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V L X1.MANNING.,- S. C.,, WEDNVSDAY, . Y K 19; _______ O 0
CITADEL ('0MMEEEM ENT.
SUMTER'S OPER-A HOUSE CR0WDEC
BY HOSPITABLE ADMIRERS.
Col. Coward- TouIlchhlg Ktemg k:,--(cou
grcsoman McLauren Deliver-4 nuFl
quent Address- l'arist Honior.NMen Twen
SITTER, June 0. --Before an audi
ence that tilled to overdowng the
prettiest opera house in South Caroli
na, the commencement exercises of
the South Carolina Military Academy
were success fully brought to a
close today. The exercises of com
mencement week began Sunday morn
ing with the preaching of the bacca
laureate sermon by Rev. Lucius Cuth
bert of Charleston in the Sumter
opera house. Monday's exercises con
sisted of the review and inspection of
the cadet battalion by the board of
Last week the meeting of the board
of visitors was held at the Jervey
House. There were present Gen.
johnson Hagood, chairman; Col. J.
P. Thomas, Col. C. S. Gadsden and
Gen. Edward Anderson. All of the
ex-officio members of the board- Gov
Evans, Gen. Watts, Mr. Mayfield, Mr.
MtcSweeney and Gen. Dennis-were
absent Not much business other
than the usual routine of hearing re
ports was transacted. Maj. Reese, the
professor of physics and chemistry,
tendered his resignation, which was
accepted with regret. The board will
elect his successor at their annual
The entire first class was passed by
the board, all of them being allowed
to receive their diplomas.
An hour before the time appointed
for the exercises to begin this morn
ing, the interested people of Sumter
Pegan filing into the opera house.
hen the superintendent arose to
,aake the first announcement, stand
ing room was in demand and contin
ued so throughout the exercises, de
spite the very warm weather.
The people of Sumter have been de
lighted to have the Citadel boys with
them and have exerted themselves to
give the cadets a delightful time.
That they have succeeded will be tes
tified to tomorrow by the many cadets
who will board the homeward-bound
trains with regrets at leaving the Sum
ter girl behind them. I have heard
of one, and there may be others, who
has decided to remain a few days
longer, not being able to tear himself
awayfrom a certain popular belle.
The music in the opera house this
morning, as on all such occasions,
was furnished by the Bavarian band.
On the stage were Gens. Johnson Ha
good and Edward Anderson, Cols. C.
zs. Gadsden and J. P. Thomas of the
board of Tisitors; ex-Judge T. B. Fra
ser, Judge 0. W. Buchanan, Col.
Coward, Lieut. Bond, Maj. Reese,
Maj. Mazyck, Lieut. Stokes, Dr. J. L.
Heyson, Dr. J. H. Furman, Mayor J.
. Bozzai-d, Hon. J. H. McLaurin, the
tirst and second honor graduates, S.
?. J. Garris and B. J. Murphy and
The exercises were opened with
prayer by Rev. Dr. N. W. Edmunds
of the Presbyterian Church.
CoL Coward then stepped forward
and spoke briefiy. He said that on
three separate occasions the people of
Sumter had invited the corps of cadets
to their town; but on two of these oc
casions, previous engagements pre
vented acceptance. The third ivita
tion was accepted and the Colonel said'
thbat since their arriva.. here the treat
ment they had received made them
regret that they had not been here all*
three years, not that other counties
had not entertained them hospitably,
too, but that the pleasures of tne past
are generally dimmed or forgotten in
the enjoyment of those of the present.
The Citadel always was and always
'will be an institution for Une eauire
State. CoL Coward said this is a not
On this very day in the capital of that
nation that sprang into such sudden
existence and whose short life was
marked by so many deeds of heroism,
thousands of veterans of that bloody
war are now gathered together and
listening to the rehearsing of those
deeds of heroism. It is titting that
such an occasion should be linked in
memory with this commencement,
and tnerefore, at the suggestion of a
member of the board ot visitors, he
presented for that member a Confed
erate pin to each of the two graduates
seated on the stage. The pins repre
sented the battlel1ag of the Confeder
The band here struck up "Dixie,"
and like all other southern audiences,
this one was unable to keep still under
its inspiring strains. Long may it be
before a southern-born man or wo
man--eas-hear "Dixie" without the
blood tinglinglhrough and througnl
the body. Col. Coward tuen intro
duced as the orator of the day, Con
gressman John L. Mcbauren, who
spoke as follows:
Mr. Chairman, and Gentlemen of the
Board of Visitors:
I am fully sensible of the high com
pliment, you have paid me in selecting
one, not a graduate of the Citadel, to
deliver your annual address. I can
claim, ho evever, a lineal descent, for
if 1lam not ason of the Citadel, I am a
son of her the C. M. 1.
1 am afraid, however, that my ven
erated Preceptor, Col. Thomas, (who
sits over there) will tell you that 1 was
a "prodigal son," but if he did
I would tell him that he ner
er killed any fatted calves
f or me, fall on my neck and do any
weeping, nor put any rings on my lin
ger, but fed me on nacon, and when
ne did fall on me it was to put me walk
ing post with a nine-pound musket on
my shoulder instead uf a ring on my
it hasn't been so long since I " wore
the gray," but that my heart can thrill
with every emotion, that pulsates in
the breast of a cadet on a commence
ment occasion. When I look into
your eyes beaming with youthlul hope
memories of other day s hlood mue, some
tender and sad, otners joyful and
plasant. Fif teen years and it seems
such a short time. Somne of the bright
young faces that set out with me- on
the journey, have long been cold iu
death, other lie wreckea and stranded
on the shoals and quicksands, while
all of us are middle aged men, fromr
whose hearts the stern reality of liie
has dressed and driven the Ireshness
and poetry of youth. Not one of us
nas lound the world of which we
dreamed in the glorious days of young~
I1av alwmasfl trat th frnm.ar
of stern military dlciplime, with its
en forced hahita of scIf control, and the
examnple and intiUuence of a man whose
g .uidin st-ir was duty, had been worth
more to me than any scholwtie train
m eceived elsewhere.
THE s0LU.it EI sPinIT.
Le irst step towards success any
way is '.0 nind- the boy with the spirit
of the soldier, for life is one long balt
tie, and it is tihe soldier spirit that wins
succes.; the timid and irresolute are
crush'd, run over. and the coward de
serts, while the trained soldier, fertile
in expedients. tamful and resolute,
pushes steadily to the front, until suc
cess crowns his efforts or death claims
him as her own.
"SEEING THF ELEPHANT
I have often thought of that prodigal
son who left his father's house to see
the world, (we call it "seeing the ele
phant") and wondered what would
have been his fate had he been trained
four years by Col. Thomas or Col.
Coward. He would have seen the ele
phant, no doubt about that, one as big
as Jumbo himself, and possibly "spent
his pbrLion in riotous living," but when
the funds played out, a Citadel boy
would never in the world have fed on
the husks left by the swine. He would
have killed the fattest pig in the bunch
ate spare ribs and backbone, and the
inner man well fortitied tif nothing
better turned up), with the airs and
graces born in the "City by the Sea,"
he'd have fascinated the old man's
daughter, mirried, and put hisfather
in-law to tending the hogs. Then with
plenty of leisure entered politics, gone
to Congress, paid the mortgage off his
father's farm, provided for the good
brother who stayed at home by an
appointment to a 4th class postoffice.
I know some of the "boys" who have
made almost as wonderful a record as
that. A Citadel boy would never have
gone sneaking home in rags and tat
ters, whining and shedding "crocodile
tears." He would have pulled himself
together, redeemed his mistakes, and
when he went back home, gone with
his head up like a man. If he had to be
come as a hired servant and fed on
husks, he would have gone as faraway
from home as possibie, changed his
name and not dLgraced his family by
admitting that he was a miserable Jail
It would be presumption for me in
the presence of men grown gray in the
service of the Citadel to say much con
cerning its history and work. Permit
me, however, to brietly allude to its
genesis, because iu its original concep
tion it is closely related to a few
thoughts that I will express later.
Col. J. P. Thomas in his elegant
work, gives a most interesting account
of t he early history of the Citadel. In
1822 Deamark Vesey, a free negro,
organized a most formidable insurrec
tion in the city of Charleston. He was
one of those bold, strong characters,
who are born leaders of men. On
Sunday night, June 16th, the negroes
were to rise, and suddenly seize the
arsenal, guard house and otner deposi
tories of arms, then reinforced by the
country negroes, were to sweep the
town by lireand sword. Through the
defection of one of the conspirators,
the plot failed, and Vesey with several
others was tried, condemned and exe
cuted. The alarm caused by this
threatened outbreak led to the enlarge
ment of the aisenal and other military
posts. Ten years latercame the nulli
tication excitement of 1832, and $20, -
000 was appropriated for munitions of
war and as a consequence greatly in
creased the importance of tne arsenal.
A garrison was kept up until in 1842,
Governor Richardson conceived the
iliea of using these military posts as
schools, holding that as they had to be
maintained, it would only be a small
additional expense to impart instzuc
tion to the young men constituting the
garrison. -Thtus we see that the origin
and purnose of the Citadel was for
public defence, and that the scholastic
leature is a graf t upon the old trunk.
Therefore in purpose and practice the
Citadel bears a close relation to the mi
litia system of the country, and I de
sire to express a few thoughts on this
line, for in it are some of the germs
which must give life or death to us as
TWO RESOURCES OF NATIONAL SAFETY.
In national life,' in the tirst out break
of war or civil disturbance at home,
there are but two resources for protec
tion and safety. They might hike ho
tels be classitied as the "European"
and "American" plans.
The first depends upon a large stand
ing army, drawn from the ranks of
civil life, to be maintained in idleness
at the expense of the producers. Con
stituting in the hands of an ambitious
and bold executive, a perpetual men
ace to popular rights.
The second depends upon a patriotic
and well organized militia, ever pres
ent, -rarely seen, quartered among us,
not in camps and Ior-ts, but at the tire
side, in the counting room -<nd the
FOUNI)ATIONS 0O" NATiv.M L G~REATNEsS.
it has been well said that with the
decadence of the martial spirit the de
cay of the nation begins, hence every
nation adopts some means to foster
this spirit, varying in degress from the
dance of the savage to the science and
culture of West Point.
al foundations of political economy,
there are, two essential factors upon
whose proper understanding and ap
plication, the progress, perpetuity ann
stability of our government depends.
First. Politicat wisdom, manifested
through broad Statesmanship.
Second. Courage disclosed through
the miartial spirit of the people.
The former em braces, the aggregate
ability, learning and experien"- ot the
nation, while the latter is a sense of
jsieadright, backed up, with an
unfatering (eterminlation to protect
both at all bazard of personal danger,
what we call, Statesmanship, is simply
a careful study of the past critically
and honestly compared with the pres
ent, for the purpose of securing a logi
cal and cournmon sense application of
the future, militaryism, in plain terms
is courage and manhood, trained and
disciplined to act in concert with oth
ers. It is the scintilic adoption of
courage to 'he best and most effective
nmetnods of selt defense and protection.
Upon these two elements rests the
progress and perpetuity of every free
government, to their mighest deveiope
iment, civiliation, stands, irrevocably
W Vuer-e I say that the military spirit
of the people should be developed, i
do not mi'au the spirit of war, m the
uaccepted parlance oi thme day, since I
consider umat there is a vast ditfereuce
be'~tween thne two ter"ms, "n thme uni dst
of life, prepare for death' says the
- cripture andt who wili den vits solemn
"id time of peace prepare for war,"
anld none I fancy will question its wis
dom or prudence. Preparing for war,
does not mean war, anymore than
preparation for death, means death
itself, since both are precutionary
measures applicable alike to the frail
tit-s aid weaknesses of mankind.
The a-e of chiralry with its fendal
system serfs and slaves has passed
No longer does brute force with
shield and battle axe settle and con
clude comproinsie. . No longer, dos
personal courage as disclosed in
single combat, challenge the
administration of mankind and
make and uUmake kingdoms.
The science of mortal combat, now
dem-aixs members, trained to unity of
action and that compinnity of purpose,
which alone brings out and utilizes
the utmost limit of courage and en
The martial spirit of our people,
may be ever so intense, their courage
ever so daring but withouta knowledge
of the scientific principles of war,
their efforts would be futile. The
obligation of every government is good
wholesome laws, honestly and impar
tially administered, with the develop
ment of such governmental power,
as will protect from internal strife,
and defend her citizens from foreign
The military development of the
European system tends toward a des
potism, because the martial spirit of
the nation is concentrated in a ma
chine called the army. With us it is
diff used through all the nation, dwell
ing in the breast of every man worthy
so be called an American, supplement
ing manhood and developing that in
dependence of character, which alone
designate the citizen of a great Re
public, a Republic whose greatest safe
guard must be, that in times of na
tional, peril, each individual feels, that
he face death, not for the whim or ca
price of king or Emperor but in de
fense of home and country. That he
will share in the benifits of the con
test, .or feel the iron hand which fol
l) ws defeat and disaster.
A STRIKING LLUSTRaTION.
Look at Appomatox! what became
of those two great contending armies
of more than a million men.
Brave, intelligent and enduring.
In bloody battles, for four long
years, the courage of each, had
been tested to the uttermost.
Yet when the end came, and the God
dess of peace, unvailed her face, they
disappeared, as if by magic. Under
the warm rays of the sun, the snow
and ice on the mountain side melt
and together begin their journey to
the sea. So did these great armies
melt into the common mass of citizens
and together take up the task of reha.
bilitating a common country.
Citizens first, soldiers from necessi
ty. To lay down the musket and
sheathe the sword, in order to engage
in more peacef.ul pursuits, was a pleas
ure instead of a task. In Europe,
where the professional soldier predom
inates, and standing armies are the
rule, such an event would have been
followed by anarchy and bloodshed.
If to day the vast standing armies of
Europe were disbanded, a reign of
lawless terror would ensue. This il
lustrates the difference between the
machine soldier, who fights for his.
king regardless of the right or wrong
of the con roversy, and the citizen
soldier, who stands individual as a
part of the contention-one, the nar
ro eQ interest of the mercenary; the
other, the embodiment of patriotism
and personal responsibility.
OUR MILITARY FORCE.
The Anglo-Saxon race has an in
stinctive dislike and distrust of stand
ing armies, regarding them as a men
ace to popular liberty. Even in Eng
land. it may astonish those niot con
versant with the "Mutiny Act," to
learn that "the raising or keeping a
standing army in time of peace, with
in the U nited Kingdom of Greet Bri
tain and Ireland, unless it be with the
consent of Parliament," is against the
law.- The first standing army in Eng
land was that of Charles the Fourtu
and consisted of only one thousand
cavalry and four thousand foot. It is
curious to note frnm the Bill of Rights
in 1689, even down to the present
time, how jealously the people tnrough
their Pariament have guarded this
dangerous power. The people are
right in their dislike for standing ar
mies, all the more so here, because in
our country the whole tendency at
present is toward centralization of
power in the hands of the Executive.
Add to the prerogatives already usurp
ed, an immense military force, and no
potentate on earth would wield the
concentrated power of the President of
the United States. It would wipe out
the last barrier, and the autonomy
and semi-independence of the States
would be forever gone.
Yet, my countrymen, the time is at
band when the size and efiiciency of
our military force must be increased ;
at every session of Congress bills are
introduced along this line, and in fact
the business sense of the country feels
that present conditions are inadequate
to our needs. The real q-uestion is,
how shall it be done without further
centralizing this great power in the
hands of the Federal Executive?.
With the advantages of a great and
powerful nation we have its duties
and exposures. We are an active, en
terprising people. With unparalleled
rapidity we have developed this con
tinent, and now side by side -with the
other mercantile and manufacturing
nations are seeking the markets of the
world for our surplus producxts. We
can't get rich by swapping dollars
Under the law of the "survival. of
the fittest," our merchants and manu
facturers must go out into the marts
of the world and take their chance.
To do this, however, with every ex
tension of commercial boundaries
there must be the ever present military
force to protect commercial supremacy
This is the secret which Las made
England the commercial mistress o f the
world; and enabled this little Island of
tradesmen and shop-keepers to levy
tribute on all the sons of men, be
tween the Rocky towns of Corfee, and
the burning sun of Hindoostan. Its
"symbol" may be the British Flag.
but the "hiding place of its power, is
within dairk and .trowning lines of ar
tillery" 11er encroachments in South
America, has well nigh driven us
from those markets, while our policy
in Alaska is not one to be admired.
Look at Cuba: right at our gate way,
adyet our foreign policy, permits as
to be robbed of inarkets, that of right
should be ours. Tne Spanish tariti ex
ciudles our products in favor of Eng
land and hamperi and embarrasses
enterprising Americans, who have in
vested fortunes in Cuba, expecting to
be on equal terms with other foreigners.
Tlhinkr o, that Engand, jAderi.i
lar circumstances, would content her
self with deplomacy while British
property was being confiscated or de
stroyed and her citizens imprisoned
withourtrial? Our whole peoplesymn
pathize with the brave patriots, whose
women have even -formed companies
of Amazons. preferring this to the
fate-which awaits them. under Wey
lers' brutal decreees. What a strange
struggle it is aiainst tle' barbarie des
potism of the 13th century for free
doni for that freedom vidch shohid
be the birthright of the 19th cenury
Macau and Gomez,;. have 'made cein-'
paigns that have equalled the- "rally
campaign." Illastrated by the daring
genius of Jackson and Stewart, and
yet, we halt and hesitate about even
according them the ri-hts of civilized
warfare. Silent, while brave men are
shot like dogs, little children butcher
ed and tender women turned over to
the brutalities' of -the "South Com
pany.." The imagination sickness, the
mind revolts, civilization shoulders,
and turns its eye upon us, "Land of
the Free and the Brave," she asks why
do you permit these atrocities? Is
that what the Monroe Doctrine means?
You were struggling under a foreign
yoke, whose "Stamp Act" was a be
ni to the lightest touch of Wev
lers cruel hand. France sent you Ta
Fayette. Have you sent the gal
lant Fitz Lee, to -eturn the debt that
you owe tWe Goddess of Liberty:" If
so. you should have sent hiu not
alone, but clothed in lightning, and to
speak in the voice of thunder. You
say the people rule? They have said
"Cuba must be free," and yet your
Executive, halts and heaitates. Is it
because, Spain the "Old toothless
Wolf" has more teeth than yoa have?
Yes, Spain's Navy outnumbers ours.
while her standing army is more than
twenty time- as great. Talk is one
thing war is another. The time is at
hand, when in self defense, it. must
truly be "America for Amerioans:"
When the Monroe d-)ctrine" must be
come a living tangible reality, not an
"irredscent dream," received abroad
with a contemptuous sneer.
WHAT SHALL WE DO?
I maintain that in Naval affairs, we
should follow the example of Eagland,
who while making provision for the
army by annual apnropriatiops, pro
vides for her navy by permanent
statue, thus taking it clear out of the
domain of politics. The navy can
only be used for public defence, and
the protection of our citizens in a for
eign country. In land forces our pres
ent system .improved and perfected is
safe, and can be made efficacious. A
small compact standing army, a well
organized militia; kept up and owing
allegiance to the .various States, is the
only way to prevent the centrilization
of the military power of this country
in the hands of one man. The mili
tia force of the State however must be
effective and fully able to suppress all
disorder within its - borders. If an il
tustration is needed, recall the "Dabs
Strike" when the President sent Fed
eral-troops into the State of Illinois
aainst the protest of her Governor,
the excuse being that it was an insur
rection beyond local control. The
fact that a rarge and conservative class
in this country approved ths violation
of State rights, renders the precedent
only the more dangerous. If, howev
er the States are to provide an effec
tive militia not only for police duties,
but really to take the place of a stand
ing army, they must have trained and
educated officer's. It will not do to
trust to chance or hap-hazard. For
merly, men built. temples -to Fortune,
the Goddess whose eyes were blind
folded. They waited for her to pass,
trusting by luck or boldness to seize
her. But a new era has begun, a day
of specialities, where no amount of
genius or luck can supply the lack of
Now men, and nations depend on
the, perfected instrument, science and
The National Government, depends
on WVest Point, to turn out the per
fected soldier. If the States would
not have the Federal Gover-nment
absorb and centralize all the Martial
Spirit" and1 military power of this
Country, they must have similar insti
:utions, owing allegiance to, and de
ending upon State bounty for sup
port. If we would hand downa unim
paired to posterity, the priceless heri
tage of republican liberty, if we mean
that that the civil shall continue to
::ontrol the military arm, in both peace
and war in adversity as well as pros
perity, then let us foster in each State
a citizen soldiery, ready at all times to
:efend the national honor, but who
are trained in the belief, that the best
means of preserving national life, is by
the preservation of individual rights
and local self government. If the
Federal government, would send ou
from West Point the perfected inztru
ment and fit type of the national sol
dier, then let us, from similar institu-'
tions in the States, send out his corn
pliment, the perfected. instruments
the fit tyne of thie citizen soldier.
TWO STATE WEST POINTS.
There are two State WVest Points inthse
South that should forever command
public con tidende, and suppoit the Vir
ginia Miitary.fnstitute and South Car
olina Military ,Academy. Standing out
bold and unique, the "military set
up" is as destructive as that 'of West
Point. True nurseries of the citizen
soldier, the safeguard of the republic.
Long may they live. In every town
in the South, their young men are
found as officers of militia imparting
scientitic and .technical knowledge as
a labor oflove..
~ THE CIT.DEL FOR1MER..
Young men, you may well be proud
of your alma mater, here is a glorious
record and it is for yon to see that the
high standard of excellence is main
tained, where a Hlagood, a Capers, a
Cowardi and a Thomas placed it.
On one occasion after Rome had
been sacked by barbariansx, there was
a meeting of the Senate to determine
the question of removing the seat of
empire to another place. The couna
sels of the weak and demoralized were
about to prevail, when some bold old
Roman exclaimed, "Rome forever."
It was electrical in its effect.,
D~o not-permit the seat of your em
pire to be re moved to another place.
11er home is the "City by. the Sea,"
fanned by the gentle ocean breeze, and
the soft breath of the Magnolia. A
few heroic exclamations, " The Citadel
forever," and she lives..
Scarred -by - battle, torn by earth
quake and. devastated by fire, she has
survived it all; what shame and igno
miuy to permit her, in this the noon
day of life, to wither and die, a slowv,
sure death by starvation, her beautiful
limnbs'hike.the beggar stretched by the
There it must be confessed a deep
cos-rTWmm ON PG r oU erraj
(1RAN) AND GLORIOUtS.
THURSDAY IN RICHMOND ECLIP;LS
ALL FORMER OCCASIONS.
Unp:,.ralelled Ent h us!asm ---Sout Ih Catrm,311
rs-WPla -C vetdIimutto Branchse;
GEen. IHatninou and Our Spon4sor--ToU
'R1.MNs, July 2. Today ha been
beyond all qie.ioi ti greaest In
the histOry of- the historic city of Rich
mond. It was the crosvrding event of
the notable sixth Confederate reunion
wht nearly ail of the living leaders
of -the war were present and when
they had for their distinguished guest
that wel-! known Union soldier and
patri, Corporal Jas. ranner. The
three day's meeting of over 100,000,
Confederates ended in the laying-of
the cornerstone of an imposing moanu
ment to be erected to the memory of
Jefferson Davis, the President of the
late Confederate States.
This was what called from the north,
the west, the east and the south every
old Confederate soldier and sympa
For four days and over they came,
thronging in ou every line of railroad
until the hospitable city of Richmond,
with its grand hotels and open doors
of every private house, were so taxed
that the overilow reached the city of
Petersburg and adjoining villages,
and filled their homes with welcome
guests. During these four days the
streets and houses of public reception
here havt. been packed by a living
mass of Confederate humanity. The
demonstration surpassed all previous
events in the history of the city, and
as far as the crowds present were con
cerned, overshadowed all former oc
zasions, when the south sent her rep
resentatives by the thousands to honor
the memory of her distinguished lead
ers and *sons in the ex-capital of the
southern Confederacy. -
FALL IN LINE.
No sooner than General Gordon had
announced the adjournment of the
Confederate reunion convention sine
die with three expressive raps of his
Chicamauga tree gavel, than there
was a rush of the veterans to get into
the appointed locations in time to fall
into the line of procession, which
moved promptly at 1 o'clock p. m.
There were 2U,UUU men in line with
IOU bands of niusic and 2oo,000o or more
on the streets to witness this grand
parade of youthful military cadets,
stalwart militiamen,- and venerable
gray-bearded and battle-scarred vete
rans, who had seen service on the
hard fought fields of Virginia.
ON HISTORIC SOIL.
The latter retrod the streets which
35 and 30 years ago resounded with
the martial fbotsteps of the armies of
Lee and-afterwards of Grant. It was
a great day and nobody who witnessed
th parade, the heartfdt devotion of
the men,.in line and the enthusiasm of
the people on the streets, would do
:>therwise than declare that it was a
lay consecrated toAmezrican manhood,
patriotism and valor. Tne spectacle
was inspiring, and as the bands
passed playing "the Star Spangled
Banner." --Dixie," "My Maryland"
ind "Yankee Doodle," every man and
wonian felt themselves a truer Ameri
Nothing could have been more au
;picious than the weather a-ad all oth
er conditions for such a grand occa
fion. The procession, though prompt
ta forming, was some what delayed by
a divergence of the cavalry, artillery,
the Virgic.ia and North Carolina regi
ments of infantry and the carriages
:ontaining the distinguished guests
and young lady sponsors from the
States and territories, so as to tak~e in
a portion otfri-ain stree't.
A MaLGNIFICENT sPECTACLE.
They joined the veterans at Fifth
and F'rankL~n streets, and for nearly
two botrs tLis grand parade of young
soldiers and old heroes, with its bands
of music, Ih~gs and banners, marched
along street.; adlamt with national and
southern colors and greeted at every
point with-the cheers and plaudits of1
the women who were either daughters
or mothers of the old Confederacy.
The column, including as it did every
branch of ths military service, made a
splendid appearance, an.l would have
been deemed an American gem in
New York or Chicago.
In the line were numerous memnen
toes of the late war in the shape of
bullet-hoied and tattered Confederate
battle flags, uniforms that had been
worn on mlany a bloody field, knap
sacks, canteens, muskets and rifles
that bore evidence of service in many
acampaign. T wo venerable old sol
diers carried fiddles with which they
entertained camp life during the war.
Many had empty sleeves and many
others wooden legs, but they stood the
fatigue of the four hours' march with
all the fortitude that chiaracterizied
them over2031 years ago.
Gen. Gordon, chief iarshal, and
staif headed the pr-ocession, and his
escort was the corps of cadets from the
'irginia Military institute.
IhAMPTON SALL-TED) EVERY WHERE.
Taen followed the children's brig
ade, 250 in number. Gen. Hampton
and staff tooIk position in front of the
Carolinmans, and the old cavalry hero
wvas saluted at every move and turn of
the procession. Governor < Ferrall
was''tthe'Side of IBrig. G-en. Pnillips
of the Virginia State troops, wnien in
cludedthe \irginia-and North Caroli
noa regiments of State troops. Then
followed thbe' Worquhipful Grand Ma
somc. Lodge Of. \'irginiia, escorted by
the Commianrdyry of St. Andrew of
\'irginia, No. i:; Knights T'emplar,
and tby tue Blacksuurg, \~a., cadet.
Next, 'tue orator of t~he day, Gden.
Stephen O). Lee, anid staff. l'ne tirst
cavalry reginent of \Virgina, com
mzandcled oy Col. Charle~s l'>ker.
D avis Monnu mlnt assoetation].
Mrs. J1 tfiersomi Davis anid family.
Sponsors for the' souther-n States.
Memior'a associatiouLs, etc.
Qouncil of the ( ity ot Ricaunioud.
Major General Tumomas A. Brand
erer and .stalf.
.IRicmnond Lighrt. In fautry~ Blues'
battalion, escort to the \ irgtia \ ete
-rand'Uamp Con frdera'.e \ cterans.
- -)epartinent of \'irgimia.
~ol. V. A. Snoot, grand COmli
Wes-.~t Vi rginia \~eter-an asociatio)n.
South Carolina \Veteran camlps.
'Filtirida' \ eteran damnps.
Afabamna eterani camips.
Qr*oegi-a \ eteran ca m p.
Louisaa \'eteran campy-.
.Texas .\ eterau cam ps.
Indian Territory \'eteran camps
Arkansas \Veteran camps.
Tennessee \'eteran camps.
North Carolina Veteran camps.
Kentucky Veteran camps.
Missouri \~eteran camps.
Maryland lCteran camps.
Di.;trict. of Columbia Veteran cam os.
Sons of Confederate Veterans.
eteran cavalry division.
The cadets of the High school from
Washioto, a-; well as the District
Veterans nade an attractive featui
of the parade, and were compirented
all along the route.
| The lady suou-,ors and their maids
of honor, rode in separate carriages
and made the brightest feature of the
procession. Each sponsor waved the
!iag of the State she represented and
all of them were royally cheered as
they passed through the brilliantly
decorated streets. crowded with south
ernblooming womanhood and loveli
The Society of f he Army and Navy
of the Confederato States in -he State
of Maryland, esccrted by ti:e Fifth
Regiment Veterans' corps, was in the
procession. The society is the only
organized body of veterans in cown
which is not affiliated with theUnited
Confederate Veterans. Many of its
members, however, are also members
of Herbert and Buchanan camps. Col.
George R. Gaither is in command of
the veteran corps and Capt. George
W. Booth of the society. Gen. Brad
ley T. Johnson is president of the so
Mrs. Jetferson Davis r de in a car
riage with the Hon. J. Taylor Etlyson
and Gen. Peyton Wise, and she was
everywhere recognized and cheered.
Miss Shelby, daughter of Gen. Shel
by of Tennessee rode a fine horse
through the whole route of the proces
sion and was greatly admired. The
procession reached Monroe park about
4 o'clock. after a very trying march to
some of the older veterans.
Here the Grand Masonic lodge of
Virginia took charge of the ceremo
nies, and escorted by the Knights
Templars, reached the site selejted for
the Davis monument, where a stand
for the orator and distinguished guests
had been erected. When the privi
leged crowd had been seated and the
Richmond Blues and other military
organizations placed as a complement
ary escort to the Templars, the Masonic
ceremonies in the laying of a corner
stone took place, coucluding with the
following proclamation by the Grand
"Oyez! All within the sound of the
gavel take due notice that the craft
has ceased from their labor and that
the corner stone of the Jefferson Dav
is monument is now true, trusty, and
well laid by the grand lodge of Virgin
ia in its 119th year."
After this announcement Hon. J.
Taylor Ellyson, president of the Davis
Monument Association, came forward
and called upon Bishop John C. Gran
berry of the Methodist Episcopal
church to olfer prayer, and the emi
nent divine delivered a most fervent
and appropriate appeal to the throne
of the Almighty.
Al ter this Gen. Stephen D. Lee, the
orator of the day was iatrodacel and
spoke as follows:
GEN. LEE'S ADDRESS.
From a graceful exordium, explain
ing the purpose which had drawn his
vast audience together, Gen. Lee as
serted that it was fitting that Jetferson
Davis' remains should rest in Vir
ginia, which he characterized as the
greatest of all States, the battle-scar
red producer of warriors and states
men, But for her generosity in ceding
her vast territory to the Union, Kea
tucky would have still been her's, and
he would have been born her son.
Many presidents, statesmen, soldiers
lie in 1 irginia's soil-from Washing
ton to the present time-none greater
:nan Davis, but more fortunate.
JEIFFERSON DAVIS MoURNED.
Throwing a glance baczrward, hel
showed how, 31 years ago, the maun
whose memory they had miet today to
honor, lay m-~acled in a c senent of
a strongly garrisoned fortress, charged
with the most atrocious crime known
to man---treasoa and murder. "Andl
yet," he continued. "he died, by mil-'
ions more sincerely mourned and
deeply loved than any other man in
the history of the nation. If his ene.
mies had succeed in putting him to
death he would have been the most
conspicuous ligure in American his
whEN TUE MISTS CLEARt AWAY.
Gen. Lee expressed an abiding be
lief that when the mists of passion and
prejudice have passed away, the calm
light of justice will give the right,
nmene to eacha tigure in history.
"The descendants of the men who
burned Joan of Arc", said he, "now
regard her as a character of heroism
and beauty. The posterity of the men
who hung witches in Salem as a pious
duty, now hear the story with horror.
Tne descendants of the men who today
look on Jefferson Davis with unkind
expression will see bim as we do-the
stainless gentleman, the gallant sol
dier, the devoted patriot, the pure and
THE IssUEs SETTLED.
(Gen. Lee declined to discuss the
causes .leading to tne war, The war
had settled that secession is impracti
cable and the amendments to the Con
stitution have adjusted all other dif
ferences. Tne Southern people have
fully accepxted the results; taey accept
the present and loyally com mit them
selves to the future.
Passing to the early days of seces
sion, he predicted tr.at the future his
torian would note with astonishmeut
that the Southern struggle for inde
penden::e began, not witn commimttee s
of public saiety, with declarations of
tne rights of man, or enunciation of
the mightly doctrine that governments
deri-ve ineir just po .vers fromn the con
sent of thme governed, but it began with
public statutes, general eleetions and
constitutional e,>ventionls. Mr. R )a
vis himself rested, in his inaugurai,
the case of the new niation at tile bar
of the public opinion of the world, not
upon i-evolutionary but upon legal
REUAR[)>ED AS AN EXPERIENT,
H~e quoted the junior senator from
Massachusetts (Mr. Lodge) as saying
that when the Constitution was adopt
ed at Philadelphia, no one, neither
Washington, Hlamnilton, Clinton nor
Mason regarded the new system as
anything out an experiment, from
whiicn every State hadl the right peace
ably to withdraw, Tue Southern
States only exercised a righ:. wich
tiad often been threatened by New
E-ugland, and which was genecrally
(Aonceued to be a coustitutuonl oneC.
THlE soLDiIR AND) ThEE M '.
Gjen. le-e concluded a glowing euho
gium of JehIferson Dasvis' pure, private
lfe, bis exquisite courtesy amt gal
la nt,.y ae. a sldie wth i ne declara
tion that his domli:.ut cnaracteristic
was his fdIlity to ijriuciple. It was
we!! said of him: "He bent to uane
but God." He came amor as as a
itoman born out of time. it Was im
possible for him to ask pardn so long
as he felt Ie had done nis duty con
ncentiously, as he saw it, and he was
never forgiven. One after another
his great comrades entered the beyond
until he stood alone. but he never
waVrecd. lpie passed from as a stern
and imistic figure, broken but never
2en. Lee quoted from a speech de
livered bv Mr. D.ivs i tht Senate in
December, 1S'0, in which ne eciarea
that the uniou was dear to hirn as a
uUion of fraternal states. He argued
from this that Mr. Davis was opposed
to disunion, and that at the conference
called by Ghvernor P'ettis of Mississ
ippi,of the representatives in Congress
from that State in 1860, Mr. Davis de
clared himself opposed to secession as
lone as the hope of a peaceful remedy
As a president, the speaker thought
Mr. Davis may have made mistakes.
He was a constitutional ruler, not a
revolutionary chief, but when the
night of defeat was darkening and the
dismantled ship of the Confederacy
was sinking beneath the waters, he
stood at the helm to the last.
A TRIUMPHAL PROCESsioN.
11i referred to the popular dern
stratiou of affection which always at
tended Mr. Davis' appearance in pub
lic, and referred with deep feeling to
the occasion when his remains were
en route to Richmond for tinal burial.
No cooquerer's march was ever half
so triumpaant. la the capitals through
which it passed, his body lay in state,
visited by thousands, and everywhere
along tne way the people, old and
young, thronged and stood with un
covered head day and night along the
railroads as the train rolled by, to tes
tify their devotion to the dead. It was
spontaneous; it was universal.
A TYPICAL SOUTHERNER.
General Lee's peroration was a mig -
nilicent tribute to Mr. Davis as the
"As a soldier, his brilliant and
promising career was cut short. He
nau no opportunity to develop the
great qualities of Lee, the prince of
commanders As a stateman, he
did not quite reach, perhaps, the
cnmmanding staae of Calhoun, to
whose work he succeede 1. As an ora
tor, he may have lacked the impetu
ouis ferver of Yaacey, the splendid de
claimation of Lmtr-ae surpassed
them all in his majestic strengt, the
chaste-beauty of his thought, and his
thrilling earnestness. But Davis was
greater than tiem all in that he com
oined them ali. He was an acom
plished soldier, a great stateman, and
a consumate orator. He was the typi
cal southerner of his day and of all
"Around him stool that mirvelous
group-L- theiovar of cuivarlry;
Jackson, the genius of war; Toombs,
the thunderer of debate; Benjamia,
the jurist; Campoell, the judge; Bled
soe, the scholar; Hunter, the states
maa-men fit to measure with the
knight iest. Yet, from the vantage
,round of history his sublime head
lifts itself above tnem all.
IN VIRGINIA's SOIL.
"It is mete and fittiog that the
Ishes of the great should rest in Vir
-inia's soil Round him sleep the
mighty ones who have gone before
roldiers who won American lioerty;
lurists who gave it perpetual form;
statesmen who titled its flag with stars
and made it nonorable ttiroughout
:he world. Let Richmond be added
:o Mount Vernon. Monticello and
[exington. The south has committed
;ne b-eeping of his ashes to the mfther
>f States and statesmen. Let 'him
dleep in Virginia, where every river
whispees of Confederate heroism, and
and every hill was crimsoned with the
sold ters' blood. Let him rest in Rich
fl )d, nis capital, the city which he
wvalled around with the breasts of the
>ravCst of the brave. His mem~ry is
safe wiih you. YToi were faithtut to
:he living, you will not forget he dead.
"In calmer years, whea the last
ember of sectional feeling has burned
out, and the last cord of love has gent
ly bound the hearts of all Americans
together, fathers will bring their little
::hildren to this spot and tell of a pure
great man, who satfered for his people
and for the right, as they under
stood it, and how for this they
loved him as they loved no
oilher. L ong as yonder river shall roll1
its tide to the sea, it shall behold no
man more knigtly.
"Hie was a very perfect gentle
knight. May the story o- his life be
sweet in days to come, and, at last all
men cotne to understand dJetferson
The benediction closed the exercises,
and the great and weary, but still en
rthusiastic crowd began to leave Mon
roe park for places to quence thirst, to
appease hunger and to obtain needed
THE RETREaT BEGiINS.
Tonight the city is resonant with
the sunds of departing ca:ngsi anid
their bands playing the airs of-'ixie."
Tne serenade to Mrs. Jetferson Davis
at the Jetferson ho:el by residents and
visiting Marylanders, accompanied by
the band of the Fifth Maryland regi
ment. consisting of 40 pieces, was one
of the notable events of the night, and
was attended by all the celebrities at
THE (aKEP: m'as RE.EPrioN.
G overnor OWharrell gave a reception
at the executive mansion tonight at
which visitors f rom every State in the
south calied to pay- their respects to
\irginia's distinguished go vernor.
Wnen the reception to Mrs. D~avis at
the .Jetiers~n had concluded early to.
night. the lady way taken to the Ma
sonic temple, where she was greeted
by a large assemblage ot the sons and
daugniters of the Cunfederate veterans.
Tiwith other social reunions co-a
cddthe meetings antcih, hrave been
productive of so much good feelin4 at
tendaut upon the sixth annual reun
ion of the United Coc federate veterans
and the laying of the corner st<>ue of
the mounment to Jetlerson Davis.
Broke uip tit Giai; -
Sr. Locis Jly- L.- Wnat promnised
to be oue of the miost dangerous gangs
of counterfeiters operatinug in recent
years was captured by secret service
detectives at 1521 P'endleton avenue
this mo-rning. Tuose under arrest are
are Dr. Adlelia WValt~ers, a lady homeo
path, R alph Creese, WV. Hf. Miller and
Walter Creese. A search of the house
dmtwelosed a comnplete outmit of the tin
est uualityV, incliutg all the neces
sary oaraphernaha for making photc
gravures of United States currency.
A further search resulted in the liad
ing of a num ber of negatives of United
States bills and a quantity of black
WEITHER AND THE CROPS.
WEEKLY REPORT OF THE CONDITION
iN THIS STATE.
Cottcu, Corr, Rice nad the Fruit Crops
Generally favurable-The Melon Crop
The followinz weekly bulletin, is
sued by Observer Bauer yesterday,
covers the weather and crop coni
tions for the week ending Saturday
June 27, and in its preparation were
used reports from one or more corres
pondents in eiach county of the State.
The week under review opened with
normal temperature, but the heat
increased during the week so that by
the end it was from 6 to 8 degrees
warmer than normal, the average
having been - ner day for the weel.
The average of . stations reporting
mean temperature was 82, and the
normal for the same period isapproxi
niately 79. The mean ranged between
84, at Kingstree, Oakwood, Clemson
College and Waterloo, and 77at Gilli
The highest temperature for the
week was 1U2 reborted from Gillison
ville on the 2Gth and 101 reported
reportrd from Blackville on the 27th;
the lowest was 6L reported from Spar
tanburg on the 21st.
The rainfall was poorly distributed
and came mostly in the form of show
ers, which were very partial. In the
central and western counties the rain
fall was very light, while over the
eastern portions of the State general
ly there was a slight excess. Crops
are suffering for want of rain in Un
ion, Edgetield, Lexington, Barnwell,
Fairfield, Aiken, portions of Newber
ry, Laurens, Anderson, Oconee and
Greenville, but as yet corn is the only
crop needing rain seriously, and that
has suffered no injury from lack of
moisture but which a rain within a
week or two would qiickly remedy.
The ground is too wet in portions of
Orangeourg, Darlington, Florence
and Cnestertield where farm work was
somewhat retarded. The following
heavey rains were reported: Black
ville 2.07, Florence 1.15; Charleston
1.78; Kingstree 1.55; St. George's1.82;
St. Matthews 1.59; Yemassee 1.41;
Tiller's Ferry 1.53; Gillisonville 1.37;
Andersoa 1.11; Elloree 2.80; Etlia5
ham 1.81; Darlington 4.52; Columbia
1.33; Chesterfield 2.85; Society Hill
2.38: Clio 2.00. It will be seen that
with the exception of 1.11 at Ander
son, all the heavy rain fell in the
eastern half of the State. In addition
to the a bove, 22 stations reported rain
fall for the week in amounts ranging
from 0.03 to 1O inch.
Tne average of 39 stations was 1.10,
and the normal for the eame period is
The rainfall in Darlington on the
24th was phenomenaL In the town
of Darlington, and a few miles north
and west of same, it was estimated
that more than 6 inches fell. The
4.52 reported above fell 3 miles south
east of Darlington.
There was an excass over the usual
amount of sunshine, except in the
eastern and southeastern ortions,
where the sunshine was deficlent, and
was only about 40 per cent, of the
possible. In the western counties it
ranged from 70 to 94 per cent. of the
possible, the normal for the State is
The past wee'k was generally favor
able for crop development, but there
were excepttons in the western coun
ties. where it is too dry for corn, and
in the northeastern, where it is too
wet for cultivation--excessive rain in
O~rangebuirg, Chesterfield, Darlington,
Marlboro and Florence interfered
with dield work; never the less crops
over the whole State are generally
well cultivated and free from grass.
The reports on corn, for the first
time during the season, are unfavora.
ble. Corn is firing badly in Florence,
Kershaw, Berkeley, Lexington, Barn
well, H~ampton, Aiken and Marlboro.
Is needing rain in it 'c)unties. Too
much water on b->ttoms in Orange
burg. Insects damaging stands in
Eershaw and Lexingtoa. In places
it is tasselling low, but sinking welL
It is being laid by generally, although
late coru still being plowed. The
heat during the latter portion of the
week seems to have been injurious to
corn, but the crop as a whole is still
Tnere is a decided improvement in
cotton over the previous week. Lice
nave not yet entirely dissappeared, but
nearly so. But little damage resultd
fron lice, and thatis being rapidly en
atcted under the favorable influence of
the prevailing heat. Cotton is gener
ally blooming and fruiting welL. Too
much water in bottoms in Orangeburg
waere also stands are very much
brok~en. Ils needing rain in AikeD Is
loosing lower leaves in Cherteraeld.
Is generally clean, well cultiv'ated
and in a very promising condition.
SeaPIsland cotton doing well lately.
Tobacco made fair progress and is
being upped in Kershaw and Flor
ence. Tne crop is very irregular as to
gro wth, even in the same held plants
range from a fe w inches to four feet
in height, in Kershaw.
Cane growing well generally, and
rice very much improved and free
Melons generally inferior being
small and poor. Fungous disease of
vines seems to be spreading. Lice in
jured vines in Charleston and Barn
Peas are coming to fine stands gen
eralty. A bout all planted that will be.
Fruit generally scarce. Peaches
and apples still droppoing and but few
left te ripen. Seasonable berries con
ti nue plentiful. Mualoerries ripening.
G-rapes needing rain in Oconee; are
rotting to a considerable extent before
S.-'e:. poate are growing luixuri
ar tiy. Too dry in Aiken and Edge
:ield to continue transplanting.
Gardens are in good condition
where there was plenty of rain, but
are not doing well where rain is need
ed. Fine solid heads of caobage are
reported from Greenville.
The army worm has appeared in
grass tields in Charleston county.
Cut His Own Throar.
CH L TT ANooGA, July 1.-James
Pinkney, a prominent merchant of
Cressville, Tenn., was this morning
found lying unconscious ina ool of his
ona blood. An open razor was clasp
ed in his hand and his throat was cut.
The jugular vein was severed and he
sou expired. Deceased sent his wif e
out of the room on an errand that she
might not witness the deed. Anxiety
oyer business affairs is thought to have
led him to take his life. Pinckney .
hadl onsiale Mproperty.