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CHURCH AND STATE.
POPE LEO OBJECTS TO THEiR BE!NG
SEPARATE IN AMER!CA.
Au Encyclieal that will !ot Comen hi
Holiness to the I.over. of o iio
erty in the Uinitec Statev.
WASINOTO'. Fe. p.-The text of
the encvelical of. Pope Leo to the
Church in America is given to the
public. It is a docuineit of about six
thousand words in len-:th and opens
To our Venerable Brethren. the
Archbishops and Bishops of the Unit
ed States of North America, Leo XLII,
Pope-Venerable Brethren. Health
and Apostolic Benediction: We tra
verse m spirit and thought the wide
expa-ise of ocean. and, although we
have at other times addressed vou in
writing-chiefly when we directed en
cyclical letters to the Bishops of the
Catholic world-vet, have we now re
solved to speak 'to you separately,
trusting that we shall be, God willing,
of some assistance to the Catholic
cause amongst you. To this we apply
ourself with the utmost zeal and care
beeause we highly esteem and love ex
-ceedingly the young -and vigorous
American nation, in which we plain
lv discern latent forces for the ad
vancement alike of civilization and
Not long'ago. when your noble na
tion, as was fitting. celebrated, with
grateful recollection and manifesta
tion of joy, the completion of the
fourth century since the discovery of
America, we. too. commemorated to
gether with you that most auspicious
event, sharing in your rejoicings with
equal good will. Nor were we on
that occasion content with offering
prayers at a distance for your welfare
and greatness. It was our wish to be
in some manner present with you in
your festivities. Hence we cheerfully
sent one who should represent our
HOW "THE CHURCH" ASSISTED AT THE
BIRTH OF AIERICA.
Not without good reason did we take
part in your celebration. For when
America was as yet a new-born babe,
uttering in its cradle its first feeble
cries, the Church took it to her bosom
and motherly embrace. Columbus. as
we have elsewhere expressly shown.
sought as the primary fruit of his voy
ages and labors to open a pathway for
the Christian faith into new lands and
new seas. Keeping- this thougrht con
stantly in view his first solicitude,
wherever he disembarked, was to
plant uwon the shore the sacred em
blem of the cross. Wherefore, like as
the-ak-of Noah surmounting the ov
eriowing waters bore the seed of Is
rael together with the remnants of the
human race, even thus did the barks
launched by Columbus upon the ocean
carry into regions beyond the seas, as
well the germs of mighty States, the
Qprinciples of the Catholic religion.
Thatyour Republic is progressing and
' by giant strides is patent to
;and this holds good in religious
matters also. For even as your cities
in the course of one century. have
made a marvellous increase in wealth
and power, so do we behold the
Church, from scant and slender begin
mngs, grown with rapidly to be great
and exceeding flourishtng.
TH&MKS FOR LIBERTY. BUJT WOULD PRE
Thema2in factor, no doubt, in bring
ing things into this happy state were
the ordinances and decrees of your
synods, especially of those which in
more recent times were convened and
confirmed by the authority of the
'Apostolic See. But, moreover. (a fact
_which it gives pleasure to acknowl
edge,) thanks are due to the equity of
the laws which obtain in America and
to the customs of the well ordered Re
public. For the Church amongst
you. unopposed by the Constitution
and'Government of- your nation, fet
tered'- by no hostile legislation, pro
tected against violence by the common
laws-and impartiality of the tribunals,
is free to live and act without bin-,
drance. Yet, though all this is true,
it would be very erroneous to draw
the conclusion that in America is to
be sought the type of the most ulesira
-ble status of she Church, or that it
*would be universally lawful or expe
dient for State and Church to be, as in
America, dissevered and divorced.
The fact that Catholicity with you is
in good-condition, nay, is even enjoy
ing a prosperous growth, is by all,
means to be attributed to the' fecundi
twith which God has endowed His
~harch, in virtue of which, unless
*meir or cirotnstances interfere, she
spontaneously expands and propagates
herself; but she would bring more
abundant fruits if, in addition to lib
eyseenjoyed the favor of the laws
adtepatronage of the public au
WORIG TO ESTABLISH CATHLICITY.
ForForur part we have left nothing
done, so far as circumstances per-~
' r nreserve and more seahdvy
establish azl6iigyett.C'ath~lic re
ligion. With this intent we have, as
you are well aware, turned our atten
tion to two special objects, first, the
advancement of learning; second, to
perfecting methods in the manage
ment'of Chrc affairs.
"WE" ESTABLISHED A UNIvERSITY.
By a letter, therefore, dated the 7th
day of March. in the year of our Lord
1889, directed to you, venerable breth
ren, we establis'hed at Washington,
your capital city-esteemed by a ma
;jorit of you a very proper seat for
the higher studies-a university for
the instruction of your men desirous
of pursuing advanced courses. In an
announcing this matter to our venera
ble brethren, the Cardinals of thelHoly
Roman Church, in consistory. we ex
pressed the wish that it should be re
garded as the fixed law of the univer
sito unite erudition and learning
wih,'endness of faith and imbue its
students, not less with religion thtan
with scientific culture. To the Bish
ops of the United States we entrusted
the task of establishing a suitable
course ot studies and of supervising
the discipline of the students, and we
conferred the office and authority of
chancellor, as it is called, upon the
Archbishop of Baltimore. And, ,by
Divine favor. aqgnite happy begmnmg
was made. For without any delay,
whilst you were celebrating the hun
dredth anniversity of the establish
ment of your ecclesiastical hierarchy.
under the brightest auspices, in the
presence of our delegate the Divinity
classes were opened. From that time
onwards we know the theological sci
ence has been imparted by l
gence of eminent mnn t&-: ro *.m of
whose talents and learning receives a
fitting crown in their recognized loy.
alty and devotion to the Apostolic See.
THE AMIERICAN COLLEGE IN RO31E.
We wish now, venerable brethren,
to commend to the gene'rosity of your
people the college, which our prede
cessor, Pius IX,. founded in this city
for the ecclesiastical training of oung
min from North America. which we
took care to p lace upon a firm basis by
a letter dated the 25th day of October,
in the year of our Lord 1 S84. We can
make this appeal the miore confidemtly
utse the results obtained from tis
institut' n have by no means belied
the expectations commonly enter
The love which we cherish towar ds
the Catholics of your nation moved us
liwis to turn our attention at the
very beginning of our Pontjfcate to
Ithe colvocat()n of a thir(d Plenary
Council of Bal imore. Subsequently,
wheii the Archbis!ops. at our invita
lion. 1".d coet a e e diligently
inqre'd , Ir!m themn what they
deemId !moSt .ondlaeive to the comn
mon d. e *dallv. and after ima
ture deliberation, ratitled by apostolic
authority ih decrees of the prelates as
sembled at Baltimore.
A PAPAL LEt. TE 1N THE UNITED STATES.
But when the Council of Baltimtore
had concluded its labors the duty still
remained of putting. so to speak. a
proper and becoming crown upon the
work. This we perceive, could scarce
ly be done in a more titting manner
than through the establishment by the
Apostolic See of an American lega
tion. Accordingly, as you are well
aware, we have <lone this. By this
action, as we have elsewhere intimat
ed, we have wished, first of all, to cer
tify that in our judgment and affec
tion America occupies the same place
and rights asother States. be they ever
so mighty and imperial. In addition
to this we had in mind to draw more
closelv the bonds of duty and friend
ship 'which connect vou and so many
thousands of Catholies with the Apos
NOT TO ANTAGONIZE THE BISHOPS.
But how unjust and base would be
the suspicion. should it anywhere ex
ist. that the powers conferred on the
legate are an obstacle to the authori
ties of the Bishops. Sacred to us,
more than to any other, are the rights
of those "whom the Holy Ghost has
placed as Bishops to rule the Church
of God." That these rights should re
main intact in every nation. in every
part of the globe, we both desire, and
ought to desire the more so since the
dignity of the individual Bishops is by
nature so interwoven with the dignity
of the Roman Pontiff that any meas
ure which benefits the one nessarily
protects the ot her. Therefore, since it
is the office and function of an Aposto
lic legate, with whatsoever powers he
may be vested, to execute mandates
and interpret the will of the
Pontiff who sends him, far
from his being of any detriment to
an ordinary power of the Bishops, he
will rather bring an accession of stabi
lity and streng h. His authority will
possese no slight weight for preserving
in the multitude a submissive spirit;
in the clergy discirline and due rever
ence for the Bishops: and in the Bish
ops, mutual charity and an intimate
union of souls. And. since this union.
so salutary and desirable. consists
mainly in' harmony 1f thought and
action he will no doubt bring it to pass
that each one of you shall persevere
in the diligent administration of his
dioeesan affairs: that one shall not im
pede another in matters of govern
nient: that one 'shall not pry into the
counsels.and conduct of another; fin
ally. more, with disagreements eradi
cated and mutual esteem maintained.
you may all work together with com
binded energies to promote the glory
of the American Church and the gen
eral welfare. It is difficult to estimate
the good results which will flow from
this concord of the Bishops. Our own
people will receive edificatton, and the
force of example will have its effect on
those without, who will be persuaded
by this argument alone that the Divine
apostolate has descended by inherit
ance to the ranks of the Catholic epis
copate. Another consideration claims
our earnest attention.
THE CARDINAL DOCTRINE OF SUBMISSION
All intelligent men are agreed, and
we ourselves have with pleasure inti
mated it above, that America seems
destined for greater things. Now it is
our wish that the Catholic Church
should not only share in, but help to
bring about, this prospective great
ness, We deem .it right and proper
that she should, by aviling herself of
the opportunities daily presented to
her, keepequal step with the Republic
in the march of improvement, at the
same time striving to the utmost, by
her virtue and her institutions, to aid
in the'rapid'growth of the States. Now
she will attain both these objects the
more easily and abundantly in propor
tion to the degree in whichi the future
shall find her constitution perfected.
But what is the mneaningo the 1ega
tion of which we are speaking, or what
is its ultimate aim except to bring it
about that the constitution of the
Church shall be strengthened, her dis
cipline better fortified? Wherefore,
we rdetlydesire that the truth shall
sin da byday more deeply into the
minds of Catholics, namely, that they
can in no better way safe-guard their
individual interest and the common
good than by yielding a hearty sub
mission and obedience to the Church,
SOUND DOCTRINE ON MARRIAGE.
The .encyciical then affirms the
Christian d'ogma of the unity and in
dissolubility of marriage, and renews
condemnation of divorce.
As regards civil affairs, those of the
clergy who are occupied with the in
struction of the multitude are enjoined
to treat plainly the topic of the duties
of the citizens, so that all may under
stand and feel the necessity, in politi
cal life, of conscientiousness, self-re
straint and integrity: for that informa
tion be lawful in public which is un
lawful in private affairs. In like man
ner let the priests be persistent in
keeping before the minds of the peo
ple the enactments of the Third Coun
cil of Baltimore, particularly those
which inculcate the virtue of temper
ance, the frequent use of the sacra
ments, and the observance of the just
laws and institutions of the Republie.
A wARNING AG AINST sOCIETIES.
Now, withiregard to entering socie
ties, extreme care should be taken not
to be ensnared by error. And we
wish to be understood as referring in a
special manner to the working c'lasses
who assuredly have the right to unite
in associatio'ns for the promotion of
their interests, a right acknowledged
by the Church end unopposed by na
tre. But it is very important to take
heed with whomf they are to associate.
else, whilst seeking~ aids for the im
provement of their condition, they
may be imperiling far weightier- in
terests. The most effectual precaution
against this peril is to determine with
themselves at no time or in any mat
ter to be paties to the viola
tion of justice. Any society.
thereforet which is ruled by,
and ser-viley obeys persons who are
not steadfast for the r ight and friend
ly to religion, is capable of being ex
tremey prejudicial to the interests, as
well as mndiv iduals, as of the comnmuni
ty; beneficial it cannot be. Let this
conclusion, therefore, remain lirm, to
shun not only those associations which
have becai t;enly condemned by the
judgment of~ the Church, but those
also which ini the opinion of intelligent
men, and especically of the Bishops.
are regarded a~s suspicious and dan
CATHOLICS sIIl-LD ASSOCIATE wiTH
Nay, rather, unless forced by neces
sit y to do otherwise. Catholics ought
to'prefer to associate with Catholics. a
course which will be very conducive to
the safeguarding of their faith. As
presidenuts of societies thus formed
anong themselves, it would be well to
apoinit either priests or upright lay
men of weight and character: guided'
by whose counsel, they should endea
vor peacefully to adopt and carry into
effect such messures as may seem ad
vantageous to their interest, keeningr
in view the rules laid down by us in
our encyclical Ierum Novarum. Let
them however, never allow this to
escapie their memory, but whilst it is
proper and desirous to assert and
secure the rights of the many, Vet this
is not to be done by a violation of du
ty: and that these are very important
duties. not to touch what belongs to
another. to allow every one to be free
in the management of his own atfairs,
not to hinder any one to
dispose of his services when
he pleases and where he pleases. The
scenes of violence and riot which you
witnessed last year in your own coun
try sufficientlv admonish You that
America too is threatened with the
audacity and ferocity of the enemies
of public order. This state of the
times, therefoi e, bids Catholics to la
bor for the tranquility of the Common
wealth, and for this purpose to obey
the laws, abhor violence and seek no
more than equity or justice permits.
A WORD TO THE PRESS.
The power of the press as an agency
for good or evil, and its value, in aid
ing the clergy in their work of elevat
ing mankind, is acknowledged, and
journalists are enjoined to be equally
zealous with the priests to instruct.
admonish, strengthen and urge the
people on to the pursuitof virtue, and
to the faithful observance, amid so
many occasions of stumbling, of their
duties 'towards the Church. Let
Catholic writers, therefore, bear im
pressed on their minds our teachings
and yours on this point, and let them
resofve that their entire method of
writing shall be thereby guided, if
they indeed desire, as they ought to
desire, to discharge their duty well.
Solicitude is expressed for the wel
fare of dissenters, and Indians and ne
-roes, and the encvelical closes with
the appostolic benediction to the Bis
hops, the clergy and the people.
THE DO NOTHING SENATE.
LCONTINED FROM PAGE ONE.)
the single gold standard.- I wish to
say for one that never, never in a
time of peace, will I voteto issue one
bond by this Government for the pur
pose of securing gold in order that
the country may remain on a single
Mr. Cullom-I would like to hear
from the Senator whether the Finance
Committee is likely to arrive at an
agreement on any policy which would
produce more money for the use of
Mr. Vest-It would be proper that
the chairman of the committee should
answer that question, but in his ab
sence I venture to remark that I don't
hink there is the slightest possibility of
the Finance Committee of the Senate
agreeing upon any bill to be reported
to this body. As to legislation to meet
deficiencies, that question is not
now, in view of the statement
of the Secretary of the Treasury,
one of any importance. The Secretary
of the Treasury stated to me day be
fore yesterday that he needs no legis
lation to meet any deficiency, and that
no deficiencies exist.
Mr. Sherman-A member of the Fi
nance Committee said the contest whe
ther this country should be on a stand
ard of silver or on a standard of gold
could not be longer avoided. That
was the question which looked in the
distance. He had hoped that for the
present session at least it would not
have to be taken up. Every man in
the country who was familiar with the
financial conditions felt that it was
necesary to extend to the Govern
ment some relief under present cir
cumstances, and yet Senators were told
that they should give no relief what
ever except with the adoption of a
measure for the free coinag of silver.
He believed that the aoton of the
system of free coinage of silver would
degrade the nation among the financial
people of the world. among the busi
ness men of the world, and among the
laboring people of the world. It would
do so more than any other measure
that could be devised. If, therefore,
the choice lay between a gold stand
ard which was the highest and best,
and which was the standard of all the
ivilized and Christian nations of Eu
rope, while the other standard had
been rejected over and over again.
"But,' Mr. Sherman continued,
"I have always believed and
I still believe~ that both silver'
and gold ought to be main.
tianed as the circulation of this coun
try-gold as the highest measure of
value in all our commercial relations
abroad and as a basis of our~ commer
cial and business relations at home,
and silver to be used to the largest pos
sible extent, so long as it does not
demonetize gold. I am of that belief
now; but, I am bound to say that the
Committee on Finance is utterly help
less to agree upon- this vast question.
We are quite divided upon it. We are
not allowed to pronose a measure to
this Senate, which all can approve of
unless there is attached to it a provi
sion for the free coinage of silver. We
know that measure would be rejected;
and therefore it is not insisted upon,
so as to prevent an~y relief being ex
tended to the people of the United
States in their ditess.
"The best thing, therefore for the
Senate to do is to discharge the Com
mittee on Finance from the further
consideration of this question and to
take it up itself and give the necessary
relief to the country.
"Mr. Hill said there seemed to be a
dispute as to what this Congress - was
required to do to meet the public
expectation. In the public mind
there was an impression that
some affirmative legislation was
desired to meet the present
deficiencies in the revenue of the Gov
ernment and that Congress, unmindful
of its duties, was refusing to give the
necessary relief to tide the Treasury
over the emergency. It was for the pur
pose of meeting the alleged deficien
ies that various bills had been intro
duced. Mr. Sherman had said that the
revenues should be increased and Mr.
Vest had said semi-officially that no
such legislation was required but that
it was desired that we should settle tie
currency question. Mr. Hill continu
ed that the first duty of the Senate
*s to ascertain what was wanted by
the Administration and the Treasury
Department, whether it wanted temn
porary relief or some elaborate legisla
tion involing a change in the currency
and financial system of the country.
Mr. Vest interrupted Mr. Hill to
state that the President in his message
said therelwas no deficiency, but a sur
pluis, but that it was not in gold. Mr.
Hill replied that there were those who
thought the President's message took
a rather cheerful view of the condition
of the condition of the finances. How
ever, lie called attention to the fact
that the estimate of the Secretary of
the Treasury suggested a deficiency of
ten million dollars. The Senate should
have it definitely determined whether
any temporary fiscal legirlation was
wanted or something more radical, for
the reason that he believed that the
country should be put aright on the
subject so that the Administration
might deal fairly with Congress, and
Congress fairly with the Admmnistra
LET US HAVE PEACE.,
A PATRIOTIC APPEAL TO THE PEO
PLE OF SOUTH CAROLINA.
Let the White Men of the State Get To
gether and Stand Together as They did
To the Editor of the News and Cou
rier: Brothers, embittered and estran
ged with high indignation that scorns
reconciliation, meet at the sick bed of
their mother, mingle their tears and
prayers, and are friends forever more.
No explanation, no adjustment of past
differences; only a solemn recognition
in the private sanctuary of each soul,
or the nothingness of a petty pride
and resentment when compared with
tlie immutable bonds fixed by Nature
-the awful responsibilities of living.
In voting for the Constitutional Con
vention I cherished the hope that the
solemn duty of Constitution-making
would prove the means of reuniting
our distracted people, as a foreign war
calls all Frenchmen to but one love
and but oue duty. Are South Caro
linians less loyal? Blood is thicker
than water, and though, in this com
mercial age, fellow-citizenship has
ceased to mean blood-relationshin and
the sentiment of patriotism is growing
weak, yet no other people have a
more "national" character and spii it
than South Carolinians, for none have
a more pronounced agreement of
minds and of interest, which is the
condition that is the efficient cause
and ra'tional basis of harmony and
patriotism. Hence South Carolina has
always stood as a unit, guarding
zealously her interest against the rest
of the world.
SOLID FOR SOUTH CAROLINA
Though of late her citizens have
been arrayed in two hostile factions,
yet while their passions were inflamed
and their. understandings convinced
as they cannot be again inflamed and
convinced against each other, all at
tempts to bring them to open party
division have nevertheless failed. The
verdict is unmistakable. In their an
griest moments the great body of our
people have clung to the semblance
of unity. . They would not cross the
Rubicon. And why should they?
Could we know where lies the path to
the highest welfare of our State who
would follow another path? If we go
different ways we are lagging in the
race. All our honest differences are
due to wan1+ of information and to er
rors of judgment. As rational'men
our one duty is to search diligently,
to reason together, and thus finding,
shoulder to shoulder pursue the true
path to the welfare of us all.
With indignation exhausted and
passions now cooled,with understand
ings sobered and disposed to grapple
rationally with the causes of the dis
tressing- conditions that are now upon
us, with a wider range of view now
than when, five-mile post below in
our ascent of this century, we formu
lated opinions and went to battle upon
them. there is among us a growing
onsciousness of the groundlessness of
continued formal division, and a
yearning for unity. To this desired
result the near approach of the Con
stitutional Convention has contributed
no little, and the renewed fraternizing
f our people should find its consum
mation in the election of delegates to
that Convention and in the conduct of
these on its floor where many a cour
tesy can be shown by chivalric gen
How shall these delegates be elected
is the absorbing problem. Patriotic
promoters of unity have suggested a
plan, but the task is more delicate~the
uncture in our affairs is more critical
than seems to be fully appreciated.
here is a method wich will leave
nature to take its course, whereupon
the wound will heat on first inten
tions, and there is a method which
might mistakenly interefere with na
ture's work, keep the wound a run-.
aing sore and possibly make. of it a'
lasting scar. A blunder here would
be a crime. Be sure we are right, and
then go ahead.
EITHER FACTION SHOULD BE RECOG
The plan of prorating delegates be
tween the Conservatives and the Re
formers was naturally the first to be
thought of, and, therefore, is but a
step towards the discovery of one less
rude. Such discussion and approval
s it has received have done much to
ultivate and further disseminate that
spirit of unity which has been slowly
growing among us. But let us not
beguile ourselves into believing that a
ounty shcould select its delegates as
onservatives and Reformers. Let not
this Convention go down in history as
ne in which delegates acted as Till
anites and Anti-Tillmanites. Let
s not push an artificial and personal
ivision to a result so belittling to the
State. Let there not be parties, and
onsequent caucusses and drove-like
oting. Let each member be free to
speak to the reason and conscience of
he others with expectation of win
ine, with no recognized impassable
gul between-no lurking prevailing
suspiion that every proposition is a
rojan horse. If the Constitution be
he product of such a Convention it
ill be an enduring monument of
hame to our State. Let men stand
ot,on past. but on living issues, not
n personal or factional, but on ra
ional agreement, with one agreed
remise on which all appeals may be
based-supreme loyalty to South Car
lina. Thus only can the Convention
e a deliberative body or afford to suc
eeding generations an honorable and
ignified example of patriotism, as a
onvention in which men met as
South Carolinians, knowing in their
ounsels no p arty affiliation, but the
tie of South Carolinians.
NO PLACE FOR FACTIONs.
Not only is the presence in the Con
ention of Conservatives to i epresent
heir faction and of Reformers to rep
resent their faction essentially wrong
as well as calculated to keep our peco
p le in opposing camps, but to elect
elegates ou such a basis of mathemat
ical division is to count for naug'ht the
personal preferences of the individual
voter and the views of the intended
elegate on the vital questions that
may or should come before the Con
ention. Let us not "forestall the will
f the people." "convert the primary
into a mere machine to register the
will of the bosses," or in any way cur
tail the opportunity for free and ef
fective use of the ballot. The time has
passed when a Conservati"" or a Re
former is willing to leeave it to lead
ing men of his faction to do his think
SHOULD NOT BE PASSED UPON BY THE
Especially should those who insist
that the Constitution should be refer
red back to the people for approval
advocate the selection of the Constitu
tion makers by the free and untram
melled individual suffrage of the peo
ple after the fullest public discussion
and interchange of opinions. How
ever the delegates be selected, so deli
cate a work, necessarily a compromise
of many views,containin possiuilities
of which experience alone can prove
the good or evil, could hardl meet
the approval of the people itn "ery
detail before it had be-n tested in1 op
eration; and hence. were -.. the nio*t
perfect of Constitul iois. the costs of
making it would probably be wastefd
if it must be referred back to tie peo
ple. But if accepted it must be as it
comes from the Convention, without
adding to or taking from. If. there
fore, the people are to have their say
in regard to their Constitution it
should be not after the work is done.
but before; the delegates should no
where be named by meetings. for in
these the average citizen takes no
A CO31PRO31ISE OF INDIVIDAL OPIN
The Constitution must be made and
put upon us by one hundred and sixty
men, and must be largely a compro
mise of the individual opinions of
this small number. The character of
the Constitution would be as uncer
tain as the turn of a die were delegates
selected with regard simply to their
personal prominence and worth. But
as long as we do not depa: t from our
theory of representative government
we shall run no such risk. If all the
men of a county with the prerequisite
qualifications of character, to be true
to their trust and intelligence, to be
competent to carry out their purposes,
are urged to go before the people as
candidates and present their views
backed by every bulwark of truth
they can bring to their support. in
structing the people in the principles
of government and becoming them
selves instructed by the new thoughts
which debate develops, the. minds of
the opposing candidates, of the people
and of the press will all be stimulated,
and the result will be that any one
hundred and sixty of all these candi
dates in the State could then make a
better Constitution than they could
haveimade without this friction which
generates thought. But the one hun.
dred and sixty elected (if reason is
permitted to rule) will unquestionably
make the best possible Constitution
for South Carolina in this last decade
of the nineteenth century.
A CONSENSUS OF SOUTH CAROLINA
They will be the exponents of the
consensus of South Carolina thought
as to South Carolina needs and pur
poses. What-they agree upon will
prove to have been the resultant of the
various. intellectual and moral forces
of South Carolina-the high-water
mark of her governmental develop
ment at this time.- And we must re
member that no -State should have a
Constitution for which she is not by
internal evolution prepared. More's
Utopia, like Locke's Institutes of Gev
ernment, would be a dismal failure.
That government is.best which is the
product of the genius of its people.
MERE LEGISLATION SHOULD BE' EXCLU
In illustration of the justness of
these principles, consider the disposi
tion of many to incorporate into Con
stitutions matters of mere legislation.
All legislation is experimental and
liable to early repeal or modification.
What folly it would be to one hun
dred and sixty men, whose opinions
on this head had not been thoroughly
sifted, the power to embody in the
Constitution statutory laws which
would be almost as unchangeable as
the laws of the Medes and P'ersians'
Proper discussion before the peopie
should result in a general acceptance
of the only safe rule, which is to put
in the Conlstitution only fundamental
principles and policies on which all
agree, and are con fident of continuing
to agree, leaving the people ample
power to deal through the Legislature
with any problems that may arise.
Matters of legislation should be left
for future political and legislative
forensic contests, as physical, social,
intellectual and moral conditions shall
PUT CANDIDATES ON OATH.
If such a canvass and such an elec
tion as above indicated can be held,
then the Constitution will be the pro
duct of the best thoug-ht . of the State,
vindicated as such before the calm
reason of the people. In such a can
vass p resent divisions would be oblit
erated and new and temporary align
ments would be made, as should be
the case if debate is not a mockery.
But such a canvass is impossible un
less we can keep off both evil and ill
advised quack remedies. Fortunately
we have at hand the means of doing
this-the primary provided for State
officers by the new Democratic Con
stitution. By requiring of the candi
date an oath~ that he is not put for
ward by any faction or cliques it
forces him to stand on his merits and
the merits of his views, and leaves the
voter to exercise his free choice. This
amendment of the party Constitution
is worthy of admiration, for it is a
long step towards perfecting popular
government. Now of all.times do we
need its beneficial operation.
A PRIlAiRY SHOULD BE HELD.
The State executive committee
should provide for the nomination of
elegates to the Convention by a pri
mary held in all the counties on the
same day after a canvass, and plcdges
similar to those required of State can
assers by the new Democratic Con
The distinguished patriots who com
pose the party doubtless contemplate
such a canvass,and they and the Con
ention they have called cani conl cn
trate in its behalf the moral forces of
the State. .
STRONG AND SIGNIFICANT.
If I seem to regard the Democratic
party as "the people," that is my
meaning. I am not prepared to say
that in 1860 the South foug-ht for merec
slavery and for no principle and the
results of forcible violation of consti
utional limitation have ripened into
right, that we owe any moral obliga
ion to the war amendments to the
United States Constitution,thiat "pros
perous and successful crime shall be
alled virtue." JOHN J. 3MCMLH AN.
Columbia, S. C., January :25. 1895.
STATESuperintendent of Eduication
Mfayfield, who is the secretary of the
board of trustees of the Winithrop Nor
mal College is no w daily receiving ap
plications from professors arid teach
ers in all parts of the counti-y for posi
tions as members of the faculty of the
ollege. The election of the faculty
:oes not take place until July next.
he superintendent. however, is to be
elected on February 19.
THE American Farmer says Argen
tina threatens to do to our cotton crop
what she has done to wheat. She has
n immense area of the tinest kinid (f
:otton land, and in Italy has an al
most exhaustless reser-voir of cheap
labor to draw from. Our cotton plant
ers cannot begin too early to look
squarely at this alarming posec.
THE New York Advertiscir is i-e
minded that General Washington was
the victim of merciless political attacks
when he was President. Gener'al Gates
once alluded to him as that "dark, dhe
signing, sordid. ambitions. vain.
proud, arrogant and vindictive knave."
Political denunciation seems. to have
rown decidedly tame in these later
THZE LIE.'~ THi.E SUN.
XAvi t n .rgn of th-: world
'Tuhcy z'eh with th-ir bright banners
ofhba' dr n.
!.: bouund-irieS 01' lILD
Th..-d rivzr3 deep,
...1' Ligi and steep.
i:o :he fray
Thi . . f :h.:. ith and day,
s * . .,ws go,
\V:- : . : their warnings blow.
Strive au. v an. : :ht is pressed
Farther a . farth.-r o.wn the west.
With -ol: I'P pea . I zia-ning lance
The c-.I.ris cf the i..y advance.
Thus, da:1;, is the hat.: won
By the travo sCl !irs of the sun.
-Frank D. Sl.orm:. in Harper's Weekly.
A FORSAKEN DUTY.
But It Was Trll Cared for by a
"I won't be able to drive the stage
"Whyv not, Tom?"
A faint tinge of color flew to Tom
"I want to go down to Jimtown to
morrow on business. I'm going to take
the morian., train."
"That's my affair, Lou, and don't
you ask any questions," he answered
The girl at the otherside of the room
came to her brother's side and laid a
hand on hi; shoulder.
"I'm afraid, Tom," she murmured,
"Afraid of what?"
"Afraid that those rough men you
have been taking up with lately will
lead you into trouble. You are going
to Jimtown with themi- know it. Oh,
Tom, don't go. For my sa:e. Towu."
She placed a arm around his neck
and looked pleadingly into his eyes.
Ile hesitated a moment and then
started to his feet, throwing her from
"Don't make a fool of yourself, Lou.
I'm going to Dismarck in the morning
and that settles it."
"I thought it was to Jimtown."
"Well. Jimtown, then."
"You ought to be here, Tom, attend
ing to business. Don't you know that
Henry Gordon is going north to-mor
row norning with fifteen thousand
dollars for the bank at Sykeston?"
"Of course I know it," replied Tom,
a strange glitter in his eve. "The
more fool he for not taking the train
and going around by way of Jimtown
instead of carrying that amount of
money across country."
"The moner must be in the hands of
the bank by to-morrow afternoon," re
turne. the girl. "If he goes by train.
via Jimtown, he won't reach Sykeston
'Well, it's none of my affair," mut
tered 'ITomn: "I wonder who I can get to
run the stage for me?"
"I will, Tom."
Ile started forward impetuously.
"No, no, L-u-not you!" h cried.
"Not vou, anyone but you! Promise
'me you won't run the stage!"
Ilis words were wild; his looks plead
She drew herself up a trifle sternly.
"If you forsake your duty when you
are needed most, it devolves upon me,
who love you and care for your re'puta
tion. to ztep into your shoes and do the
work vou fail to perform. I shall run
ie turned his back to her and
walkedl toward the door. There he
paused, the spirit of good striving
within his breast to overcome the spirit
of er:1. IBut the strife was in vain.
Ie faced her once more with a cruel
"I see through your scheme, Lou.
Yotu're setting your cap at this Gordon
-you're afraid he'il get into trouble
with that fifteen tho~usand dollars of
his-ha, ha. ha! That talk about your
brother is all very fine, but it won't
wash. I'm off for Jimttown, anyway.
Waiting for no parting word from his
pale-faced i.ister, Tom Carlin passed
out of the house.
Ihalf an hour afterward a knock fell
upon the door of the little "shack"
where Tomt Carlin, the stage-driver.
and his sister lived.
The knock was twice repeated before
it was answered.
Lou at once threw-open the door, and
when she saw who the caller was would
have given the world had her' eyes held
fdwer traces of tears recently shed.
"Come in, Ihenry." she said.
A young man with a handsome, reso
lute face stepped into the room and
caught her hand.
"Good-evening, Lou," said he, and
then, noticing her red and downcast
eyes, lie' would hir'e said something
further but stopped himself with an
effort that was almost a sigh.
"Pardon me for calling at this un
seemly hour, Lou, but I wished to talk
with Tom. Is he here?"
She shook her head mutely.
"There are two or three desperate
looking strangers in town, and I came
to ask your brother if he thought there
would be any dlanger in my taking that
money north to-morrow. Do not think
mec cowvardly, Lou: it is not my own
money, you know-I should feel differ
ently if it wvere otherwise."
"Tfhere is not the slightest danger,
[enry." she replied. "Tom is not here,
so I will answer for him."
"Thank you," lie returned. "You
ave rcassured me, but-"
"But w hat?" she asked.
"Nothig," hie returned, catching her
ands and looking wistfully into her
ae. "I shall have something to tell
you, Lou, when I come back from
"Tell me now."
Smiling, lie shcok his head. Bringing
her hand quickly to his lips he kissed
it, .caving her at once with an abrupt
"All aboard for Sykeston!"
It was a woman's voice that spoke
n w--':l -- '.- nmsesi came dashing
p to the Dawson house di..,- .
ose river .inge.
T'. ur passe :ger's came out of the ho
t.i, atuo:: them Ihenry Gordon. See
ug Lou Carl in on the box lie stopped
"Wheres Tom, Lou?' he asked.
".1 ;mtoWn," she~ answered, briefly.
Gor'd.m's race became grave.
"Whe ::n did he :ro?"
"On this morning's train."
"The~ three o'clock train?''
"No p'ssengers took that train from
this sta'tn. I was at the depot when
it rol.ed out."
L alnreeled in her seat and al
no..t i .. the ground.
( ,". lened en beside her'.
"You ar' il:''i~ hexlaimued.
ovrin" herself n itii an ':Gr ut.
"u :y you ai'e not goingt to drive
the sti r"
""S'r"i' I 'tm!" she replied, with comn
press ' 1~p. "That looks like business,
Shenonted to a Winchester rifle
mim at her feet.
1.1 rou are not well enough." re
tur::d Gordon, with a shade of anxiety
in his .'aee.
"Nonsense!" she cried, with a forced
laugh. "All aboard, Henry! We're
o ride out hre with yon.
t: . - raneh a hait V
-h:.- -. wr, tartedl en tim e
cti-L., "will you
taie i.trge 1:'
Sie dr-:: :: ::d looked at him
with w .;- V ys. Then a hal
She 1 ien deceived in Gordon. lie
"Cerai::!y." she replied, in a distant
voice: "you bear the risk of placinz
this in my hands?"
Ile said no more. The taunt in her
voice was ill-concealed. le understood
it and turnel away his he::d.
The stage drev neuw the rocky
coteaux which they were to cross.
Barely had they' enter.-d the pas!
when three n::slced men stepped from
behind a bowi.er.
They had guns in their hands.
"Ilat:" cried one of them, in a
One o his companions sprang to the
"What do you want?" cried Lou Car
lin, with a white face.
"We want a word with that man be
Then for the first time Lou noticed
that the two rubbers had covered Gor
don with their guni.
Quil: as a fla:.h she stooped down.
picked up the rle at .er ftet and
brouti:t it to he .r. :.::ning at
the form of the rman nezar.t i;er.
"For God's sk. Io :" exclained
Gordon. "be cae
With a qu nick ::..eet he struck
the weapon froi h-r hads.
At that instant ttee c:.::e the sound
of two re'r ienn s one.
A sht f:. : ron Just as a
passeg.er fired fro.: h .a.
(;or-dii Tel. fro:n his .eat, ciroppng
like a loz Iy the re::;::-.
With a cry of : :uish Lou Carlin
le:ned down beside him. . As she
stooped over she heard her own name
The voice was familiar to her ears.
One of the robbrstaggering about
on the pr::irie and clutching at the air
sank to Ie o.
"MV God:' eried L ou.
Leaping f rar:. :-he tore the mask
from the robLers f.:c, then started
back wil and dropped senseles-; be
It was her brother Tom.
Henry Gordon was not killed, al'
though for days L lingered at the con
fines -f the grave.
Ire was delirious and in his wild talk
he told, over ard crer ::a::.1. sus
picions of Tom Criirnw h.e hid
seen him associating w.hvi de-p.rate
men-how lie kr. w, or fear d. I v was
planninz to rob the stage-ti::1 !- had
given the money to Lou, knowing that
she wou'd be safe from molestation at
her brother's hands.
Lou, wan and sorrowful, sat beside
him and nurmed him back to'li.e.
IHer eyes vere first. to meet his when
be once more loolc'd ont upen, the
world. and her quivering hands bru.,hed
his forehead as she asked if he would
not soon be well.
"Yi es, Lou," he answecred; "and
Slowly she drew back the curtain,
and pointed off over the prairie to a
new-made grave in the dist~ance.
Trears feli fast f'romn her eyes-there
was no nee of words.
"Fornrive iim. hlenry, forgive hi:"
she said, brokenly, falling to her knees
beside the bed.
"Freely, freely, God knows!" he mur
mured, kissing her brow.
Then he spoke other words in a
whisper and she returned his kiss and
laid her head beside his.-Chicago
The farmers of Abbeville County
ecently adopted the following pream
be and resolutions at a public meet
"Wheieas, we, the farmers of Abbe
yille county in convention assembled,
fully realizino'the financial depression
hich is paralyvzinn' all the industries
f the country~ ana especially laying
its blighting touch upon agriculture,
the art of all arts, the science of all
cience, the life of all life," do earn
estly appeal for the co-operation of all
armers in the adoption of such meas
res as may avert impending bank
uptcy and ruin. Instead of the cheer
ful song of contentment and happi
ess which should bless the home of
the American farmer, we find agricul
ure, the basis of all national prosperi
ty, languishing and dying, while the
uiversal wail of hard times and suf
fering is heard all over the land.
That this anomalous conditioni of af
fairs should exist during seasons 0r
bundant harvest is evidently the re
sult of corrupt financial legislation in:
the interests of capitalists.
While we are powerless to remnedy
the evil, save through legislation. yet
it becomes us as hu.'o.ndmen and pat
riotic citizens. x'vho cher'ish the love of
ome and country. to adopt such nmeas
res in our agricultural pursuits as
ay enable us to meet the emergency
owt conf:'onting us. Therefore be it
Resolved 1st. That the excessive
area heretofore devoted to the produ.c
tion of cotton be greatly decreased.
and instead of ma'king it the principal
rrop increase the acreage of corn, so
as to make it supply the demands of
Resolved :2nd. That farmiers decvote
~ore attention to the production of
sorghum, potatoes, peas, hay and other'
Resolved :3rd. Inutead. of' hain our'
aat houses in St. Louis and Chicago.
et us erect them upon our own premi
ses and fill them with home produe
Resolved 4th. That the excessive
use of commercial fertilizers be dis>-n
tinued and when purchaa-d, it be
upon the cotton option basis.
Resolved 5th. That the railroad
ommissioners take immediate steps
to have a reduction on all freight for
fertilizers at the rate of-40 per cent. on
11 through freight and 50 per cent.
n local freight.
Resolved ith. That we enicurag
erection of cotton fatctoies nan ll
~ther enterprises in our midst, which
will employ labor and utilize the raw
prodcts of the land.
Resolved 7th. We pledge oursel ies
carry out the foregoing resolutions
and call upon the farmers of South
Darolina to unite in doing likewise.
Resolved 7th. That the press of the
State be requested to give publicity tol
A careful calculation as to the in
ancial loss inflicted by the late cold
na in Florida places it at 87. i; ,0010.
rhis is assuming that the orange trees
are not killed, and takes into) accounIt
he loss of but half of t-he orange crop
)f 5.000.000 boxes. as well as of lem
ins. limes. pineapp~lle planats and the
ust quantities of tropical vegetables
that are raised in Florida for the early
arket in the North. and which are
about all killed. It was the most ex
pensive frost that ever visited that
A cream of tartar Daring powder.
ighest of all it le ivening strength.-La
e4 'nited States Governvent Food Re
tUnyal Baking Powder Companv,
106 Wall St., N. Y.
-- Such is the record of the -
STAUNTON LIFE IN:URANCE
Numers of Beneficiari Testify~ to its
Piomnptuess and Soundness.
Na tir-! ?'reia n a Li vic on c'19 mos
- Approved Piars.
The eew "Conpen Po'icy" of the St'a
ton Lif~e is a m )del of simplicity. In addi
tio-. to afl th - bet features of.modern Life
insuratnce it provides for the payment of
the 'coadion" 8IME D IATELY -after
death, without notice or the formali
ty of proofs. Ttie "coupon'' co.vers 10 per
cent. of the ftaee of thepolicy, and is liad
Agat.; w mtad. Liberal Conmbiston
Live mea ca-1 make big money.
Jnla. 8, Reynolds,
coccnnBI t. .e. C.
This Handsome Rattan BO K
worth the world over $5.00, will Is
sent to any person who will sed'as
Six Cane Seat CHAITRS, -iihd
light, worth $1.00, at 65c. eachz.
40 yards of Straw Matting $380.
$10.50 for~ an Oak Bed, Burems,
and Wash Stand to match.
Send for Catalogue of Enrnima,
ooking Stoves, Baby Carriages,Suw
ing Machines, Buggies, Lamps,(de
L F. PADQETTW
M kroad Street, Augista,,
~- 4- ,..' ta~ Rice Mill in
e- - K- a rn-'th rice is
V..- an' I9ms out
a e:hrce per day.
O ~'. n-* rfna vertical and
a-Z -:2. o: 2 nd singlea gear.
- Gisa- dPe
Wrond wor ag tnachinery.