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1 'HE CELESTIAL CITY.1
Dr. Talmage Preaches a Sermon in
ard About Jerusalem.
How the Place is Associated with the Sa
tour. Solomon. and David-Thoughts
About the Crucifixion and
Christ's Saffering-A Sym
bol of Heaven.
At a large gathering of Christian peo
ple in Jerusalem recently Rev. T. De
Witt Talmage was the preacher. His
text was Matthe^w xxiii, 37: "Jerusalem!
Jerusalcm: The sc&rmon is appended:
This exclimation burst from Christ's
lips as he came in sight of this great
city, and, although things have marvel
ously changed. who can visit Jerusalem
to-day without having its mighty past
roll over him, and ordinary utterance
must give place for the exclamatory as
we cry: 0 Jerusale:m. Jerusalem! Dis
appointed with t::e Holy Land many
have been, and I have heard good
friends say that their ardor about sacred
places had been so dampened that they
were sorry they ever visited Jerusalem.
But with me the city and its surround
ings are a rapture, a solemnity, an over- 1
whelming emotion. 0 Jerusalem, Jeru
salem! The procession of kings, con
querors, poets, and immortal men and
women pass before me as I stand here. 1
Among the throng are Solomon, David, 1
and Christ. Yes, through these streets
and amid these surroundings rode Solo
mon, that wonder of splendor and wretch
edness. It seemed as though the world
exhausted itself on that man. It wove
its brightest flowers into his garland. It
set its richest gems into his coronet. It
pressed the rarest winito his lips. It
rbedi-rm infrpe est pt::le and em
broider'y. - It cheered him with the
sweetest music in that land of barps. It
greeted him with the gladdeat laughter
that ever leaped from mirthi' ip. It
sprinkled his cheek with spra from the
brightest fountains. Royalty had no
dominion, wealth no luxury, gold no
glitter, flowers no sweetness. ,..ng no
melody, light no radiance, upholstery no
gorgeousnes, waters no gleam. birds no
pluage, prancing coursers no mettle,
ardhitects no grandeur but it was all his.
Across the thick grass of the lawn, fra
grant with tufts of camphire from En
gedi, fell the long shadows of trees
brought from distant forests.
Fish pools, fed by artificial channels
that brought the streams from hills far
away, - were perretually ruffled with
fins, and golden scales shot from water
cave-to-water cave with endless dive
and swirl, attracting the gaze of foreign
potentates. Birds that had been brought
..,from foreign aviaries glanced and flut
tered among the foliage, and called to
their mates far beyond the sea. From
the royal stables there came up the
neighing of twelve thousand horses,
standing in blankets of Tyrian purple,
chewing their bits over troughs of gold,
waiting for the King's order to be
brought out in front of the palace, when
the official dignitaries would leap into
the saddle for some grand parade, or,
-harnessed to some of the fourteen hun
dred chariots. of the ding, the fEery
chargers with flaunting mane and
throbbing nostril would make the earth
jar with the tramp of hoof md the
thunder of wheels. While w" -" and
without the palace you could not think
of a single luxury that could b' -added,
-orff a single splendor that -o :ld be
kindled, down on the banhs or the sea
thgdry-docks of Ezion-geber r::-- with
thehamnmersof theshipwright: -:* ' were
con.sucting larger vessel - a still
wider commerce, for all lan': :i' -limes
wel ~to, robbed to mak~e n:' S 'omon's
glory. No rest till his k--e is shdl cut
every sea, his axmen .hew egoery forest,
his archers strike .every rare 'eig, his
en whi every stream. his mer
ra .. ..aaarc-hi nameB
honored by every tribe; and royalty
Sshall have no dominion, wealth no lux
ury, gold no glitter, song no melody,.
light no radiance, waters no gl -m-, birds
no plumage, prancing courser-; ' >mettle,
upholstery no gorgeousncot. -'-bitee
ture no grandeur, but it wa:: .is
"Well," you say, "if there '- - y man
happy, he ought~to be." Bu t i tr him
coming through the palace, ! we his
robes actually incrusted we> jeels, as
She-stands in the front an-I 1--ks out
.upon the vast domain. Wh at does he
say? King Solomon, great ia your
'dominion, great is your honor. great is
your joy? No. While standiag here
amidst all the splendor the tears start,
and his heart breaks and he exclaims:
"Vanity of vanities; gl is vanity."
What' Slomon not. happy y'et? No,
eot happy. The honors and the emolu
Sments of this world bring so many cares
with them that they bring also torture
and disquietude. Pharaoh sits on one
of. the highest earthly eminences, yethe
- s rable because there are some
pe e in his realm who do not
want any longer to make bricks. The
hpa of Edward I. aches under his crown
because the people will not pay the
taxes, and Lleweltyn, Prince of Wales,
wil'not do him homage, and Wallace
will be a hero. Frederick William III.
of Prussia is miserable because France
-wants to take the Pr-ussian provinces.
'The woi-ld is nof'large enough for Louis
XIV. and William III. The ghastliest
suftering, the most shrivelina ?e-'-s, the
most rending jealousies, the most
gignie disquietude, have walked
amidst obsequicus courtiers, and been
chathei, in royal apparel, and sat on
jgilgient seats of power.
~~nor ard truth and justice can notgo
so g h'p in authority as to be beyond
the range of human assault. The pure
and the good in all ages have been exe
crated by the mob who cry out: "Not
this man, but Barabbas. Now, Barabbas
Swas a robber." By-honesty, by Chris
tian principle, I would have you seek
for the favor and the confidence of your
- fellow men; but do not look upon some
high position as though that were al
ways sunshine. The mountains of earth
ly honor are like the mountains of Swit
zerland, covered with perpetual ice and
*now. Having obtained the confidence
-and love of your associates,*'be content
with such things as you have. You
brought nothing into the world, and it
is very certain you can carry nothing
Q cut. "Cease ye from man, whose breath
is i his nostrils." There is an honor
that is worth possessing, but it is an
honor that comes from God. This day
rise up and take it. '-Behold what man
ner of love the Father hath bestowed
upon us, that we should be called the
sons of God? Who aspires not for that
royalty?.- Como now, and be kings and
priests unto G ->d and the Lamb forever.
-If wealth and wisdom .could have sat
!sfied a man, Solomon would have been
satisfied. To say that Solomon was a
millionaire gives out a very imperfect
idea of the property he inherited from
David, his father. 1Ie had at his cem
mand golaito the value- of 26S.O0,0000 and
he had silver othe va'une oi21,029,000,377.
The Queen af Sheba made him a nice
little .present of ?7i0.000, and Hiram
made him a present of the same amount.
If he had lost the value of a whole realm
out of his pochet it wou;ld have hardly
been worth his while to stoon down and
pick it up. Hec wrote vae thousand and
five songs. lie wrote three thousand
proverbs, IHe wrote about almost every
thing. Tho---Blible says distinctly ho
wrote about plants, from the cedar of
Lebano tothe hyssop that groweth out
of the wall, and about birds and beasts
and Ehes. Ti doubt he put off his royal
robes and out on huuter's trappings and
wont out with his arrows to bring down
nith his hsing apparatus ne went (on
o the stream to bring up the denizens
f the deep. and piuned-into the forei
.nd found the rarest specimens of flow
rs: and thon ho came back to his stu:y
,d wrote books about zoology, the
ciouce of animals; about ichthyology,
he science of fishes; about ornithology,
he science of birds: about botany. the
cience of p1 nts. Yet, notlhwithstand
ng all his wisdom and wealth, Leholi
uis wretchedness, and let him pass on.
)id any other city ever behold so won
erful a man? 0 Jerusalem, Jerusa1'ni
But here passes through these streets,
s in imagination I see him, quite as
wonderful and a far better man. David
ho conqueror, the king, the poet. Can
t be that I am in the very city where he
ived and reigned? David great for
yower, and great for grief. le was
rapped up in his boy, Absalom. 11e
as a splendid boy, judged by the rules
>f worldly criticism. From the crown
>f his head to the solo of his foot there
as not a single blemish. The Bible
ays that he had such a luxuriant shock
)i hair that, when once a year i: was
horn, what was cut off weighed over
;hree pounds. But, notwithstanding all
is brilliancy of appearance he was a
>ad boy and broke his father's heart. IIe
as plotting to get the throne of Israel.
3e had marshaled an army to overthrow
is father's government. The day of
>attle had come, and the conflict was
yegun. David, the father, sat between
:ho gates of the palace waiting for the
:idings of the conf'ict. Oh, how
rapidly his heart beat with emotion!
rwo great questions were to be decided
-the safety of his boy and the continu
Lnce of the throne of Israel. After
L while, a servant, standing on the
top of the house, looks off. anml he sees
ome'one running. Ile is coming with
great speed, and the man on the top of
the house announces the coming of the
essenger, and the father watches and
waits, and as soon as the messengor
Erom the field of battle comes within
hailing distance the father cries out. Is
it a question in regard to the establish
ment .of his throne? Does he say:
"Have the armies of Israel been vic
torious? Aga I to continue in my im
perial authority? Have I overthrown
my enemies?" 0, no. There is one
question that springs from his heart to
the lip, and springs from the lip into the
ar of the besweated and bedusted mes
senger flying from the battlefield-the
uestion: "Is the young man Absalom
safe?" When it was told to David, the
King, that, though his armies had been
victorious, his son had been slain, the
Lather turned his back upon the con
gratulations of the nation, and went up
the stairs of his palace, his heart break
ing as he went, wringing his bands
sometimes, and then again pressing
them against his temples as though ho
would press them in, crying: "0 Absa
lom! my son! my son! Would God I had
died for thee, 0 Absalom! my son! my
son!" Stupendous grief of David re
sounding through all succeeding ages
This was the city that heard the woo.
0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem!
I am also thrilled and overpowered
with the remembrance that yonder
where now stands a Mohammodas
mosque stood the temple, the very one
that Christ visited. Solomon's temple
had stood there, but Nebuchadnezzar
thundered it down. Zerubbabel's temple
had stood there, but that had been pros
trated. Then Herod built a temple be
ause he was fond of great architecture,
and he wanted the preceding temples to
seem insignificant. Put eight or ten
modern cathedrals together, and they
would not equal that structure. It cov
ered nineteen acres. There were mharble
pillars supporting roofs of cedar, and
silver tables on which stood golden cups,
and there were carvings exquisite and
inscriptions resplendent, glittering bal
gstrdespa ornamental gateways.
The buidig-6f this temple kept ten
thousand workmen busy forty-six years.
Stupendous pile of pomp and magnifi
cence! But the material and architect
ural grandeur of the building were very
tame compared with the spiritual mean
ing of its altars and holy of holies, and
the overwhelming significance of its
ceremonies. 0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem!
But standing in this old city all other
facts are eclipsed when we think that
near here our blessed Lord was born,
that up and down the streets of this city
He walked, and that in the outskirts of
it Ho died. Hero was His only day of
triumph and His assamination. One day
this old Jerusalem is at the tiptop of ex
citement. Christ has been doing some
remarkable works and asserting very
high authortiy. The police court has
issued papers for his arrest; for this
thing must be stopped, as the very gov
ernment is imperiled. News comes that
last night this stranger arrived at
a suburban village and that 4e is
stopping at the house of a man whom
he had resuscitated after four days
sepulture. Well, the people rush out
into the streets, some with the idea of
helping in the arrest of this stranger
when he arrives, and others expecting
that on the morrow he will come into
ne town and by some supernatural
force oust the municipal and royal
authorities and take everything in his
own hands. They pour out of the city
gates until the processi'n reaches to
the village. They come all around
about the house where the stranger is
stoping, and peer into the doors and
windows that they may get one glimpse
e him or hear the hum of his voice.
The police daro not make the ar
rest, ::because he had somehow won
the affections of all the peo
ple. 0, it is a lively night in
yonder Bethany! The heretofore quiet
village is filled with uproar ar.d cu'.tcry,
and loud discussion about the strange
acting countryman. I do not think thoe
w~s any sleep in that house that night
where the stranger was stopping. Al
though he came in 'weary he finds no
rest, though, for once in his lifetime, he
had a pillow. But the morning dawns.,
the olive gardens wave in the light, and
all along yonder road, reaching over the
top of Olivet, towai-d this city, thero is
a vast swaying crowd of wondering peo
ple. The excitement around the
door of the cottage is wild as the stran
ger steps out beside an unbroken colt
that had never been mounted, and after
his friends had strewn their garments
on the beast for a saddle the Saviour
mounts it, and the populace, excited and
shouting and feverish, push on back
toward this city of Jerusalem. Let none
jeer now or scoff at this rider, or the
populace will trample him under Loot
in an instant. There is one long
shout of two miles, and as far as the
Bo can reach you see wavingrs of
iemonstrations and approval. There
was something in the rider's visage,
something in his majestic brow, some
thing in his princely behavior. that stirs
p the enthusiasm of the people. Theyv
run up against the beast and try to
pull the rider off into their arms and
::arry on their should'rs the illustrious
stranger. The populace are so oeited
:hat they hardly know what to do with
themselves, and some rush up to the
-oadsi trees and wrench oif branches
cnd throw them in his way: andi otherti
iif their garments, what thou:ghis
ie new and costly, and spread them for
i carpet for the conquer'or to ri o~ r.
Iiosanna!" cry the peopie at the f'
:he hill. "Ilosanna' cry the pepl (
p and down tho muountin. Thel p:-o
:ession has now come to the bro.. of
onder Olivet. Magnificent p*o n't
reaching out in every direction--ie
r-ards, olive groves, juttin rock, si-r
Siloam, and above all. rising on: its
throne of hills, this most h ighly honored
ern. in the midst of the procession, r
lo:s oil and sees here fortressed gates,
:nd von idr the circling wall, and here
: : bo sun, Phasaelus
a i:,.mn . Y, (r is Ilippicus,
.he kir. s castle. Lkoing along in the
range of the ]argo branch of that olive
',re ta you . the mansions of the mer
e:att princes. Through this cleft in the
limesene r ck- you see the palace of the
ihes tr aflcer in all the earth. lie
:: made' his money by selling Tyrian
purple. Behold now the temple! Clouds
of smoke lifting from the shimmering I
roof, while the building rises upbeauti- a
ful, grand, majestie, the architectural
shill and giory of the earth lifting
them selves thero in one triumphant
dox.lo the frozen prayer of all na
The cw.t 1 lookTed around to so exhil
arai on: and transport in the face of
Ch-ist. 0, no: Out from amid the
gates, and the domes, and the palaces,
there arose a vision of this city's sin, I
andt of this city's doom. which oblitera
ted the landscape from horizon to hors
zon. and lie burst into tears, crying: "0,
Jerusalem, Jerual:em!' ]:u' that was
the oUly ta of pomp that Jesus saw in
and around the city. Yet He walked
the stre-:s of this city the loveliest
and most majestic being that the
world ever saw or ever will see. Pub
lius Lentulus, in a letter to the Roman
Senate describes liim as "a man of
stature, somewhat tail, His hair the
color of a chestnut fully ripe. plain to
the oars, whence downward it is more
orient. caling and waving abeut the
shoulders: in the midst of his forehead
is a stream, or partition of his hair;
forehead plain and very delicate; his
face without spot or wrinkle, a lovely
re?: lis nose and :mouth so forked as
tui:in can be represented; his beard
thiek. in color like his hair-not very
ln0r: his eyes gray, quick and 'lear."
lie must dit. The French army in Italy
found a brass plate on which was a copy
of his death warrant, signed by John
Zerubbabel, Raphael Rohani, Daniel
R obani, and Capet.
Somc imes men on the way to the
scaffold have been rescued by the mob.
No such attempil)t was made in this case,
for the mob were against him. From 0
in the morning till :3 in the afternoon,
Jesus hung a-dying in the outskirts of
this city. It was a scene of blood. We
are so constituted that nothing is so ex
citing as blod. It is not the child's
cry in the street that so arouses you as
the crimson dripping from its lip. In
the dark hall, seing' the finger marks
of blood on the plastering, you cry:
"What terrible deed has been done
here"" Looking upon this suspended
victim of the cross, we thrill with the
sight of blood-blood dripping from
thorn and nail, blood rushing upon his
cheek, blood saturating his garments,
blood gathered in a pool beneath. It
is called an honor to have in one's veins
the blood of the house of Stuart, or of
the house of Ilapsburg. Is it nothing
when 1 point you to the outpouring
blood of the King of the universe?
In England the name of Henry was so
great that its honors were divided
among different reigns. It was henry
the First, and Henry the Second, and
Honry the Third. and Henry the Fourth,
and IHenry the Fifth. In France the
name of Louis was so favorably re
garded that it was Louis the First, Louis
the Second, Louis the Third, and so on.
But the King who walked these streets
was Christ the First, Christ the Last,
and Christ the Only. ie reigned before
the czar mounted the throne of Ilussia,
or the throne of Austria was lifted,
"King eternal, immortal." Through the
indulgences of the royal family, the
physical life degenerates, and some of
the kings have been almost imbecile,
and their bodies weak, and their bleed
thin and watery; but the crimson life
that flowed upon Calvary had in it the
health of immortal God.
Tell it now to allthe earth, and to all
the heavens-Jesus, our king, is sick
with IHis last sickness. Let couriers
carry the swift dispatch. IHis pains arc
worse; IHo is breathing a last groan,
through Ihis body quivers the last an
guish; tihe king is dying; the king is
dead: It is royal blood. It is said that
some religionists make too much of the
humanity of Christ. I respond that we
make too little. If some Romian sur
geon, standing under the cross, had
caught one drop of the blood on his
hand and analyzed it, it would have been
found to have the same plasma, the same
disc, the same fibrin, the same albumen.
It was unmistakably human blood. It is
a man that haugs there. IHis bones are
of the same material as ours. Ihis nerves
are sensitite like ours. If it were an
angel being despoiled I would not feel it
sd' 'uch, iot it belongs to a diiferent or
der of beings. But my Saviour is a man,
and my wholc sympaithy is aroused. I
can imagine how the spikes felt-how
hot the temples burned-what deathly
sickness seized his heart-how moun
tan, gnd city, and mob swam away from
his dyig vision-something of the
meaning of that cry for help that
makes the blood of all the ages curdle
with liorror: '31.y God: my God! why
hast thou forsaken me?"
Forever with all these scenes of a
Saviour's suffering will this city be as
sociated. Here his unjust trial and hero
Iis death. 0, Jerusalem, Jerusalem!
laut finally I am thrilled with .the facb
that this city is a symbol of Heaven
which is only anothr-r Jerusalem, "The
New Jerusalem:" And thlis thought has
kindled the imnagintion of all the sa,
cred poets. I amu glad that Horatio Be
na, the S oten hymnnist, rummaged
among old man uscripts of the British
museum until he found that hymn in
ancient speling pars of w.hich we have
in mutilated Lurn in our modern hymn
books.1,at the quaint power of which
we do not ;;et in o~ur moidern versions:
Eierusalem. my happy home !
When shall I comr to thc?
When shal! mcy sorrows have an end,
Noe damptish mist is scene in thee,
Noe co~de nor durhsome ni;;ht;
The re evecrie soule shines as the sana, -
There Goid Iimself~e gives light.
Thy waits are male or precious stones,
Thy ulwarkes diamonds square;
Thy ;ates are of right orient pearlo,
if:-eee di::go riche and raro.
Thy turrett and thy pinnacles
With carouncies doth shine;
Thy verrie streets are paved with gon%
Surpassing cleane and ne.
Ty houses arc oryvonie,
Tuy windows crystal cleare;
Ty 'y"cs are made or beaten gould,
Oh Cod: That Iwere there.
Or sweete is m'.xt with bitter gaale
Our pleasure is but paine;
Oroys searce last the looking on,
our sorrowes stille remaine.
But there they live in such delight,
Such pleasure and such play,
As thait to them a thousand yeares 1
Dot~ som. as yesterday.
Thy garden.s and thy gallant walkes
Thr .ra uchi sr..ete and pleasant tower
A nou hr ecse are scene.
Thee tee for e(eroren hears a'uite
And evru:'c dot. springe':
There evrore the aneis.st
Ande rcr due niuge.
hir:::em: my L apny ho-me!
-0, S urdayn:uht the store of Mr. I
ls 3Iorris, who keep)s a mixed stockl
ofg a in icr, was entered throughI
a ie window and about sixty watches !
wr ca:rnik d (i5. M~r. Miorris niwsvs1
?ee:(lt arip:an urning in his store, but .
LI0OG fTS FORTiE FARM
t 1?i FOR TIiE GOOD FARI3ER
clre Titarlv Stagest2ionst,4 roama 11gh
Authority - Profitable Rcndinr for
Every 'Tiller of the -oil.
Practically, Deccnu er r;dly three
ourths of a month, and s'retim,'es it
mounts to but a ft w days, when estt
aated( by the farm work a1complished.
he negroes, and possibly oIbers besides,
Cave already caught the fever 2f expec
ation which foretell= the com-ng- holiday
estivitics, frolics :;iJ family ,euuiou3.
The month may be c:Wled the Saurday
.fternoon of the sear; when (-cry one is
nelined to slacken Iis energies and to
>repare for a season of rest from labor
*nd indulgence in social cnjoyment.
,side from the excesses in which the
casual indulge, Chritm:is i= a scial in
titution to be comenxd:-d anr perpetu
lted. After ayear's hard labor, through
storm and heat, ar1d .,u jht and cold
, year of altcrnating hope= and fears,
oys and sorrows, successes and failures,
.he industrious farmer may rightfully
aim respite from toil, and devote a
ew dayv~. to in nistering to the pleasures
if himself. his family and his neighbors,
iot forg-'ttirg tl:e stranger, the poor, the
>omele:s and the sick.
But there is work of a substantial
tnd necessary character that may yet be
ccc:ptlished. Secd time and harvest
mve passed away, so far as concerns the
rcetable products of the farm, but
ODDS AND ENDS
f the waning year that should be
gathered up, that "nothing be lost." We
rust that every farmer will close up his
ousiness, settle his debts by payment or
atisfactory adj'istment, and be prepared
o begin the New Year with nothing to
,mbarass his efforts.
The characteristic work of the month
s "hog killing," and happy is the man
wh- has a pen full of porkers ready for
the knife and the yawning "smoke
"ouse." The hogs ought to be fat
nugb to kill early in December. In
iced, if they hadl proper attention during
the past summer and fall, the first cold
spell in November should have been the
signal for slaughter and the harbinger of
'Lrbs snd backbones, sausages and
L.rins, etc. The art of butchering hogs
i cnc in which considerable skill can be
displayed, although as often practiced it
b:s given rise to the reproachful term-a
"mere butchery''-as applied to any
opration unskilfully performed.
First, get everything ready, presuming
the hogs to be fat. Have. plenty of
water, plenty of fuel, sharp knives,
tables. platforms or shelves for spreading,
a good "gallows" and gambrels, plenty
of clean, coarse salt and a little saltpetre.
A large kettle is the best appliance for
securing hot water. Have a thermome
ter to test the water. Commence to kill
by the "break of day," by simply stick
ing each hog with a long, keen knife.
Every one of the 5,000 hogs killed per
day in the Amour packery in Chicago, is
simply stuck with a knife and permitted
to bieed to death.
The water should be about the temper
ature of 100* Farenheit-not under 1500
nor over 1700. This is found to be tbe
proper degree (100) after repeated tests.
A little tar added to the. water, helps
wonderfully in removing the hair. Clean
off every hair and patch of scurf, and
wash and scrape cle-an b..ore "opening"
te carcass. Commence "cutting out"
as soon as the last bog is disembowelled.
Trim the hams neatly, rounding them at
the upper end and removing all surploe
fat. and ragged meat. Cut the sides or
middlings as large as possible, leave the
shoulders ccerrespondingly small. Pull
out the strip of tenderloin that lies along
the upper edge of each "middling," for
stsgie nicat, or immediate consumption
(it is worthless when dry salted and
cured); and also tbe thick edge of firm
fat that lies underneath the lean strip,
for lard. Take out the ribs, or roost of
them. Now rub the tiesh side of each
ham and shoulder with salt, and lay it
skin down on a shelf or platform in a
cool, shady and airy place, sprinkling a
thin layer of salt over the surface. Next
norning~. before day, commence to salt
down in tight half hogsheads or barrels,
putting a layer of middlings at the bot
to, tilling all the open spaces with jowls
and salt. Before packing down put a
small teaspoonfuliof sal tpetre on each
ham if ycu wish them to be firm and red.
Use plenty of salt, leaving no vacant
spaces between the pieces of pork.
We forbear any further details, but beg
the farmer to give the good wife all
needd assistance, in the way of labor
and material, .that may be required in the
lard, sausage and pig feet departmet.
Next month we may continue the topic
and include the dry-curing by smoking.
TIU MANURE HEAP.
This is as good a time as any to com
mence the process of manure making. It
should be considered that a very large
p'art of the elements of fertility that
have been removed from the sail by the
crops of grain, hay and other food crops
consumed by the animals of the farm,
reappear in the liquid and solid excre
ents. The makiniz of domestic manures
consists mainly in procuring these ele
ments of fertility and restoring theti to
the soil whence they- were removed by
The growving of food crops, the saving
of their manure a'nd restoring it to the
soil, is a beautiful illustration of the law
of compensation and restitution- An in
ivid ual particle of phosphoric acid, lime
or potash may possibly make the circuit
from the soil, through the grain, into the
iving animal tissue, thence to the
manure heap ahd back again to the soil
ozens of times in the course of a farm
r's cultivation of a grain farm. First, it
s in the soil, a particle of inert matter;
2ext it is organized into the constitution
>f the grain; then becoming a part of
he living bone, muscle or other tissue,
r passing through unappropriated; then
nto the urine and droppings. Now if
hese excrements be carefully saved and
laced on the soil, and the latter be pre
ented from undue waste of the store of
dIements of fertility still remaining, the
rocess of exhaustion of the land must be
:omparatively slow., It is the duty of the
armer not only to save, in the form of
nauure, what has been removed from
he soil, but to add to this recovered
>rtion ad ditional supplies of these ele
nents from other sources, both from the
le-ep recesses of the soi1l itself, and from
ources outside the farm, as well as by
e cultivation of such crops as have the
ower to gather nitrogen from the atmos
there, thus building up the soil and in
reasing its productiveness. In these
ew words we have stated the theory of
estorig, maintaining and increasintg
'e fertility of the soil.
Evrything that has grown upon the
mtl, andi everything that has once formed
ny part of the animal body or has been
:red from the body, is more or less|
trble as aaure. All vegetable and
~mlgrobage. then, that accumulates
0.u thex far building, stables, wood
, smake-htuse, fowl house, fence
nrthe leaves from the forest near
, not to mention cotton seed, should
e coniered as containing the circu..
-isemdium by means of which the]
:010us operations of growing crops,
rowing und fattening animals, the pro-,
ution of milk, etc., are carried off.
Afe saving a these materials, resort It
should be made to commercial fertilizers. I
rhe latter contain nothirg of value to
h soil that is not founr in the materials
a enamed. A goo, e.-mplete com
ao rcial fcrtilizer rm'ay be coasidered as
table manure boiled dow i. containing,
s it does, the very snme fertilizing ele
rents, without the excess of sand, clay !
ond water that is alwa3 present. more
:r less, in ordinary stable manure. Many
>crsons arc <-f the opidion that the use of
!ommercial fertilizers is an unprofitable
ond unwise innovation. We do o! pro
)OSC to discuss the general proposition,
'Do commercial fertilizers pay the
nrmer ' It is no doubt true that some
arnf.rs fail to find any substantial profit
n the use of them; and it is also true
bat the most skilful are sometimes im
,osed upon, and sometimes they them
elves are at fault. But the most con
vincing proof of the utility of commer
:ial fertilizers is the continued and an
aually increasing consumption of them.
this continued reliance upo: them must
be the result of a profitable experience.
We will add that those farmers who
succeed without fertilizers owe their
success not to that fact. but to the exer
eise of skill, economy and industry in all
the departments of firm operations.
rhey would probably be even more suc
etssful if they would make a judicious
use of commercial or concentrated chemi
cal fertilizers. It will be time enough
to elaborate these thoughts in this line in
the next number of the Cultivator.
The question of stock-feeding is one
that is but little understood by the aver
age farmer in its scientific and economic
aspects. The investigation of the com
position and digestibility of the various
food materials has received much atten
tion of late years, and our stock of knowl
edge is being systematized and greatly
increased. Every farmer knows that
good sound merchantable wheat is an
excellent food for a milch cow or any
working animal, in the sense that it will
produce milk and butter of the best
quality, but he also knows that it will
not pay to feed good wheat to cattle
and horses, because its peculiar adapta
tion as a human food forbids its use as a
stock food. The same principle holds
good in many other cases, some of them
recognized and understood by every
farmer, while others are only appreciated
by the scientific investigator.
This subject is well treated as an article
on page 536 of our November issue, by
Prof. W. E. Stone, and we ask our readers
to refer to that article and read it care
fully. The article very opportunely dis
cusses the question of the food yalue of
cotton seed hulls, which is attracting so
much attention all over the country.
While admitting that cotton seed hulls
mixed in proper proportions with cotton
seed meal is theoretically and practically
a proper and profitable food for the pro
duction of milk and butter, he by no
means endorses the extravagant claims
that have been put forward in favor of
the hulls. .The bu. er and milk, the
beef and the muscular power to labor
that result from the use of the combina
tion of bulls and meal are mainly due to
the meal and not the bulls, which are
about as valuable as clean, dry oat strow.
There is a very close corresnondence,
if not identity, in the principles which
should guide us in feeding stock and in
feeding crops, There is the same danger
in each of wasting one element by sup
plying it in excess, or of destroying the
crop or the animal product by withhold
THE NEEDS OF THE DAY.
A Statement of somne Imnportant Things
to be Done by the Farmiers.
Southern Alliance Farmer.
If we need one thing more than
another at this time it is education
and information. It takes education
to enable a man to hold a purely con
servative position upon great questions.
Ignorance and fanaticism go hand in
hand. That our government is passing
through its crucial era, is as true as
true can be. That unwise and unjast
national legislation has widened the
breech between the two great classes
of our people is evident to every think
ing mind. If the species of robbery,
which can ornly exist under such laws
as ours, is to be brought to an end, and
the moneyed power which created
these unjust laws, still, by bribery and
by purchase wili endeavor to perpet
uate them, what will be the result ?
We see, year after year, the circle
of success is narrowing and the
borders of misfortune widening. We
see the wealth of the nation going into
the favored few, while it is t aken from
the toiling millions. The breech
widens and the bond of sympathy
weakens between the Iew who are
very rich and the many who are very
Foreign capital is even being added
to the accumulated millions of Wall
street, and England would regain, ny
her gold, the power over American
citizens which -she lost over an hun
dred years ago by the bayonet. Eng
lish loan agents laugh at the idea of
the poor borrowing producer ever re
paying the loans under our system of
governmnent, and they acknowledge
that they do not want them paid.
With all this before us what have
we to hope for except through the or
ganization of the producing classes?
With such organization must come.
though, research, information, con
servatism, combined effort, earnest
work, and earnest prayer. Then let
us educate, lest in our determined and
uncompromising effort to undo these
great wrongs, we fail to get at the
foundation of this superstructure of
error, and leave the germs of rotten
ness in the system still. No govern
ment can live 'with rotten core. The.
conditions reached by this centralizing
policy are the same wvhich have de
stroyed thrones, principalities .and
powers in the past, and which will
ever do so in the future.
We do not want the unjust accumu
lations of the millionaires, but we do
want to stop the process by which they
have obtained these millions. The
people of America are not the freemen
which they should be and will be, How
will this e&nd ? But for the organiza
tion of farmers and laborers it would
end in blood, but this organization
says : "We are no socialists ; we are
no anarchists; we are no rioters, but
by the power of the people's unpur
uhased ballot and our united effort arnd
the approving help of a just God, we
will undo these wrongs and make
America once more the 'land of the
Free and the home of the brave..'"
11enry WVatters'on's son Eiopes.
Ewing Watterson, son of Henry Wait
erson, of the Louisville Courier-Journal,
nd Miss Jennie Black, daughter of Dr.
rho. Black, of McMinnville, eloped on
saturday, and were married at the resi
ince of the bride's uncle, Mr. Alexan
Ir Black, in Smithville, Tenn., about
nidnight. Ewics Watterson is well
known in Louisville in railroad. society
md newspaper circles. Young Watter
on returned from aE uropean tour a year
r more ago and became a traveling pas
enger agent for the Gould system. Hie.
as been living in the South for tevera
n on ths
--Upon the receommeudLtion of the
yard of directors of the penitentiary the
30ernor has comm~rutedl t:o date the
eraences of the followi:'g convicts:
esley Butler, colored, con victed at the
anuary term of Court, 1884, for Orange
>urg county, of rape, and sentenced by
udge Kershatv to death. Joseph!
~oyd, colored, convicted at the Febru
ry term, 1882, for Kershaw county, of
urglary and larceny, and sentenced by ,
udge Wallace to life imprisonment in!I
TA MULBERRY TREE.
WHAT A WELL-NOWN FAR
MER TINKS OF iT- CUTii:C.
Ilinn. JarN .. ii,, of.is Faith
in tie )Iulberr; Tree---The .dennt:;:e.
of Its (Colture.
Alanta Constit niion.
Hon. James M. Smith,of ithoni,
Ga., bears a State reputation as being
one of the most progressive farmers of
the South. His Oglethrope county
plantations are models, and show that
Mr. Smith has reduced farming to an
monstrate how much money there is
in agriculture when properly attended
to. Mr- Smith has made plenty of
money and is probably the wealthiest
CULTIVATION OF THE MULBERRY,
During the past few weeks a report
has been in general circulation among
the papers of the State to the clect
that Mr. Smith had planted one hun
dred thousand mulberry trees in this
county, his object being to make a
thorough test of silk culture in Geo r
gia. The report said that he v
satisfied that there was a great deal of
money in it, and determined to go to
work at once to developed it; that he
negotiated with Mlr. W. H1. Thurman,
of Athens, to set out these trees, and
that Mr. Thurman w as now at work
A representative of the Constitution
called on Mr. Smitl o inquire of him
concerning the matter, and in reply
to the question as to whether or not
the reports were true, he said:
"They are partly true, but greatly
exaggerated. Tv o years ago I bought
one thousand fruit bearing mulberry
scions and got a man to superintend
their planting I did this not only be
cause I wanted to in-identall test the
silk industry, but b(cause I thought
the mulberry tree possessed may ad -
vantages in other respects. I regard
the fruit -bearing mu. berry as a valua
ble tree both for fruit and for timber.
They grow up quickly, and bear ber
ries luxuriantly. Being nearly all
heart, the timber is very valuable for
posts, crossties and many other pur
poses where durability is an objecb.
Again mulberry timber is especially
adaptable for furniture. These trees
bear fruit 100 days each year. begin
ning the last of. May. While some of
the berries are ripe and falling to the
ground, others are green, and others
blooming. Hogs are extremely feud
of them, and fatten rapidly on them.
So do chickens and other fowls.
A PROFITABLE CULTURE.
"I have no doubt but that the grow
ing of these trees can be made profita
bue. On an acre of land one hundred
could be set out, and in ten or fifteen
years these trees would average say
eight or ten inches in diameter, and
eighteen or twenty feet in height with
out the limbs. Each tree would fir
niah at this rate about one hundred
feet of lumber. This lumber at one
dollar per hundred feet would cause
each tree to be worth one dollar after
being sawed up. Mulberry lumber,
however, is worth more than one dol
lar per hundred feet, prepare two dol
lars. But whether they are ever
raised for timber or not on a large
scale, every farmer should have a few
acres for his hogs and chickens. A few
around the 5 ard for chickens is an ex
As TIMBER BECOMEs MORE sCARCE
and valuable our people, if they are
wise, will begin to look about for the
-most available timber to take the place
of that now being cleared away so rap
idly. Instead of cultivating at a loss,
as some do, hundreds of acres of poor,
worn and exhausted land, it would be
much better to plant these lands in
some growth, which in the course~ of
time, would bevaluable.
"I call the attention of the people to
matters of material progress, to induce
them to look ahead and perhare for
coming years. To persuade them to imt
prove their homes in every possible
way, is prehaps, the greatest mission
of any newspaper, or any man. The
Constitution'has for years been pre
eminently on this line. and for its
work deserves the praise of the pec
The Drift ot Capital.
Virginia is evidently fast recovering
from the wounds and losses she
suffered during the civil war. The'
hundreds of million of capital annihi
lated within her borders while the
war was in progress and in the decade
that followed are being regained with
phenomenal rapidity. A great deal of
foreign capital has been invested in
Virginia in recent years. Governo~r
Lee y 11 show in his fortheomning
message, it is stated, that $100),000,000
has been brought into the State for
permanent investment since 1883.
There are good reasons, he thinks, for
believing that the infiax of capital will
increase in the next few years
at a rate never before equaled, a large
amount of money going into the devel
opment of the iron and coal mining
regions along the Shenandoah Valley,
Richmond and Allegh'uny and Norfolk
and Western Railroads. A great de-a)
has already been done since 1883 in
the territory traversed by these roads.
The record of new railroad mileage
built, furnace, constructed and put into
blast, factories, mills, machine shops
and other industries established, is
such as to showv that the.Old Dominion
is leading rather than lagging behind
in the race of progress upon which the
South has entered.
The Cotton Croy of tise State.
Early in November the State depart
ment of agriculture announced the crop
estimates of its correspondents, after a
careful tabulation, and according toI
thse estimates the rield of cotton tis
year was placed at 6t39.000 bales. The
reports of the correspondents, on which
this estimate was b~ased, were made about
September 20, when the plant locked
promising, but later in the season it be
came apparent that dry weather and un
usually early frosts wvould greatly affect
the viila, and at the time the figure
were publisned the statemernt was made
that they were probably too high. To
make sure of the facts Commiesione
Butler, some weeks ago, sent out to hi
township corresporndents for supplement
ary estimates of the cotton crop. Several
hundred replies have been received of the
average date of December 1, and tabu
lation just completed shows tht th crop
of 1889 is only 543,208 balec. airtn
558000 bales last year, a decreas- -4f
nearly 15,000 biles. The Il--s of 9t ,000
bales from the September estimate is
accounted for not only by drougtht and
early frosts, but by the backwardngs of
the plant and the extent to whiwh it
wen:, to weed after the heatvy r:ains in
--A new Presbytery, cornsisting (;fth
churcher, in D)ariington, 31arlboro.
Marion, Haorry, Chesterfield and Flo :wu
ounties, has becn formed 'for the Pee
Dee Presbytery. Its rganization wa:+
ompleted at D)arlington last week hr
he election or. the Rev. M. U. Breari'y.
Doderator: the Rev. T. C. Whaling,
tated clerk, and Gen. W. E. James,
iarine ,i:1 ::3-tn Portable Eini JOs an1 Boilri's, Saw
Hil Iahier, oun sses, G inls, Rri.=iit-ian, : eam-13
boat, 31 an ; inl is i', i:ngi nee rs' aiid Mdill Supplies.
l* / I-:' ;. r". : ' pi'n-ini .-- and/ Li.aatl'. &,5~! orr~i- bl.s.
EaSt Bay Cor. Pritchard St.,
SCharleston, S. C.
. C. . LLLhLY, President.
C. IiIUoDt r.i T-,s e.& Treas.
The 1amnron & Barkeley omnjpany.
---AND AGENTS FDR
Erie City l gine an ai lers, Atlas Engine and Builers, the f:anous little
Giant Hyvdraule Cotton Press Eagle Cotton Gins.
We h:av ;i: - one each 0, 65, and 70 saw Eagle Gin, only shop worn,
that w r: Cow cost. Send for prices.
Oil. fibbir : aI r 3eting, and a complete line of Mill Supplies.
W a e Lo.pSt Prices for Best Qtuai:v of G oods.
CLAi0N &a SBARKELEY CO., Charleston, S. C.
F. J. PELZ '"' t F. S. RODGERS, Treasurer.
Atlantic Phosphate Company,
om~or~S-cXom, s. c.
MAN UFCTURERS OF
AND IMPORTERS OP
Fimae Germa n. IE in.it.
PELZER, RODGERS, & CO., General Agts.,
BROWN'S WHARF, CHARLESTON, S. C.
Mr.. M. Ln.-.. of Maannn will be pleased to supply his friends and the public gen
erally, with any c te abuov e brands of Fertilizers.
SE EKENDORF & MIDDLETON,
N o. 1. Central Wharf,
F. W. CAPPELMANN,
DEALER IN CHOICE GlOCERIES,
WINES, LI QUORS, TOBACCO AND CIGARS,
S. L. Cor. .tMeting and Reid Sts., CHARLESTON, S. C.
Choice 1lou1 a speeialiy. Sugars sold near cost. No charge for drayage. Goods de
live-'ed frc to depot. Co-ntey c:ders promptly attended to.
OTTO F. WIETERS,
Whoiesale Dealer in Wines, Liuuors and Cigars,
No. 121 East Bay, Charleston, S. C.
WETHERHORN & FISCHER,
IANCFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN
General Building Material.
Sash, )tois, Blinds, Moulding, Scroll Sawiung, Tui'ning,
Door and Window Frames, Lumber, Flooring, Ceiling,
Weat her-boarding, Paints, Oils, Glass, Lime, &c.
Ofice, Salesrcou, Factory and Yards, Smith, Near Queen Street,
Charl~estony~, . C.
WiWrito for pries, or send a list of your wanis for an estimate.
[o. E. Tro . 11ier O.=r.]
n E TI A. McCOBB, Jr.
Gec i*09 al & Co.
General Comminion Merchant,
31AA UcTc1:x-.i ASD W1IirLESALA
AND DEALER IN
. o -Lime, Cement. Plaster Paris, Hair. Fire
. Bricks and rive Clay.
Land Plaster and Eastern Hay.
Agent for White's Fnglish Portland
!:j c, 107- Cement.
Jn el.. NO. 198 EAST BAY,
Grate, cW. CHARLESTON, S. C.
. Wmk. Trn~I.1ing and
Inside Fi 1i-. Uinilde - Hard- - ALLEN IiUGGINS, D. D. S.,
Bildi Material.Manning ey month ox two
ill > i -proessionally.
iiA'' SAL * S.
10 iid i 2 Ha yne Street, F. N I
: E R CH.iENTO HOTEL, A4 r U TABLE LICE A S U1?ANC
Charleson, S. C.
All IV- k Guacuateed. JOSEPh F. RIiAM,
L Wiite fr k....;t ATTORNBEY AT LAW I,
G~~ S~ H~~k~r & So. WILSON,s*.atLw
MAN, rv.y 'i U; ~ 1S OF AIW ' rney aad C,);c'l at L zo
or,'Nouldungs, ANIG, S. C.
- .. A7T&P.X-EY AT LAWI,
MANNIG, S. C.
is Notary Public w:teyohteal.
p He .mes Reaaurant,
iJ 61'S kin St.'eet,
AG . Aca'ITABLE uiASUC,
CHARLESTON, S. C.
OSEPH FA. RH3E -L31XM
,Ak\ I - 3, 3 King Stct, C.h...ton, S. C.
Buiding MateriaL. Two Doors Mh of Libety
B L . L ? HUD 2. s e.
E~r.~LTi WI1~l. -Shining, Haircutinrg and Shampooing
CH1ARLESTON, S. C. SALOON
- rri AII IAN I NIGIS, nor .ND COLD.
Special attention paid to euttin of chil.
e Rex st urer's sair.
RICE BEER! RICE BEER!
Grai22 '17,111 ed 11" ar the so':- mnantfct zr-rs of this de
h- Kin teet , Cle stn, S. C.et
T Dtoa an::l r=. by :LI t y, cif
Sr~c- i is 1'!n andms! 'S'ln, aic titni and atter tie lost a s rutin
Pi'O f fSprcialf attentono p aivd to in o hl
. , - yc~l. moraa e re *t so manufcres oflmv~ thn deo
Gram,'2 :dt , mm 4 15 Fneu. Iti 1 an heli th. beafra. whic ~m~at
Seed Eale , an tin ' and~ aftr the ~ isfost sear\cin ' scrutin
Ou . / Speiat) w (r ro a fly ft r airthe analyzing inFr
- ica'te cons.titmi;n'. It ha thc tasteof lager
beer of the~ 101s :!:ver b sid s, t'.addto
- - - is ' puity1 a med i:-in ~ gu ltis. is secial
~-, r* -v made of our.e bat di i renowned
riginalArtesia wel ate. _ Pa np in
cases of one' dozc iin ar. : : t :- pi r dozen;
t r eri Cu :i -- y ::rcrED. By c oe am/I t :-1 p r dOizin. and m ca.sks of
tct iz n~ dznacat cn<rdzn.Cash
n -- bct R izars d- is cco up'" . e' r i. Copyrighted
:'ec 'im ooni a.1 pai',l .;p *ed ?'
kie' h' 'hv- Ino l -0 - -in. O eO genuine
I ha -c al xper'ence in' u'nless cor-re w w c
=rr1-arnesai. C R A.M1::: K ERSTEN,
:atin n ar 1arir next .tita IA ic e Works,
1n;r t, KMAINN o Ms Sl.aiMsc ae
E1D. IIAMiILTON. Charleston, S. C., U. S. A.