Newspaper Page Text
VOL. X. MANNING, S. C., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 6% 1895. NO. 28.
rTREATISE ON RASINGTHE WEED BY
MR. F. M. ROGERR, JR.
Reproduced In The State For the Public's
'Benefit-How to Plant. Raise, Cure and
Sell Tobacco in This State.
. COLrIBIA, S. C.; Feb. 1. -In view
of the growing interest in tobacco cul
ture in Sbuth Carolina, The State for
the benefit of its readers and the pub
lic generi4lv. printed yesterday, with
the permission-of Mr. Rogers. o -Flor
ence, S. C., his valuable treatise-n the
culture of the weed in this section.
- PREPARING PLANr BEI.
*.Se lect a spot with southern or eas
tminexposure, neither very shady nor
tod:~siff End-cold. Locale nearza stream
6f Water-'nd it this cannot be coniven
iently ddiie..dig a well near by so that
an ample supply of water can be had
when the time arrives to force the
CgIvth of the young plants. The place
tenchosen, if origmal growth, pro
-eed to cut off even with the roiid
.allushes and:weeds. After removing
-all heavv rubbish- take ' weeding hoes
'as"id clean away trash, taking care to
scrape off mould well without disturb
ing the upper surface too much. Lay
poles the size of a mai?:s arm three feet
apatt across the'entir surface: The
poles are used to keep the burning ma
terialog the oroud and give it good
ventilation. Place the wood (w-ich
should be cut about eight feet) across.
the poles, the entire length of the bed,
about three feet wide and - tv o high.
Then set fire to this the whole way,
getting it to- burn uniformlNas soon
as ble.-When the ground is burned
ciently- hic11 generally requires
an hour or -:hbuiand a quarter), with
hoes fastededon lono- poles pull the
burning mss hbout t&ee feet,:but be
sure not te-m6dy beyond land already
burned,put-oeizore wood to start the
fire to bui-ningafresh. Keep the tire
uniform the' ntire length, so-that the
ground wM~nmtabe burned too little in
some placs aid too much ..in others.
At the eiid of an hour, more or less,
as necessary, , move as before, again
placing on freshwood, and so continue
ti the 'etire.-surfce is burned over.
Rake off the coals andashes, and with
grbbing hoes dig it up, first across.
-Xmfe Vay and thenthe other being care
tU a tto turn up the under ~ soil too
nia'h. Rake and pull up with .the
hazids all idots. etc. Dig it up once
uore!-. this time removing all . coarse
inattr. Spread on-a liberlsupply of
owihouse nianure; very fine stable
free from grassseed, or dead
otton' seed-the latter at the rate of
150 bushels per acre. Chop this in
,Vellaid akesurfaceprfectl smooth
and fine by'repted rakings. Dig
trenches across the bed 5 or 6 feet apart
and 4 inches deep to take onallsdrface
water. The ground. is now ready to-re
ceive the seed. For every -hundred
square yards of plant lands, take one
tablespoon full of seed and mix thor
'Oughlv with 4 quarts dry ashes or fer
filizer. Divide this quantity in equal
A acing aside one'portion. Mark
the d. off with a-hoe handle in beds
:ibout three feet wide, then take one
,uiz't of seed ind sow over the entire
nark the opposite way and sow as
bsfor'e-with balance of seed. The idea
wsowing in Opposite directions is to
Zo& . regtlarity. Mairesurface firm
y.treadino- with te ~feet'orby use of
.htyroller. This completes all work
f> the plant bed for the present. The
seed in this latitude commence tocome
up the first of March. Upon their first
ap race it is better to cover -them
with4 light cloth that is made special
-ly~frthe and can be proaured
rotm1[sss 'ilam M.Bird &Co.,
I wish to impress on tobacco farmers
the-necessity'of sowingseed early, not
Mter :than the last of January-the
-sponerput in the better. There is no
tiihebetter than December.- Plants are
tougher and live better.
For our average lands the varieties
'of tobacco known 'as Hester and Long
- Leaf Gooch have proven best suited to
this .section.. For.evaery acre sow 50
sregards of pla'ntlind.
COVERING PLANT BEll.
Bord1er the bed~ with-i x 12 p lank,
set abotit 2 iniches in the ground, or if
- lymber is not convenient, straight logs
.10 incnes through placed around the
edlgeflill answer every purpose. Drive
.jegs firily into the ground in thd wa
ter furrows every 8 feet. Let the ,g
- show.-.10 inches above ground, N ail
'dreised slats 1 x 1+ across the top of
these pegs joining them closely togeth
er at every, other peg, and fasten firm
ly to the plank or logs on the outside.
Afterpianit -bed cloth has been sewed
together of proper size, spread over and
arodud the edge, fold lathes a bout 4
-feet long into the cloth and nail to bor
der. This cover is very necessary in
'drder~ to have pfants in time. . It forces
their growths and keeps them safe from
cold and frost. 'Be on the lookout for
_insects. They sometimes attack the
young ;plants and completely destroy
them if care is not taken to prvent
their ravages. A mixture of 21 bushels
sand, i bushel plaster and j pound
Paiis Green will' effectually destroy
'them. It znust be thoroughly mixed
-stirred at least one hour. Apply
-erly~in the morning while the dew is
on the plants, and dust, sufliciently to
show plainly. Remove the cloth about
7 or 8 days 'befor setting, in order to
toughen the young plants. Cover can
easily be replaced at night, when there
is dangei- of frosts . Endeavor to have
a plentiful ind ehirly supply of plants.
as on this largely depends a successful
crop of tobacco.
SELECTION CF TOnACCO LANDS.
For the successful growth of tobacco,
dif~nt characters of soil should be
selected,-according to the climate and
seetion. Experience has proven that
through'out the pine belt of this State.
(th'e Southern half of the State) select
lands-that would be considered a little
stiff, wvith gray top soil, fine and flow
ery, pourous yellow clay subsoil, with
good red clay beneath. ~This character
of 'soil will succeed best in average
years, with perhaps less manure than
lighter lands. There are some, how
ever, who plant sandy lands and by
heavy manuring gather fine crops.
For the northern half ofrthe- State,
where all the land is inclined to be stiff
and close, I would advise selecting
ridges, well drained naturally, an2
where the original growth was chin
quepin and hickory.
Tobacco can be grown successfully
after almost any crop. but like all other
crops, most satisfactory results are ob
taihed or rested lands, and 1 would.
therefore, advise all farmers who ex
pectto make tobacco culture a business,
to select two sections of 'land rotate
every year. . .
Where land that has beerr planted in
some other crop is to be set in tobacco,
it is very assential that woods mould
be nuedin abundance. It causes the
plant to yellow well on the hill and
gives the leaf when cured a smooth.
silky texture. Do not usecoarse.rough
stutt. Compost with 20 bushels cotton
seed or 2,00 pounds acid phosphate for
every acre, or both: with good oak leaf
mould with a little straw does not mat
ter. Have the top of the ground raked
up. Rouli manure under the tobacco
plant causes it to button low, and is
apt to grow coarse when topped. Make
a calculation for fifteen two-horse loads
for every acre. Haul, say thirty-five
loads of mould to each compost pile.
Make heaps as early as possible.
PREPARATION OF LAND.
The following should be done with
turning plows, covering all the vege
tation as much as possible. The first
breaking should be done in December
or early in January. The winter freezes
will be very beneficial, and it will be
found to pulverize nicely when plowed
again in the spring.
Any method of preparing tobacco
land for planting will suffice, provided
it is thoroughly done. If rested, it
should be broken in early winter, in
order that all the veaetable matter be
well decomposed. U)n land of ordi
nary fertility, lay off the rows 3- feet
I inches apart, and before the middle
of March throw it up in beds of four
furrows with a turn plow. Reverse
once more'before planting.
For land of average fertility use five
or six loads of stable manure, 25 bush
els of cotton seed, 600 pounds of acid,
350 pounds of cotton seed meal, and 50
pounds sulphate of potash or same pro
portion of any standard tobacco fertil
izer to every acre.
Land that has been planted ir. to
bacco or any other crop for a year or
more successively. should be prepared
as stated, and the same manures used,
except that plenty of well rotted woods
surface should be used to supply hu
mus in the soil.
If the land is to be planted by hand.
make "pats" by striking the center of
the bed tirmly with the back of a hoe
2 feet 10 inches apart. If the land is
poor, it might be well to give more
distance: if ingood state of cultivation
the distance given is about correct. In
every instance, the richer the land or
higher the manuring, the closer the
planting should be. to avoid coarse
ness. Planting should commence on
the firstseason, about April 10. Let a
girl or boy go ahead of the planter
Eropping two rows at a time.one plant
on each hill. The setter follows and
straddliner the row with a peg or nar
row paddle about eight inches long,
makes the hole, inserts the plant and
should press the dirt firmly, not hard,.
to the roots.
It is not, however, always advisable
to wait for rain: when the plants are
large enough. they should be set and
watered artificially. When this is ne
cessary, the following plans have been
fouid most economical: Carry water
to'the field in barrels, placing them
convenient distancesapart:send a hand
ahead: and punch holes in every hill
with a pole about eight feet long and
sharpened at one end: follow with
buckets of water and dippers, and put
one pint of water in each hill.
Where a transplanter is used for set
ting plants the preparation is the same,
except that the beds are made firm by
passino a heavy roller over them.This
transpYanter is a remarkable machine
and of great value to the tobacco plan
ter. It is arranged to water out and
set the young plants in time of
drought. Make an effort to have
plants large enough to begin setting
by Sth. or 10th of April. If the spring
is dry, water plant beds regularly
every evening to force the growth, use
one quart ammoniated fertilizer to
every 100 square yards every evening
for a week, then stop with fertilizer
for a week, but contir.ue watering if
weather remains dry. The tobacco
plant should not be less than six
meches high when set. Endeavor to be
through plantino by May 5. Early
tobacco mnvariably succeeds best.
The cultivation of tobacco is similar
to that of corn, except that the dirt
should always be worked towards the
plant-never from it. Keep it clear
of weeds and grass and work the
grund when needed. Plow with a
-l t sweep the first time. When the
crop reaches the height of twelve or
fourteen inches I have found the turn
plow to do very effective work, and
especially if the season is likely to be
wet. Usually three hoeings and four
powings will suffice. In each succes
sive working with the sweep, turn the
wings higher each time, so as to have
a good bed when your tobacco is laid
by. Commence to cultivate soon as
plants have taken root well.
The horn and bud worm usually
makes its first appearance on the full
moon in May. Great care should be
taken to pick them off twice every
week. Have the work thoroughly
done, or great damage will be done to
This is the most important stage of
the work. Every plant shouild be top
ped according to the strength and vi
tality of its growth. Some plants will
bear sixteen leaves, perhaps the next
not more than eight. Leave just
what will mature proper-ly. Make . a
calculation for the top leaves to attain
at least eighteen inches in length
when matured. Good judgment is
what is needed here.
Suckers will make their appearance
a few days after the plant is topped.
These should be taken off once every
week at least-oftener, if they grow
GATHERING AND) CURINGi TOBACCO.
Take the leaves from the stalk as
they ripen, and place thenm carefully
ina light baskets. Carry them to the
barn and string the leaves, according
to the methods you have adopted. I
will here state that the Snowv stick is
without question the best contrivance
on which to hang the leaves for cur
ing. within my knowledge: while
many ways have been resorted to.
none have ever been so satisfactoryv in
result. Place fromi threce to five leaves
on each point. morne or less, according
to the size of the tobacco, but niever
crowd it. Each leaf must be properly
spaced. To make a successful cure you
must have good ventilation. When
the barnl has been filled, start the heat
at about 05 or 100 degrees. Watch the
leaf closelv, follow it with all the heat
it will bear without tueking the tails
of the leaf, till the tobceo becomes
a uniform greenish yellon,. not solid
vellow, for in the latter case it would
be impjossible to cure clear in color.
Now comes the critical period. advrance
the heat from two to three and a half
degrees an hour, accordine to the ap
the heat too slow causes the leaf to as
sume a dingy, brown appearance. To
advance the heat too fast causes it to
redden or splotch. No directions, no
matter how minute, will suit everyI
barn, because no two are exactly
alike, or will respond to heat in the
same manner. It is only by experi
ence that we learn to cure successful
ly. Advance the heat as directed till
120 deorees are reached, where re
main tIree hours; proceed as before
to 130, where remain till the leaf in
the two lower tiers are killed, then
raise the heat two and a half degrees
an hour to 135 and remain till leaf in
upper tiers is cured. Then advance
five degrees every hour to 145 or 150.
where remain until the sap is all out
of the stems and they snap like glass.
Remember to kill the stem at lowest
temperature possible, never go beyond
150, and as much below this as possi
ble. To go beyond the temperature
indicated, you detract from weight,
damage the general quality of theleaf
in its texture, and drive out the oil it
should contain. We hear of the flavor
that high heat gives. My observation
in this particular has been loss of
weight from 15 to 20 per cent. damage
to the quality of the leaf and many
barns destroyed by fire. Always ex
amine the barn carefully on the wind
ward side and see that stems are all
dry before stopping the fire.
CONSTRUCTION OF CURING BARNS.
There are two kinds of barns used
for curing tobacco. one constructed of
poles and the other an ordinary fram
ed building. The log barn is notched
up in the usual manner of log cabins,
close built, fifteen feet high from the
ground to the plate and can be made
either 16x1G or 18x20.with single roof.
The cracks between the logs are filled
in with lime, mortar or clay, and
made as near air tight as possible.
Door in one end should b- left four feet
wide. Shed over the door end, under
which to string the tobacco leaves and
keep it out of the sun. Also a narrow
shed on furnace end to protect the fire
in rainy weather. This completes the
outside work. The tier poles on inside
on which the sticks of tobacco are
placed should be made of sawed scant
ling 3x4. The brackets into which the
poles are fastened are 2x6. Stoff nail
ed uprightly, firmly against the sides
of the building, four feet apart in the
clear and into which notches cut 4x4
inches. The tier poles let into these.
The notches are cut eighteen inches
apart. The bottom row of tier poles
should be seven and a half feet from
the ground. As will be seen from this,
barns eighteen feet high would be five
tiers higi in the body, with room left
for two short ones in the roof.
The frame building referred to is. of
course, a neater and better building,
but more expensive. It is weather
boarded outside, ceiled inside and
walls filled in with saw dust, with
sheds back and front as before des
cribed and built eighteen feet high.
The inside fixtures are just the same.
The furnace in which the fire is built
that generates the heat for'drying the
leaf, in the small barns are placed in
the centre of one end. In the large
barns, two furnaces are better and are
built twent-two inches from the
sides, extending eight or nine feet in
side. Flues are placed in these furna
ces twelve inches in diamter, which
conducts the heat through the build
ing. and which is increased or less
ened according to the fire in them.
After leaf is cured out, allow it to
hang in the barn, with door open a
day and nioht. It will become pliant
and can be'landled without breaking.
Take the leaves from the sticks and
carry in baskets to pack house. .Pack
in bulks, turning the end of 'stems
out and lapping tails together..: Two
or three thousand pounds can be safely
put in these bulks, and if put down in
safe order will keep well and improve
The number of grades vary accord
ing to the quality of the tobacco. In
average tobacco there will be one
grade lungs two of cutters and three
of wrapper. If tobacco is heavy, lugs
will run light, and perhaps one grade
of cutters will have to be made. ,The
leaf is assorted according to its -color,
body, size and texture. The lugs
and cutters are tied in bundles of eight
and ten leaves each. Wrappers five
or six. Never handle your tobacco if
in dry order, and always offer it for
sale in pliant, suple condition, if you
exnect it to bring its value-at the
saine time, never allow it to get too
soft as it will mould and rot in a short
Flo: "ze, S. C., Jan. 24, 1895.
P. S.-in regard to burning plant
beds, I have found, since writing this
book, that by using cora stalks for the
purpose great labor and expense can
be saved. The best plan is to pile
them over the plant bedabout three
or four feet deep and set on fire, and.
if they are dry, the work will be quick
lv andl thorouighly done. Do not put
on stalks till just'before ready to burn.
in event of getting wet through would
not do well.
Later experiment has also shown
that in preperation of berl. a inew
ground plow, or if that is not obtain
able, an ordinary turn plow with the
wing taken off, will do much more
thorough work than with grub hoes.
by going over the ground three or
four times. Then pulverize throughly
with any good smioothiing harrow and
lastly with a hand rake. This mode
ef preparation is much better and far
less expensive than the old fashioned
way now in practice in North Caro
lina and V irginia.
F. M. Ro(4ER .I, r.
Honors to the Governor.
BEAUFORT, Jan. 2.-Governor Ev
ans and party were right royally en
tertained yesterday at a dinner given
in his honor at the naval station by
Commandant Rockwell and staff. A
salute was fired and appropriate cere
monies performed. ln the evening
the party were entertaincd on board
one of the large steamships nowv lying
at the docks at Port Royal .-ewsiani
THlE Charleston Sun says there
seems to have been very little blood
shed in the desperate duel recently
fought in Edgefield by Messrs. Bar
nard B. Evans and James H. Tillmian.
but reams of paper and rivers of ink
are being exhausted to give the pub
lic an idea how the battle wa~s fought
and why the combatants didn't kill
Twelve Lives Lost.
LONDON, Jan. 25.-The British stea
mer Escurial, from Cardiff for Fiume,
has been wrecked off Port Reath. The
ship went to pieces and only seven out
THE FORTUNATA FUSS.
THE ITALIAN CONSUL AT NEW YORK
TAKES IT UP.
He Writes a Pretty Sharp Letter to Gov
ernor Evans and the Latter Replies at
COLUMBIA. S. C.. Jan. 31.-The un
fortunate "Fortunata. the Italian
bark which was searched by the con
stables in Charleston harbor, concern
ing which proceeding considerable has
already been said in The State and ev
ery other newspaper. is still a 'casus
belli," insofar as wars of words are
The incidentis growing a little more
interesting just -now, and it may get
more interesting still before it is all
over. The Italian Consul General sta
tioned at the port of New York has
now taken up the matter, and below
will be found some interesting corres
pondence between himself and South
Carolina's new Governor.
THE CONSUL'S C'MPLAIT.
The following is a copy of the letter
which Governor Evans has received
from the Consul General:
New York, Jan. 26, 1:95.
To His Excellency. the Governor of
South Carolina. Columbia. S. C.:
Sir: I have bean informed by Mr.
Castellano. the Italiani consular agent.
that in two separate instances the po
lice of Charleston has. even.in spite of
his protests. entered the Italian ship
"Fortunata" nowv lying at that port.
As a ieason for sach proceeding it was
given out that the captain was sus
Pected of either having actually sold
or of wanting to sell the wine which
he kept on board. as lie had a right to
do, to the peopleof the place. If sui
has been the case. although proeed
ings of that kind areany thing but con
sistent with the rights which the trea
ties and international laws secure to
foreign shipping in a friendly harbor.
I would not appeal to your excellency.
I am willing not to claim treaty rights
when that might be considered as a
protection to people who break the
laws of a country where they are ad
mitted to trade.
But that the accusation brought
aainst Capt. Espito was absolutely
roundless it had been proved by the
examinations which the customs had
made of the -ery limited quantity of
wine which lie kept on board, by the
sealing of the casks, etc. The second
visit then of the police had no possi
ble ground of justification, and seems
to have had no other object but that
of making sure that the captain and
crew of the vessel were observing
themselves prohibition laws to which
they are certainly not -bound to sub
mit. -Even with a good reason. such
visit nhiist be objected to, as it was
made without asking the consent of
the consular authority, in the absence
of the captain, and in spite of the pro
test of the officer who was in charge
of the vessel.
I have the honor to request that your
excellency will investigate the case
and inform ie by whose order these
steps were taken and on what ground.
If things are as I have been informed,
your excellency .will'no doubt issue in
structions that such proceedings of the
police be not repeated ag-ai. I have
the honor to be. sir.
Your obedient servant,
Consul General of Italy.
GOVERNOR EVANS' REPLY. .
The following is the reply of Gover
nor Evans to this rather sharp letter
from the Italian Consul General:
Columbia, S. C., Jan. 29. 1895.
G. Branita, Senor. Consul General of
Italy, New York City:
Sir: I have the honor to acknowl
edge the receipt of your letter, of the
25th inst., in which you ask for infor
mation in reference to the search by
the constables, or "police,' as .you call
them, of the Italian ship "Fortunata,"
lying at..the port of Charleston in this
State. Youi have been misinformed
as to the. number of searches made by
the constables as only one instead of
two, was made. These proceedings
were had under my orders and under
a warrant of a judicial officer of this
State upon information therein stated,
to the effect that the captain or other
officer of said ship were engaged in
selling wines or liquors kept on board
to citizens of this State. which, of
course, as you are doubtless informed.
is entirely contrary to our laws and
cannot be allowed. The constables
before making search, by way of coutr
tesy only, .asked for the approval of
your consul at the port of Charleston
and the same was ref used. The cnn
stables did not go on b)oard, but wired
me for further instructions. They
were instructed to proceed at once to
search ,the vessel. regardless of .the
consul, who, as I understand the lawv.
had exceeded his authority in attempt
ing to prevent a search of tihe vessel.
The const-ibles boarded. the vessel.
searched it thoroughly anad finuding
n6thing contrabaud, made no fur-ther:
attempt at seizure or ai5rest of any of
The Assistant Attornw-ey eera of
the State was ordered to Cha.rleston to
thoroughly investigate the matter, an d
his report has been lhaced before uii.
I am satisfk-d in my own mind tbat
the re w of theC "Fortutnata"' have been
dealing in illicit -liquor i-aOlie. Lut
the evidence to suppor~t this comies
f-om personis of such c-haracter as~
iould not warrant me in asking for a
conition b'efore a jury of our co-Ot
ou state in your letter the captain
was suspected either of having~ actual
lv sold or wanting to .-11 the uine
( 'hich h~e kept on board oud in ar
enthesis. you state "as lie had~ th;; - rit
to do to the people of thle plae-. . :ain
sure you will nlot hold to suc a con
elusion after r-eading onur statue upon
the subject. wyhich I. herewith ei(nelose~
for your perusal and information.
I iecognize the fact. as y ou state.
that the crew of tihe "Fortnata" were
not bond to observe themnselveslprohi
tion laws on board the vemssel,. btt
when it comes'2 to imaking~ of th-ir v-es
sel a floating batrroo. where wines
an liquors arc dispensed to the citiz
ens of this State, or even where citi
zens resort to drink under such ciru-n
stances I shall not oniv arrest the ere w
but would seize and codet theC
vessel ais well.
You further say in courletter "e'.en
with a good reason. such a v-isit must
be objected to. as it was miade withnout
asking the conisent of the consular aui
tiorit." etc., I canmnot conc-ur iin this
opnin. I am satisfied that you will
agree withme that such consenit is en
tirely unnessairy under the circumn
stances heretofore related. I have in
structed the constables to search any
and all vessels. susp~ected, upon reli
known as the dispensary law of this
Trusting that this will meet with
your approval and satisfaction. I have
the honor to remain,
Your obedient servant,
John Gary Evans, Governor.
It is not thought likely that the c
respondence will end with the lette.s
quoted above. It may go further and
become more interesting yet.
A Charlestonian, well up in ship
ping matters, says the business of the
port will be seriously injured. He
says already the news of this search
has gone forward and no shipmaster
from Italy or France, cr any other
wine-growing country, will bring their
vessels into a port wiere such things
are done. He says the men of the
crews of these vessels of en save their
daily allowances of wine and sell it
on entering ports.
To return to the "Fortunata. no
liquor Laving been found aboard her,
except that tearing the government
stamps. she is now to be molested no
morm and she is at this time making
ready- to leave Charleston harbor.
THE FEMALE COLLEGE.
The ERecent Fire May Have Been a Dles.
ing in Disguise.
The following address t.6 the Metho
dist people of ' the State, prepared at a 1
reeent meeting of the board of trustees
of the Columbia: Female College was
issued yesterday. The address has
been issued in consequence of the re
cent fire at the college. It might be
atlded that the trustees are now pre
pa-ing to repair the damage as rapidly
as possible: .
Columbia, S. C., Jan, 20, 1895.
To the Owners and Patrons of the
Columbia Female College:
Acting for the executive committee
of the Columbia Female College. I
beg leave to set. forth the following
January 1S, our college building
sustained considerable damage by fire.
and by injuries-incident thereto. but
this fiery ordeal has not been without
its blessings and benefits.
The fire occurred. in the daytime,
and under good management there
was no danger of loss of life, and but
little danger of loss of the personal
prolierty of our wards.
- The president of the college and his
worthy faculty proved themselves
equal to the emergency. Under their
wise, vigorou and courageous con
duct of affairs, aangers and loses were
-reduced to the minimum. Their ad
ministrative ability manifested on
this occasion gives an. increased sense
of security for the future discharge of
their duties and responsibilities. They
have proved to all concerned that our
interests are safe in -their hands.
The young ladies acted commend
ably. 'We are sure that'they deserved
the encomiums pronounced upon them
by those who witnessed their splendid
The citizens of Columbia have vindi
cated their claims to have the collcge
in their midst. As soon as it was
known that the fire alarm meant the
burning of the Columbia Female Col
lege their interest concentraed there.
They came to rescure in large numbers
not to stand idly by in mute sorrow.
but to extend whatever aid might be
needed there and to open their homes
to the inmates of the college. In an
almost incredibly short time every
young lady was safely and pleasantly
domiciled'in one of the best homes
that the city could afford. They were
urged to stay until the emergencies
were all fully passed without limit as
to ~'time. Well done for Columbia.
They deserve and we hereby tender
them our most hearty thanks for their
great kindness and generosity.
*The fire department did some of their
best work in their line; it was through
their efficiency that the fire did not
make greater headway. Columbia
might well be proud of its fire depart
- Arrangeme nts at the college were so
promptly prefected that the girls were
back in the-building and to work with
the loss of but one-class day.
The building must be and will be
repaired immediately. The South
Carolina-Conference areed that we
should have $~2.000 this year for re
pairs and for necessary enlargements.
Our daughters, the girls of South
Caralina. haye been exceedingly mod
ist in asking for help in behalf of
You will pardon us for reminding
you that they have asked for but little
and have received less, which means
that they had to assume a debt con
tracte'd bya former generation for brick
an'd mortar and building site, and
the.had to pay all current expenses.
repa~irs, insurance and incident d ex
penses, but the time has come whuen
somnething mustbe done for our girls.
T ard j~ ustice should linger no longer
ad .peferred claims should cease.
T'he .Coh ni la Feraale College is
e e ing out her charred and blistered
* (ds pleading~ for hep Oh, we are
\'tllg to bur it !te lire that con~sum
Io'Cther's anid sisters unto helpful symn
put hv withl us.
ITh'e call for help forthe education of
4lur gils. as well as for our boys. cani
w., longer be put aside as a fad. Other
Chi'stiani communities nave regrarde d
the cal w1"ith favor, and1( within the
las fe yerscolleges for women have
been hanmdsomeily equipped and amply
)iur coninnlon wearlthi. for civil anid
lo'gical reasons. hmas reded the carll.
wic sta1.tleent has bern verified by
the etnsive p~.rertionsl now' going
on a Rock Hill. S. C'.. in this behalf.
Shall Christian people. professing
pri'nciples which demanid ~tihe highest
elevati on of hulmanity, any longer
deny1 us aL hearingo- Do not wait for
the commg~ of the- college agent. ' H
cnniot be" ubiitis: mi the mean
time our neceds are calling loudly for
immediate help. We beg every prealch
erof our church to urge this claim
*no-n his congregation now. We as~k
aur indiviual to help. if buat a little.
W' ask~ cev chiarge to send up~ its 85.
- to.- 10 l then all will be well.
a essn ini disgue. Thea the pillar
p ila ofhre un'to us in the long night
F~orwvard alli contibutions to 11ev.
MI. Dargan. Iidlicial agent. Colum~ibia
S. C'. A. ,J. SToKES. Presidenit.
LoNDON. Jian. 25.-The fishing~ boat
Tweed, owned at Dunbar anid manned
by a crew from that place. wvent dlown
puring the recent storm and her crew
of sevn were dreowned.
A TERRIBLE DISASTER.
THE WRECK OF THE ELBE IN THE
Only Twenty-one Survivors Out of Three
Hundred and Eighty Persons on Board
the Steamship--Collided with an Un
known Steamer. 1
Lo-NoN. Feb. 2.-The North Ger
man Lloyd steamship Elbe, bound
from Bremen for New York. was sunk
in a collision with a small steamer fif
Lv miles off Lowestoft early Wednes
day morning. She carried 3S0 sc uls.
Only twenty-one survivors have been
landed. but a few others may be a:loat
in one of the ship's small boats. At
10 o'clock that evening the number of
lives lost was given out as 350. The
survivors of the wreck were landed
at Lowestoft by the fis-hing smack
Wild Flower at 5:40 o'clock Wed nes
day evening. They are: Stollberg,
third officer: Neussel. first eng'ir.eer:
Weser, paymaster: Schultheiss,
Linkmeyer and Sitting. assistant pay
masters; Furst. chief stoker; Viobe,
teward: Wenning. Singer and Sei
bert, sailors: Dreson and 'Batko. ordi
rar seamen: Deharde. German pilot;
-reenham. English pilot: Hoffrman,
Lucen. chlegel, and Vevera. of
Cleeland. Ohio, saloon passengers:
Bolthen, a steerage passenger, and
Miss Anna Buecker.
Hoffman's home is in Nebraska.
His wi:e and bov went down witb the
ship. All of them were in a pitable
condition. The passengers were but
half clothed. Tieir few garments
were frozen stilf: theirhair was coated
with ice and anxiety and effort had
exhausted them so completely that
ther had to be helped ashore. The of
iceers and sailors were fully dressed,
but their clothes had been drenched
and frozen and they had been almost
paralyzed with cold and fatigue. They
had been ashore three hours before
they had recovered sufficiently to tell
the story of the wreck.
THE STORY OF THE WRECK.
Their accounts agree-upon the fol
lowing points: The Elbe'left Bremen
on Tuesday afternoon. The few hours
of the voyage before the disaster were
uneventful. At 4 o'clock Wednesday .
morning the wind was blowing very
hard. and a tremendous sea was run
niug. The morning was unusually
dark. Numerous lights were seen in
all directions, showing thit many ves
sels were nearby. The captain. there
fore. ordered that rockets should be
sent up at regular intervals to wara
the craft to keep out of the Elbe's
It was near to 6 o'clock and the Elbe
was some fifty miles off Lowestoft,
east of Suffolk. when the lookout
man sighted a steamer of about 1.500
tns approaching. le gave the word
and as a precaution the number of
rockets was doubled and they were
sent up at short intervals. The warn
ing was without effect. The steamer
came on with unchecked speed and
before the Elbe could change her
course or reduce her speed noticeably
there was the terrible crash of the coT
lision. The Elbe was hit abaft her en
gine room. When the small steamer
wrenched away an enormous hole was
left in the Elbe's side. The water
poured through and downinto the en
gine room in a cataraeL The room
filled almost instantly. The engines
were still and the big hull began to
stl.A PANIC IN THE STEERAGa.
The passenewers were in bed. The
bitter cold ana rough sea had prevent
any early rising, and none except the
officers and creiv on duty ,was on deck
when the ship was struck-. The shock
and crash roused everybody. The
steerage was in a panic in a moment
and men. women and children, half
dressed or in their night clothes, came
crowding up the companionways.
They had heard tihe sound of the rush
ing water as the other steamer backed
off and had felt the Elbe lurch and
settle. They had grasped the fact
that it was then life or death with
them. aind almost to a man had suc
cumbed to their terror. They clung
together in groups, facing the cold
and storm, and ioried aloud for help
or prayed on their knees for deliver
The officers and crew were calm.
For a few moments they went among
the terror stricken groups trying to
quiet them andl encouraging themn to
hope that thie vessel miight be saved.
It was soon1 apparent, however, that
the.Elbe was settling .teadily. The
o)ilicer-s were convinced that she was
about to founder and gave orders to
ower the boats. Iu a short time three
boats were got alongside. but the seas
were breaking over- the steamer with
gieat force and tihe first. boat was
wamped before anybody could get
into it. The other two boats, lowered
at about the same time, wer?e filled
quickly with members of the crew
and1( some passengers. but tile nlumber
wa small as the boats held only
t wenty persons each.
T.he. boat carry ing the twenty-one
prsons~.' who were lamded at Lowestoft,
put1 o1f insch hia'te fromi the sinking
become of thet other- boat. Thei sumv
.er believe. howeA that she got
a way saly They sa y:i t they- t44ssed
aotinl the ueavy se-as for- several
hous beftr t hey .sighted tile Wild
no 10. ThI e little smlac: bore down
emnIti-im -t once and took them aboard.
T hey were exhausted from excitemenit
and'exposure Sever-al of thecm were
in a state of collapse. and had to be
carIied and diragge-d from one boat to
Miss A nna Baeeker. the only woman
in thle party. wais lPostratedi as5 sOon as
they go-~t clear- of the E-l;.e. She lay in
the b)ottom~ of theC boat for five hiour-s
wi th~e seas breakinmg o:-:r her :and
the x.ater that had been sippedC1 half
covriniig her body. Although her
ohsical strenigthi wasi go ne she show
.d'true pluick and did not uttera word
of c-omp:haint. and( r.-peatedly nirged
her com anions not to mninid her, bult
look after themse-lves. Htofmann's
leg was hurt se-verely while he.was
Thle survivoris cannlot say too mutch
in praise of tile Wild Flower's cr-ew,
whtavel themi every p)ossible atten
tion. Epo landing tile survvivor-s
wee. takenI ill char11ge by- B. S. Briad
ber,. the Germiian consul at Lowestoft,
who senlt someli to the Sailors' Home
and otheris to the Saufolk 1Hotel. Miss
Bu-eke-r, who took passage only to
Sotamzpton, will probably be able to
go to London ini a day or two.
CARtL HOF.MANN's sTORY.
Car-l Hofmann, who came ashore in1
the Wild Flower. said in an interview
" My home is in (Arand Island. Neb
raska. I had my wife anid boy of 7 1
with me oni Elbe. I1 ama utterly
hem and hardly dare hope that they
lave been saved. I went abroad to
risit relatives in Germany, and durin
he last four months was accompaniea
)y my wife and boy. We left Bremen
'or home on Tuesday. I was asleep
n our state room when a noise like a
unshot woke me. I jumped
ut of tile bed and spoke to my wife
vho had been aroused as suddenly. I
Lsked her what she thouglht the
rouble was, but she seemea to pay
ittle attention to it. I was not greatly
larmed, although I heard scuffling
eet and hoarse shouts on deck. I
iurried into a few of my clothes, how
ver, and went to the upper deck. I
aw only too clearly then what had
iappened. I rushed below and helped
ny wife and boy throw on a few
lothes and we went on deck together.
Che excitement and confusion cannot
)c described. I never saw anything
ike it; everybody seemed to have lost
is head. The scene was distressing be
rond anything else I ever saw. Men,
romen and children were runing
tbout madly, the women screaming
vith terror and every max getting in
he others' way. Thedarkness increas
d the confusion and fright. Sudden
.y I hear shrill, desparing cries from
he women. There are no more boats:'
then saw the men at the davits. I
1oticed that the ropes were frozen so
lard or were tangled so badly that the
ailors had to chop them frantically to
ret the boats clear. The sailors were
loing their best, however, and worked
vith might and main. They finally
rot out the aftquarter boat on the port
id e. I could see that it was full of
w ople, but the sailors could not lower
t. Meanwhile the steamer was settling
)erceptibly. I took my boy in my
trms and got into the second boat.
Iv wife was close behind whe:. some
>ody shouted: All women and child
-en go on the ship.' I believe the cap
ain give the order. My wife started
o run across the deck and that is the
ast I saw of her. I clung to my boy,
>ut some men seized us an dragged us
)ut of the boat, and my place was
aken by one of the crew. This boat
,ot clear of the steamer. Before the
nen at the oars could get full com
nand of her a big wave almost dashed
1er against the steamer's big f6remast,
,hich had gone by the board at the
ime of the collision. It was almost
niraculous that the boat was not
;wamped. Another boat was got out.
[ took my boy into it and supposed
hat he had remained by my side. but
just as the boat was lowered, I found
:hat he had disappeared. He had
>een torn away in the rush and scram;
)le -for places. I tried to get back,
but the boat went down with a jump
ind the moment we reached the water
-he saillors pushed off."
Miss Buecker says she was in bed
when the collision occurred. When
she reached the deck two of the life
boats were being lowered She got
nto one of them, but it was capsized.
She was picked up by another lifeboat
mnd five hours after was taken on
board the Wild Flower.
Fuerst, a stoker, said in aii inter
iew: "I was in the boiler room at
the time of the dollision. The water
rushed on i
gap in the side. It poured in at a tre
mendous rate and soon extinguished
the fires. Everbody in the boiler
room knew that the vessel must
founder. When reached the deck I
saw the captain on the bridge, but did
not see the pilots. I do not know
where the pilots were."
Seamen Singe -says that the Elbe
was struck just aft the engine room,
the stem of the other steamer crush
in oin the second cabin.
' ird Officer Stollberg. says that he
annot explain the colirsion, and that
it is unlikely that any adequate ac
eount can be obtained, as all the deck
watch on duty at the time were
rlrowned. The captain was on the
bridge when the collision occurred,
and Officer Stollberg heard him shout
ing in a loud firm voice that the
women and children were to be saved
first. The-captain's voice reached a
:onsderable distance. His order was
repeated by the chief officer, and must
have been heard by everybody aboard.
Dficer Stollberg expressed the warm
est gratitude to Skipper Wright and
he crew of the Wild Flower. The
roughness of the sea, he said, made
the work of rescue extremely perilous.
The fishermen gave the survivors the
uise of everything aboard the smack
and fed and clothed thenl.
There is some hope that the nrissing
boat has been rescued, inasmuch as
there were several smacks in the vi
einity of the collision. Probably some
women and children got into the miss
The steamship comnpany hlas defer
red until morning its decision as to
sending the survivors to New York.
In answer to a dispatch from the Uni
ted Press, the North German Lloyd
sent the official statement from Bre
"Tile third officer of the Elbe re
ports from Lowestoft that the vessel
was struck on the port side in the way
mail room by an unknown steamer,
simkmlg in twenty minutes. Stormy
weather: watch in order. Hope a
second( boat which was lowered may
be safe, as several fishing vessels and
steamer are in the vicinity. Good
liscipline; everything done that was
possible to save life."
The first official report received by
:he owners was dated at Lowestoft and
aid: "The mail steamship Elbe, which
lft Bremerhaven yesterday for New
York, sunk after being in collision at
3 this morning. A boat has landed
twenty-two. No news of the remain
ler." ~Then followed the statement
These reports seem to prove that
>nly two boats were lowered, despite
lthe varying statements of passengers,
some of whom said that as many as
eight were cut loose. The boat carrying
he survivors was tossed at the mercy
>f thle waves in a bitter southeast
wind unltil 11 o'clock. Meantime' ther
sigh'ted several vessels, while thenm
seves unseen. The scantiness of their
lothing made their sufferings more
utense. When they sighted the
Wildl Flower frantic etfor'ts were
mnade to attract her' attention. Sails,
hirts andl underclothes were waved
ometime before the fishing smack an
wered their hail.
The exact place of the collisionl is
'ortv-.seven miles southwe~st of the
Elook lighit ship.
Mr. Neusel, the first engineer, told
l.aily News reporter that it was only
hie position the vessel assumed when
hie water miade its volume felt that
>revented the launching of more
lDispatches from Germany say that
3remnen is in a state of consternation
uid the whole country is excited by
he news of the wreck. Tile passen
ers came from all parts of the Em
THE DO NOTHING SENATE.
THE FINANCE COMMITTEE CANNOT
AGREE ON ANY MEASURE.
So Say Senators Vest and Sherman of that
Committee-senator Vest Makes a Very
Interesting Speech on the Financial Sit
WASHINGTON, D. C., Jan. 30.-If
there had been any lingering ho that
the Finance Committee of the enate
would be able to agree upon some
measure of financial relief at the pres
ent session such hope was definitely
dispelled in the course of the discussion
which broke out immediately after the
reading of the journal today.
One of the leading Democratic mem
bers of that committee, Mr. Vest, of
Missouri, in presenting the resolutions
of the St. Louis merchants exchan
favoring legislation on the lmes of - e
President's recent message took a firm
stand against any such legislation and
expressed the opinion that the Mer
chants exchange had not given pro r
consideration to the subject and 'd
not represent the intelligent opinion
of a majority of the people of Missouri.
He said that he would never vote to
issue one bond for the purpose of se
curing gold, in order that the country
might remain on a single gold stand
ard. He replied to a question as to
whetherthe Finance Committee would
agree upon a plan, that there was not
the slightest possibility of its doing so.
A leading Republican of the same
committee-Mr. Sherman, of Ohio
expressed the same opinion, saying
that the Committee on Finance was
utterly helpless to deal with the ques
tion, and that the best thing the Sen
ate could do would be to dischargethe
committee from its further examina
tion, take up the matter itself and give
the necessary relief to the country.
After the subject was dropped the Sen
ate proceeded to consideration of exe
cutive business, and having ratified
the Japenese treaty, adjourned at 4;05
The financial debate was precipitated
upon the Senate at the very opening
of the session. After present the
telegram and resolutions from the St.
Louis Merchants exchange, Mr. Vest
Mr. President:eI have very great re
spect for the St. Louis Merchants ex
change, and for the opinions and
wishes of the gentlemen who consti
tute that body. But I am unable to
meet their views in reoad to the re
commendations in tie President's .
message. I do not think that the Mer
chants exchange of St. Louis represent
the intelligent opinion of a majority
of the People of Missouri. i do not
think that its members have given
proper consideration to the legitimate.
effect of the recommendations which
his Excellency has made to Congress.
I do not believe that a majority of the
people of Missouri, or of the people of
the United States,favor the retirement
.of $500,000,000 of non-interestbearing
treasurv notes and the substitution in
placeoftheim Oir- sy lL
o not believe that they propose to re
tire these notes by substituting a gold
obligation, ru for fifty years,
with interest in go d payable every
year to the amountof $500,000,000 and
with an aggreoate amount of interest
at the end of Aity years of $750,000,
000 in gold. It is a selfish suggestion
that the principal or a large part of it
is to be paid by posterity. The obliga
tions on this Senate in regard to pos
terity are as binding as they are in
reference to the present generation.
We legislate not for ourselves alone,
but for those to eome after us, and it
might just as well be said that we can
ignore the autonomnyof the govern
ment as to future ages and leave to our
descendants -problems to be solved
which might throw the country in all
sorts of difficulties, (such as the Presi
dent suggests), that we must look
alone to the present and let the future
take care of itself.
"Mr. President, with great respect
to the St. Louis Merchants exchange,
I deny their faculty, as sooth-sayers in
regard to finances. This same Mer
chants exchange telegraphed me to
vote for the unconditional repeal of
the purchasing clause of the Sherman
act and said that its repeal would
bring prosperity to the country and
that sunshine would again illuminate
the laud. That repeal took place, un
conditionally, and what was the re
sult? So far from bringing prosperity
it brought additional adversity; and
the prophecy made by the self-consti
tuted financiers, turned out to be a
mere illusion-'the baseless fabric of
'"Mr. President, the Congress is now
being assailed because it will not put
this country permanently on a gold
basis, and will not perpetuate the na
tional banks as banks of circulation.
The President of the United States has
issued a proclamation of war against
the silver issue of the country and he
seeks now (I do not speak of iiis mo
tives, but of the results,) to make the
United States, who do not believe in a
single gold standard, accessory to the
destruction of silver, and to the perpet
uation of the system to which he is de
voted. Tt is possible that intelligent
men believe that the President has not
the power to secure all the gold that is
necessary for the Treasury of the
United States even on his own theory
in regard to the finances. The Secre
tary of the Treasury openly avows
(and the President repeats) that they
need no more money to meet the cur
rent expenditures of the Government.
There is (to use their own language) 'a
comfortable balance of $63,000,000 in
the Treasury.' They openly avow
that they want wold to maintain the
single gold stan~dard, and for no other
purpose, and yet the impression is
made on the country that unless Con
g-ress gives additional legislation,
power is takeni away from the execu
tive, and the country will be involved
in common ruin.
"Mr. President. under the resump~.
tion act (so called) the President of the
Unite~d States has the power to issue
4 1-2 per cent. bonds 0:- 4 per cent
bonds. the latter to run tbirty years.
These bonds can be made the basis of
national bank circulation, and the
President, therefore, has in his hands
today, all the power necessary to se
cure all the gold he may thik neces
sary to put in the Treasury of the
country. Every intelligent man
knows that a 4 per cent loan running
thirty years would be the ideal bond
for the national banks; every one
knows that the national banks are in
terested once for all in the single gold
standard, and in the perpetuation of
their power for the issue of circulation.
The Presideut of the United States
wishes to force us to be an accessory to
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