in the bowels."
He added that he had no regret for hav
ing to die.
The shot which killed Mrs. Walker
passed through the base of the brain
from one side of the head to the other.
Death was instantaneous. Dr. Walker
died in his own home at one o'clock Sat
urday morning, abdut two hours after
THE coRONER's VERDICT.
Justice Bosworth, acting as coroner,
held an inquest on the bodies of the vg
tims, and the jury rendered a verdict
that James Miller killed Mrs. Walker,
that Dr. Walker was killed by pistols
shots fired by the Miller boys, without
individualizing them and that Henry
Miller, the father, was killed by Dr.Walk
THREE KILLED AND ANOTHER DEATH
This makes three killed, but Dr.
George is positive that D. 0. Miller will
be added to the list, as he is mortally
wounded in the back in a way similar to
the fatal shot which killed President
Garfield. T. A. Deaver, another parti
cipant in the affray, has a knife wound
in the neck, and John Hempsey is slight
ly wounded by a pistol shot in the
NARROW ESCAPE OF OTHER PEOPLE,
It is wonderful in so crowded a room
and with such a general firing that more
people were not hurt. A number of
those present were scratched, and seve
ral had bullets sent through their bats
and clothing. The walls of theTemper
ance Temple show the battle scars thick,
and the sheet-iron pipe of the stove was
riddled witb bullets. On the floor where
Mrs. Walker died is a large puddle of
blood, and the floor is sprinkled with
The question was asked Justice Bos
werth where all the pistcls came from,
and he answered that it was in evidence
before the coroner's inquest that four or
five pistols were brought into the room
after the altercation began between Dr.
Walker and Henry Miller. The justice
says these weapons included several va
rieties of revolvers, and it is said that one
man had a gun. There were five of the
Miller family, the father and four sons,
engaged it the affair. Three of the Mil
ler boys, .ames, George and William,
are in jail at Lexington, along with John
Reese, charged with aiding and abetting,
while David Miller is under charge of
the sheriff until the result of his wound
FUNERAL OF THE VICTIMs.
The funeral of Henry Miller took place
this morning from Newv Providence Prea
byterian Church, two miles from Browns
burg. Rev. Dr. C. R. Vaughn, officiat
ed, and there was a large attendance of
people. The remains were buried in the
graveyard adjoIning-the church. at two
o'clock. The funeral of Dr. and Mrs.
Walker will take place Monday at eleven
o'clock, and they will be buried in the
same cemetary. The Masonic fraternity
will attend Dr. Walker's funeral. The
dwelling-house in which their remains
lay at Brownsburg was festooned with
heavy mourning over all the windows
and entwined around the columns of the
portico. The bodies of the Doctor and the
unfortunate lady were in handsome rote
wood caskets~and a stream of people,
including many of the most prominent
ressidiits of Rockbridge and Augusta
counties, paid their respects. The stream
of visitors passing through tne modest
little parlor was continuous all day. Mr.
and Mrs. Walker leave no children of
their own, hut an adopted daughter,
Miss Hope Ervin.
SKETCH OF THE WALKERS.
Mrs. Walker was Elizabeth Brooks, of
Augusta county, near the Botetourt line.
She was about 50 years of age, a delicate
refined and firm woman, of irreproacha
ble character. She had a striking tace.
EHer hair, which had been black, was
plentifully sprinkled with silver. Dr.
Walker was a surgeon in the Con federate
ervice under Roster. He was born Ein
Rockbridge and was considered eminent
in his profession. He lately resigned the
position of medical examiner of the State
of Virginia. There is no doubt of the
fact that his death caused widespread
egret for the loss of a much beloved
itizen and a useful member of society.
Some of his friends think that in~the past
few months he showed signs of physical
and mental break-down. In his prime
be was a magnificent specimen of man
ood and of a presence which would
ommand attention among a thousand
en. It is mentioned in his circle that
he day of the tragedy was the anniver
ary of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs.
A celebrated European specialist for
iseases of thie throat, nose and ear, as
erts that tuberculosis is making alarm
ng progress among ciga smokers. He
oes not attribute this to the use of
obacco. but to the manner in which
igars are manufactured. Rolling the
obacco leaf is a craft that requires nei
her strength nor intelligence, conse
uently in this branch of the operation
t is usual to find male and female oper
tors wbo are weak and diseased, and
wo, in consequence of their infirmities,]
re economical employes. Mast of these 1
uffer from scrofula or tuberculosis.
They cough, and often give the finish- <
ng touch to a cigar with their lips. 1
Mahone's fate is that of all traitors
rom Judas Iscariot down. He is de
pised by the men who bought him,,
nd kicks and cuffs are being shower-i
d upon his miserable carcass trotn all
arties and factions. The respectable
epublican newspapers which gave
im a perfunctory support are sidling
away now, and washing their hands
ith ludicrous haste. - Greenville
A Disagreeable Man.
"Are you still taking painting les
"No; I quit yesterday. I don't like
"He has such a disagreeable way of
alking. He told me that if I kept
n for some time longer I might be
ble to whitewash a fence." -'
Quali fled fhr .Jury Duty.i i
Terre Haute Express.
Judge-"You are a freeholde14?"
Prospective Juryman-"Yes sir."
Judge-"Married or single?"'
Prospective Juryman - "Married
tree years ago last month."
Judge-"Have you formed or ex
ressed any opinion?"
Prospective Juryman - "Notfo
REBL KED FOR LYI'.
SENATOR HAMPTON'S LETTER Ti
The Postzmaster General and Sunda.
schoolSup.rinntndent Reminded of
Broken Promise, and the Story (
Ananias and SapphiraComii m 1ded t
Corx.UnrA, Nouember 12.-Special t
The News and Courier: The raciest Ie
ter of the political year is cffered to th
great American public through Tb
News and Courier. It was written b
Senator Hampton to Postmaster Gener:
Wanamaker in referenes to the app-inI
ment of a postmaster for Columbia. Tb
Senator hag sent a copy of it to Pos
master Gibbes in order toishow the falst
ness-of Wanamaker, ands by permiissio
of its author, Major Gibbes has hande
.:s copy to The News and Courier ft
It is known to be a fact, although ti
Senator does not state it in his letter t
the poniaster general, that be was tol
by Wanamaker months ago that Mi
Edwin E Gary, a moderate Republica
of this city, who had received strong ei
dorsements from the businesscommunit'
should succeed Major Gibbs asjpostma
ter. In this also the head of the pos
office department failed to keep h
word. Mr. Clayton, an "Independent,
was appointed, for a reason which ma
Senator Hampton's pen is pitiless, i
Sherman and others have found befoi
now. His letter to Wanamakei
which follows, will maintain his reputi
tion as an expert exposer of hypocris
GLEN ALLAN, MISs. NovEBEiR 8, 188f
Hon. John Wanamaker-Sir: The et
closed extract from a South Carolir
paper caused me great surprise, for pe
haps you may remember, if your mnemor
is not treacherous, your assurance to m
a few days ago that Mr. Gibbes shoul
not be removed until the expir.tion
his term, in Febuary next. Not onl
did you do this, but you voluntarily a
sured me that in as much as Columbi
was my postrffice you would, wh'n
successor to Mr. Gibbes was to be al
pointed, consult mi.
It is a matter of small importance t
me who takes the place of Mr. Gibbe:
but as I informed bim, in passil
through Columbia, of the promise yo
had made. you may, perhaps, understan
how your action has placed me in
But it is fortunate for me . that M
Gibbes will know that I, at least, tol
him the truth, though I was grievousl
deceived in believing what was said t
me. I sh'll krow better in future wh:
reliance to place on statements emana
ing from the same source.
The ecwspapers state that beside
mausging the great department ovt
which you preside, you are running
Sunday-school in Philadelphia, and
occurs to me that you might with prof
to yourself select as the most approprial
subject of a lecture to your pupils tb
instructive story of Ananias and Sal
phira._ This would give you a line. .fiei
for your eloquence in explaining to yot
young charges the importance of confit
ing themselves to the truth, excef
where some fancied advantage might >
obtained over a political opponent.
I am your obedient servant.
The Senator has expressed the opir
ion of an overwhelming majority of bi
constituents. "hurrah for Ilam pton!
The State May Punidh Them.
The Supreme Court of the Unilte
States, last Monday, rendered an opoiio
affirming the judgmeunt of the Su'prem
Court of North Car "ina in the case t
Cross and White, preszient and cashih
respectively of the State Nationai Bank
of Raleigh, N. C. The crime with whic
they wcre charged was 'he forgery of
promissory note and the making of
false entry in the books of the bank fa
the purpose of deceiving the nationi
bank examiner as to the financial condi
tion of the bank. It was contendedi
behalf of Cross and White that their oi
fense was cognizable in the Federal an
not in the State courts. The Suprem
Court .decides against the convictel
bank officers and in favor of the State.
Rome Boasts the Most Valuable Bool
in the World.
From a money standpoint Rome boas t
of the most valuable book in the world
It is a Hebrew Bible, preserved in th
Vatican at Rome, and remarkable for it
size, weighing over three hundred an
twenty-five pounds, and requiring ust
ally threemen to carry it. In 1512
syndicate of Venician Jews offere
Pope Julias its weight in gold for it (2
about $125,000, but, though needing th
money greatly, he refused is Accorcin
to the present standard value of goldl a
compared with thsat period the boy.
ought to be worth, upon the te-rnms c:
those old Jews, about$S375,000, and. iti
doubtiul if Rome would sell it for an
such amount. Yet notwithstanding h
wonderful money value set upor. I., iti
of little practical service. It is too, cumi
Dersome for use, and is prehemwd as
memento of the past, and as a librar
SOUTH CAROLINA NEWS.
There are now in the insane asylut
1,759 patients -820 white andi 939 col
On the 4th instant the county De-m
ratic convention of Abbeville notuinia
ted C61l. E. BsGary for the vacarncy 1
he House of Representatives caused b
he resignation of R. E Hill. Ther
was no opposition and Col. Gary wa
Mrs. IHanuah Jennings, of the town o
r]gefiel 1.attempted suicide the othe
:iay by taking laudanum. The dos
:r'.ved wo small to prodiuce the desire'
:fL et, aiad she togh: chloroform, whic]
eold have proved fatal had not friend
lsovered the fact and applied anti
The cotton crop of Oconee is far shor
>f what was expected two months ago
n the first place there was more wee<
han fruit, and then the' eariy fros
rut off all the late cotton. Sum
f the best informed farmers are of th
he opinion that there will not be mor
han two-thirds of an average crop mad
W. W. Russell, the newly appointe<
ostmaster for Anderson, is receivingf 2
ow from every side. The Democrat
rfer a straight-out Republicans rath
r than an Independent. A very ho
ight is being made against him. Thb
epublicans of Anderson held a meetjini
Sfew nights since and declared wa
gainst him and are now making a des
erate tight. They will do all ttley cai
o prevent Mr. Rus-ell from receivini
is commission. They prefer the pres
t incumbent [Mr. C. WV. Webb] rathe
an Mr. Russell. Mrs. J. R. Cochrai
s the Republican candidate for the ofiic
d has recerved the endorsement of th
usiness meni generally, provided the:
annot have a Democrat.
The New York Tribune, which ha
een a Mlahone organ of the deepes
lye, now remarks thatt Billy is a "bacd
umber." Truly, Mahone is in a bat
ay. _______ _
An Unkind Cut.
Miss Sere-"I suppose you hav<
teard that Mr. Short has proposed?'
Miss S.-"Yes. Now I wonder i
t's my money he's after."
wriss F-"What else can it be?"
WORKINGMEN OF LONDON.
low They Manage - More Economical
Than Those of America.
The workingmeu of London are
oorly paid in comparison with the
vorkinmen of New York, but as far
s I coulid judge they lived as well, or
etter. The reason for this senied to
,e that rents and everything used and
,onsumed in the ?amilies, except
heats, were lower in London than in
few York, and that the English
vorkingmen were better managers
Ld more economical than the work
ngmen of the United States. Having
mnderstood that the watchmen in Lou
[on were. receiving only a pound a
week for their services, I thought that
would like to know how they man
ged to live on so small pay, so I
asked a night watchman on the square
0here I lived if he had a family. "I
iave, sir," said he; "I have a wife and
hree children." "And can you live
omfortably on a pound a week?" (In
Jnited States money seventy cents a
lay.) "Yes, sir," he replied; "we've
nananed to Bet along so far, and as
wo of my children will soon be able
o earn something I am pretty well
"Will you tell me," I asked again,
'how you manage to make both ends
neet-=you don t run in debt, I
lope?" "Oh, no, sir, I never runs in
iebt: I knows just how much I am to
et each week, and, as the saying is, I
:uts my coat according to the cloth. I
annot tell you exactly how much
,verything costs, but I can tell you
;hat we do. In the first place we sets
tside what we have to pay each month
'or rent, and the next what we have
o pay for coal-we must have a roof
>ver our heads and fire to cook with
md keep us warm when the weather
s cold-then a few pennies are laid
tside which go to the society, that will
ive us a. decent burial; then we cal
sulates just how much we can spend a
lay for food, and have enough left
>vcr for clothing, and a little besides.
4e usually have meat once and some
imes twice a week, and always on
Sundays, and we have plenty of pota
es and bread. The city furnishes
ne with two suits of clothes a year,
mid my wife buys the cloth for the
)ther things I needs, and for her
:othes and the children's, and she
akes them up. I helps her myself,
sometimes, about the housework."
"You say," I remarked, "you have
6 little left over; what do you do with
hat?" "Oh,. sir, that is put in the
avin bank, so that we may have
;ometning to fall back upon if any of
is gets sick." "Do you drink any
iuor?" "No, sir." "Not even beer?"
'ot often, I like a glass of beer as
sell as anyby, but I might lose my
lace if I was often seen in beer shops,
ind I can get along just as well with
>ut it; besides, sir, I could not afford
o drink beer if I wanted to."' "A good
nany df your class," I said, "do drink
t, and a good deal of- it." "That is
rue, sir; and a good many of them
lies in the almshouse." "Do you take
2thing in these long, chilly nights?"
Nothing but tea, sir, which my wife
nakes for me. I takes a bottle of it in
ny pocket, and drinks that as I takes
ny rounds. It is a good deal cheaper,
md I am sure it is a good deal better
or me than beer." "One question
nore, and I have done; how is it about
tour children; you don't let them orow
ip in ignorance, I suppose? TVho
:aches them?" "They goes to the
ree school, sir; we have free schools.
n London." I was agood deal inter
'ted in -this man's story, which I
rew out of him by questions. He
vas a man supportinno himself and his
amily on 70 cents a &y, and yet hale,
carty and contented. Who are more
mtitled to respect than such men!
Iugh McCulloch's Men and Measures.
The Feeling in Saxony.
The Saxons, although now under
le protection of the Prussian flag,~ do
ct all takre in the most kindly way to
heir protectors. The writer talked
.vitzmembers of different classes in
)resden, Leipsic, Frankfort and other
saxon cities and heard remarks which
-ere anything but complimentary to
he Germans and the present emperor.
n case of war they owe allegiance to
3ermany and must fight, but they
ike to indulge in the belief that they
tr a separate power and kingdom.
Chey 'etain their old flag, and at rail
,ay stations and public buildings it
oats side by side with the Prusin
olors. Everywhere do you hear re
rets for the death of Emperor Fred
rick. It is believed gnerally on the
:ontinent and in En~and that not
mly Prussia but the wc ole world is a
oser by his death. Nobody seems to
mow exactly what will be the policy
f the young emperor. It is like sit
ing near a-barrel of gunpowder; you
lon't kw when it may explode.
-M. P." izome Journal.
The Blind Sculptor..
Vidal. the blind sculptor, is one of
the wonders of the French capital. He
has been blind since his twenty-first
year. We can quite easilyv understand
how a blind farmer wouild cultivate
the ground with the plow, spade
and hoe. How he would feel around
the tender plaints and gently loosen
the dirt from their rootfs, or how the
blind Biringhami (Ala.) miner tells,
with the sense of touch alone, the di
rection and to what depth to drill his
holes before putting ini a blast; but
the work of Vidal stands out in bold
relief, unique, wondeirful and incom
parable. To bc a sculptor it is gener
ally supposed that one must have the
"nechanic's eye" and the ar'tist's taste
and perspicuity. The latter faculties
Vidal has to an exiceptional deoriee
even more acute, he believes, tinan if
the former were not lost to him for
ever.f~y slowly passing his hands
over, an object lie notes its external
Proportionms, and i:r'itat!e themn in ch:y
m a mainna- which uraike:S the Lu
holder dumb with surprise. A dog,
horse, human face or anything alive
:r dead, lie models with as much ease
is any of the dozens of Parisian sculp
ors who still retain the faculty of
"Fromn 1855 to 1875 Vidal received
nore medals than any other exhibitor
>f works in the Paris airt exhibitions.
~Iany of his woirks, made in the soli
:ude of his perpetual midnight, are
ow on the shelves at the great expo
~ition, where the blind wonder con
eids in friendly rivalry with his less
.nfortunate brother artists. He never
~omplains, is always genial and fes
ive when among his friends, who al
ays speak of and to him as though
e could see, and well may they do so,
'or lie is one of the best art critics in
d Paris.-John' W. Wright in St.
Our male aristocrats star'ted the
novement. For several years the
Iarquis of Londonderry's coal carts
are perambulated the streets of the
netropolis bearing his lordship's name
n full; the Earl of Shrewsbury's han
oms are the smartest and swiftest in
m~don, and quite recently the Earl of
~oventry has blossomed out into a
ona flde manufacturer of jams and
ickles. Soon the ladies began to fol
ow suit. If lords miay sell coal, why
hould not ladies sell milk? And so
hie Duchess of Hamilton has started a
aost successful dairy at Ipswich, and
L one thinks any the worse of her
-race for doing so; while the Honor
ble 31rs. MIaberhy presides over a
.aintily fuirnished establishment of a
imilar nature somewhere in the re
~ions of Notting Hill-London Cor.
ODDS ANiJ ENDS.
It is asserted that Paris shop4keepers
] have raised prices fully 50 per cent.,
but only to strangers.
It is an ancient belief that a change I
in the body of a man occurs every
a seventh year.
?* The man who boasts that he is ready
o to shed his last drop of blood is apt to
be particular about the first drop.
o A Huntin-ton paper says: There are
villages in tfiis county of 200 or 300
e inhabitants where it would be impos
e sible to find a soul astir on Sunday
afternoon. It is a universal custom
An offensive trunk raised an excite
e nint in the depot at New Oxford,
A laniscounty, Pa., the other day. On
being opened it was found to hold
ladies' wearing apparel well stocked
j with naphthaline to keep off moths.
r Australia is as cosmopolitan as the l
United States. At a hotel in Sidney
e the other week there were thirteen
o dilfferent nationalities represented at
- The size of the canvas on which
Millet painted "L'Angelus," the fa
nious $110,000 picture, is 21j by 251
inches. The painting was paid for at
the rate of $204.05 per square inch.
Lightning struck the house of CoL
L. N. Edwards of Oxford, Me., knock
ing a kerosene lamp into a thousand
p pieces and taking a metal clock from
the wall of the room and hurling it
s under the colonel's bed. Nothing else
e in the house was disturbed.
' Miss .lary Graham was awarded the
prize in political economy at the com
n-ucenent of Wesleyan university
at Middletown, Conn.; Miss Lily B.
Conn in natural science, and Miss
3lttie J. Beach in English literature.
a A scheme for hatching' partridges
for stocking Montgomery county,
Y Pa., is to be put in operation
e by the Game Protective associa
a tion of that county. The egos will be
bought in large quantities an2 hatched
- in artificial incubators.
The present English national debt
may be said to have commenced in the
reign of William III, 16S9. Eight
years after the date given it amounted
to about ?5.000,000 sterling, an amount
then thought to be of alarming mag
A curious theft is reported from
Prague. A burglar having gained ac
a cess to the cabinet of a well known
collector broke open a small but rich
ly chased steel coffer fort of antiq te
workmanship, and, having taken only
its contents (about $150 in Austrian
currency), obligingly left the casket,
the worith of which at a moderate com
putation is said to be $1,250.
When Jacob Foss,of Green Bay,Wis.,
a died a few weeks ago eight different
r men presented bills to his widow, but
a she had a receipt for each one in fulL
t Her husband had filed away a matter
of 2,000 of them, saying they might
e come handy some day.
e An invention has been made which
oromises to revolutionize completely
i the industry of china decoration. By
r a process discovered by J. B. lonnaud
it is possible to obtain in a few minutes
t the same artistic effects which cost the
e hand painter on china days of labor.
Landscapes, groups of figures and por
traits are produced by this means on
vases, plates and plaques in their na
. tural colors, even to the most delicate
" The New Orleans Times-Democrat,
taking the data afforded by reports
from sever-al of the states, estimates
thiat very nearly half of the cotton is
now raised by white labor, whereas
ethirty yvears ago not over 400,000 bales,
ornie-'tenith of the crop, was raised by
r the whites.
The Railroad Age gives the approxi
Li mate mileage of raili-oad construction
a during the first six months of the pres-1
a ent year, which is estimated at 1,522:
r miles, or less than half that of the1
,1 same per-iod of 1888. More than half
. of the ne w construction is in the south,
a The Age estimates the total mileage
.for this year at from 3,500 to 5,000
e mits no more possible, says Rev.
I Sydney Smith, for an idle man to keep
together a certain stock of knowledge,
than it is possible to keep together a
c stock of ice exposed to the meridian
sun. Evary day destroys a fact, a re
lation or an influence; and the only
a way of preserving the bulk and value
. of 'the piie is by constantly adding
e to it.
4 Cratritude for an Umbrella.
- 'Do y-ou know7 why Governor Gor
a dlon appointed Alvan D. Freeman to
3 be judge of the county court of Co
rweta?" a gentleman from Newman
"No; was there any special reason?"
" There was. It was on account of
San old umbrella. When Governor
iGordon surrendered at Appomattox it
s was raining hard. The water was run
ninig down his face so fast that it was
'with difficulty he made a little im
promptu speech composed for the oc
*Seeing the general's embarrassment
Alvan Fireeman, who was the owner
of the only umbrella in the Confeder
ate army. raised it, and, stepping up
close to the general, held it over his
head. pi-otecting him from the rain
-until his little speech was finished.
The general was very grateful to Al
- ian, and the very first occasion that
pi-esented itself proved that he had not
forgotten the umbrella act by appoint
ing himn to a judge's place.-Atlanta
The Monkey and the Shah.
fThe shah of Persia specially appre
r ated two of the Berlin sights during
ahis visit-the menhgerie at the Aqua
I rium and the Zoological gardens. He
iadmired the mokeys, but was rather
shy of seeing them at close quarters.
- However, the ma'nager at the Aquari
um induced his Persian majesty to
stroke a very tame chimpanzee, when,
to the general hor ror, another mon
key, which was not being watched,
sudlenly clung to the shah's unifor-m,
and danmaged both the iroyal visitor's
garments and his n.rves.-New York
Too Smart by3 Hall.
New York HeralId.
"Good morning, Madam -"
"We don't want n> sewin' ma
"Nor no patent clothes wringer-''
"A n' we got two grau' pianners an'
a cubunet organd."
"An' ev'ry room ht z a clockt an'
aionus has watc-his."
"How about pictures?"
r"Kain't sell us none o' them, nei
ther, stranger. They ain't a wvall in
the house ye kin see for th' rafts o' oil
paintiu's hung on 'em."
"I suppose you have a dog?"
"Yer a shoutin'! Pap has more'n
forty, an' all bloodid."
"How about carriages?"
t"Barns full on 'em. An' we don't I
:buy no hosses on this ranch."
l "Good morning, madam."
"Mornin'-say, tenderfut, who bees h
ye, enyho?" t'
"Im the tax assessor."
Hie was anl E:ditdr.
Burglar-What are yo-u laughing at
you fool? Do you see this gun?
fAwaken citizen-I was laughing to s
see you hunt in the dark for the mon-y
T cat find in broad davlight.
" *, .TTh~R!A WAN13ERIt4Gg.
.after Twenty-five Years It Reaches the
Party It Ia Addressed to.
Among the many curious things
that occur in the handling of the mails
none are more curious or out of the
ordinary than a story related by Mr.
John Schomaker, a saddle and harness
maker at 1341 North Broadway, and a
member of Ransom post, G. A. R. At
the beginning of the late war, Mr.
Schomaker was living at Fort Madison,
Ia., where he enlisted as a member of
the old Fremont body guard, and
came to St. Louis to Camp Ashboth.
He went south, and after Fremont
was superseded by Gen. Hunter the
body guard was disbanded, and the
members joined other companies. Mr.
Schomaker became a member of com
pany F, Fifth Iowa cavalry, which
was attached to company G, of the
Fourth Michigan cavalry. He was
under Gen. Thomas, and as a mem
ber of the headquarters courier line,
carried dispatches on the Chicka
mauga battle field, and also acted in
the same capacity on and around
Lookout Mountain and Missionary
Ridge, and went as far east as Jones
boro, Ga., on Gen. Sherman's march
to the sea. On April 11, 1864, John
H. Schomaker, father of the soldier,
directed a letter to him from Fort
Madison, Ia., and, thinking he was in
Tennessee, wrote the following ad
dress on the envelope:
JOHN SCHOi A ER,
Co. F, Fifth Iowa Cavalry, with Co. G.
Fourth Mich. Cavalry, viaNashville.
The letter reached Nashville in due
time, and was forwarded to the Fifth
Iowa cavalry, lying near Chatta
nooga, Tenn. But Mr. Schomaker had
been detailed on the headquarters
courier line and was gone a few days
before the letter arrived at the camp.
The letter was sent back to Nashville,
where it remained a few days while
the mail officials were looking up the
whereaboutf of the Iowa company. It
seems that Company F, of the Fifth
Iowa cavalry, had about this time gone
home on a veteran's furlough to see
their wives and sweethearts, and were
afterwards thrown among two Iowa
companies. The letter was forwarded
from Nashville to the Third Minne
sota cavalry at St. Paul, Minn. But
Mr. Schomaker, instead of taking ad
vantage of the furlough in his Iowa
company in Tennessee, had gone on to
Georgia with Sherman, and of course
the letter did not reach him in Minne
sota. However, the St. Paul postoffice
officials, thinking that Mr. Schomaker
was among the Iowans mixed up with.
the Minnesota companies, redirected
the letter as follows:
On detached duty at Fort Snellin;, Minn.
And the letter now found its. way
to this outpost in the north, while the
soldier to whom it was written was
fighting far away in Georgia. The
letter was finally advertised, accord
ing to the postal laws at Fort Snelling,
but on July 31, 1864, was sent to the
dead letter office, in Washington.
Up to this time the nearestin time and
space that the letter came to Mr. Scho
maker was the distance from Nash
ville to Chattanooga, and the period
of one day. He left Chattanoogafor
Georgia one day before the letter ar
rived there. But the letter was again
sent to the exact place he had left only
a few days before it arrived. Mr.
Schomaker visited his home in Fort
Madison, Ia., for one month in 1884,
and a few days after he left the letter
was returned to its writer, John H.
Schomaker, .from the dead letter of
fice. The envelope and letter were
enclosed in a new envelope. It was
thrown into a bureau drawer among
several old letters and relies, and was
forgotten by the family.
Mr. Schomaker, of this city, Ifever
visited his home again until last Sep
tember, and while there he was nosing
around among some old letters
ran across this identical letter which
his father had written to him during
the war. The envelope was covee
with the mold of twenty-five years,
and the ink had faded i ato dim lines
at p laces. Yet the sentences were en
tirely legible, and Mr. Schomaker read
the letter for the first time, with as
much avidity as if he had received it
twenty-five years before when it ar
rived in Tennessee, and had then per
used it by the flickering' light of the
camp fire. But he read it at this late
date with a very different phase of in
terest than if he had seen it in 1884..
Then it would have been fresh news
from the loved ones at home. Now it
was read with only an eagerness that
recalled the thrilling scenes of a quar
ter century ago.- Received at the
camp long ago the letter would have
been fresh news. Read at this time it
was a memento, a reminiscence. -Mr.
Schomaker brought the letter home
with him and has placed it among.
quite a cogection of war relics whc
he has obtained to satisfy his anti
quarian tastes. The letter is held
dear by him, and it could -not be pur
chased by gold, greenbacks, or an
African diamond mine. - St. Louis
It will surprise many people to know
that cider made of apples is not an
American drink distinctively. Its
manufacture was imported from
France, where the annual output
equals that of the wine of the country.
In France cider is not onymade of
apples, but of pears. In England it is
also a popular drink, and the cider
miakinig industry is quite extensive.
The state departmnent has found cider
making in both France and England
to be of suflicient importance to have
our consuls in both nations prepare
special reports upon the process, appli
ances, output and prices of the bever
age, which have been published in a
separate volume for free distribution,
al are all of the consular reports, in
what thev call. I bclieve, down east,
"Ev-arts' 'Monthly Magazine," that
gentleman while secretary of state
having instituted the publication of
these valuable papers on trade, com
merce, govern" ent and natural his
tory of the countries where we are
represented as a nation.-Interview in
St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
Dwarf Japanese 'Trees.
One of the interesting things seen
at the Paris exposition are the dwarf
trees which the Japanese horticultu
rists are showing, and which are at
tracting nmucli attention, says a wiciter
in The Pittsburg Dispatch. Pines,
thujes and cedars, said to be 100 or 154)
years old, are only eighteen inches
Ligh, and with such specimens it
would be easy to have a coniferous
forest on a balcony. These arboreal
deformities are produced by great la
bor, and if the truth is told about their
ages, this work of arresting the tree's
development and forcing it into eon
torted forms must be persisted in by
several generations of foresters. All
this painstaking is hardly paid for by
the beauty of the resulting' abortions,
but a look at these trees w-ill explain
where the fantastic forms come from
which serve as models for the plants
we see on lacquered trays, bronzes and
embroideries which conie from Japan.
In Russia when coffns are covered
with cloth, the color of the covermn
is, to a certain extent. distinctiv.e, pi.
beina used when the deceased is a
childJ or a youing person, crimson for
wonmen and brown for 'widows, but
bla s i,, no as employed.