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V OL. kIV. - -MANNING. S. C., WVEDNESDAY., OCTOBER 5 88 O 1
A STRONG ADDRESS.
The Cotton Growers Are Urged
AN INTERESTING PAPER.
Way for the Farmers to Protect
Themselves is Pointed Out
in Detail. The Dan
To the Cotton Growers of South Caro
The special committee appointed by
the Cotton Growers'union of the State
held in Columbia on the 20th inst.,
desire to say that the exceedingly low
prices of cotton at the present, with
the indication of lower prices still in
the future, painfully admonish us that
we have reached a crisis in the history
of the industry. Prices today are not
only far lower than they have ever pre
viously been at this season of theyear,
but lower than they have been for 50
years, and-tbe months of November.
December, January and February are
selling on the Liverpool market lower
than during the great depression of the
forties, and even at these figures Eng
lish agents are advising the spinners of
Great Britain to withhold their pur
chases upon assurances that prices will
soon be 50 points lower. In view of
these conditions we desire to call the
attention not only of the cotton grow
ers but of every business association in
the cotton belt to the portentous fact
that for the want of organization di
rected by ordinary tact and foresight,
we as a people are allowing this great
element of wealth to pass beyond our
borders for a mire song; that our birth
right is going for a mess of pottage,
and our great natural advantages sacri
ficed with the careless indifference of a
drunkard, who flings from his lap his
treasures. Foreign speculators and
manufacturers, fully aware that the
staple is passing out of the hands of
the growers at figures far below the
cost of production, nevepheless hold
aloof from the market to allow the ma
turing obligations of the farmers to
force the crop out of their hands for a
mere pittance. Defiantly claiming to
command the situation they boldly pro
pose to avail themselves of conditions,
which could be remedied by a combina
tion of the cotton growers and business
element of the cotton belt, to rob the
growers not only of the profits of their
year's toil but of nearly one-half the
value of 10,000,000 bales of cotton, and
thereby impoverish the most favored
section of the globe. Blessed with the
natural advantiges of a climate 'and
soil which alone can produce this great
staple in quality and quantity sufficient
for the demands of the world, we should
be the most prosperous people on earth.
Efficient organization, which would
control the volume of production and
regulate its marketing, would make
these advantages a mine of wealth; but
with every cotton grower separately and
independently striving to increase his
acreage and nullify his bales, first above
and then below the cost of production;
with a vicious financial system that
causes the claims of the local merchant
and banker to force the entire crop on
.the market in four months, these nat
'utal advantages are distorted into a
blight and a curse, and the cotton grow
er s made to become aprey to the
'usurer, the speculator and the manufac
turer. Never was there a situation
which more peremptorily challenged the
wisdom of economic statesmanship;
never was there a more inviting way, a
more imperative field for organization;
never was there an exigency which
would more fully justify it. Yet we
are told that the cotton growers are an
ignorant class, devoid of leadership and
without the power to organize; that it
is impossible to organize 500,000 cotton
growers. Why even the lower animals
.will'rally for defense and self protec
tion. Can it be possible that the cot
ton growers constitute the only element
of the animal kingdom which cannot
unite? Are they so devoid of manhood.
intelligence and foresight that the
competency, the welfare of their sec
tion and the maintenance of their fami
lies cannot induce them to unite? If it
be true that as a class they are so de
void of spirit, so ignorant, so helpless
and supine that the most direct and
forceful appeals to sentiments the most
calculated to stir the human hear t can
not induce them to organize for pur
poses of mutual protection and self de
fence, then truly we should hear no
more complaints of the oppression of
trusts and combinations, but as a class
.we should meekly accept that law of
nature which decrees that the improvi
dent, the weak and the careless shall
serve the vigilant, the active and the
strong; then should we join in the re
frain of the other avocations.
'I hold the farmer a simple tool
Aorn to labor and not to rule.
ald I vi i do unto him that which I see
Will bring the most money to mine and to
Prompt and concerted action on the
part of the cotton growers would change
present conditions in 90 days. Through
the complete organization which would
enable them to-act as a unit would place
them in command of the situation in
three months and change their condi
tion from one of bankruptcy and dis
tress to one of competency and profit.
By what means can, organization ef
feet these ends? Adopt the recommen
dations of the National Cotton Growers'
union, organize promptly, hold all the
cotton on hand and firmly bind our
selves to reduce the extent of this year's
acreage 50 per cent. the ensuing year.
No intelligent man of business experi
ence will dispute the soundness of this
proposition. As soon as effective
measures to these ends have been taken
and become a certainty cotton will im
mediately advance and more moneyv can
be borrowed on it than it is worth to
day: because it would .then become a
security constantly anticipating in val
ue. The visible supply of cotton is not
above 15.000.000 and the invisible sup
ply, or stock 'on hand at the mills, is
estimated at 500,000, making a total of
2,0001.000 bales.' To be certain not to
underestimate will put the amount of
this stock which has passed beyond the
control of the growers into the hands of
speculators and manufacturers, say at
2,400,000. The consumption ranges
between 800.000 and 1O.000.00 bales
per month. If the farmers should with
holdthei coton rom he arke fo
three months the entire surplus beyond
their control would be consumed and
the manufacturers would be at their
merey for a supply. The entire situa
tion would be changred instead of the
speculator and the manufacturer dieta
ting the price the cotton grower could
x his price and say pay it or shut dowu
your mill. A reduction in next year's
acreage of 50 per cent. would insure
such a diminution of the supply as to
make cotton scarce and bring about an
active competition among the manufac
turers for their stock that would insure
a steady and rapid rise of price.
This was made demonstrably clear
during the war between the north and
south in the sixties. McHenry in his
"History of the Cotton." page 51, says:
"In ordinary times there is always two
years' supply of cotton in the crude
and manufactured state at the consum
ing points. At the fall of Fort Sumter
there was a suffiiency for three years'
requirements. With the supply larger
in proportion then than now, as soon as
the production was curtailed by the
war, we note the following extraordina
ry rise in prices; in 1860 the average
price was 11 cents. in ISGI at 13 cents,
in 1862 at 32 cents, in 1S63 at 67 cents,
in 1864 at $1.01. But it is argued that
any heavy curtailment of production in
the South to raise the price will stimu
late foreign competition. If $1 per
pound in 1S64 could not stimulate in
genious foreign competition it is diffi
cult to see how S or 10 cents can do it
Touching this point, Ellison -in
his "History of the Cotton Trade,"
pages 149-142. says: "For some years
prior to the outbreak of the civil war it
had been foreseen that, sooner or later
a serious labor disturbance at the south
was inevitable, and in view of the ca
lamity which such an event would
bring upon Lancashire, every effort
was made to discover new sources of
cotton supply. But, although, the
powerful association formed for the
promotion of this end searched every
nook and corner of the cotton zone, and
sent seed to every one in the four con
tinents, willing to experiment, they en
tirely failed to accomplish the laudable
object they had in view."
Mr. Ellison further tells us that
while the exceedingly high prices dur
ing the war did considerably increase
foreign shipments of cotton, that this
increase declined almost to its normal
bed as soon as the price of cotton fell
to 15 cents or 30 cents per pound. If
no action is taken and this crop is sac
rificed at present or probably lower
figures in the next four months it will
fall far short of paying for the cost of
production. The cotton growers will
be impoverished, the country stripped
of means and every business interest
must suffer. Should there be no effec
tive organization to curtail the supply
by a uniform reduction of the acreage,
and any other plan to reduce the crop,
is the merest twaddle. The industry
will be but an illustration of the survi
val of the fittest; those who can raise it
cheapest and those who cannot compete
must accept the cheerless and hopeless
lot of the bankrupt and pauper.
J. C. Wilborn,
President S. C. C. G. U.
L. W. Youmans,
Vice-President N. C. G. U.
A GREAT SCHEM.
By Which the Cotton Acreage Can be
There is a cotton man in Columbia
who has a great scheme on foot for the
reduction of the cotton acreage. He
says he inteads to push it to a grand
and glorious success and no doubt he
will if he can get the proper co-opera
tion. There is a degree of uncertainty
about his being able to do that, how
ever. There have been a number of
conventions of cotton planters, in which
they all positively pledged themselves
to reduce the amount of cotton they
would plant. It was a case of resolute
and fall back. Then when the farmers
got home, each one would wink at him
self; assume that everybody else was
going to decrease the acreage, and he
would take advantage of the opportuni
ty to double his own acreage in cotton
and get the benefit of higher prices.
They would all play foxy in the same
way and the consequence would be a
crop of unprecedented size. Now this
Columbia genius has hit upon a scheme
which logically cannot fail. He pro
poses to call a convention of all the cot
ton growers of this part of the South.
They will each and-all be pledged to in
crease their cotton acreage for the next
year. Every safeguard will be thrown
around them so that according to all
the laws of the game the acreage be
doubled. And then one by one they
will secretly determine that as there is
to be an over production of cotton he
will plant a minimum acreage, and let
the other fellows reap the proceeds of 2
cent cotton. As a consequence we would
have the smallest crop of cotton plant
ed in fifteen years and the fleecy staple
will go up to 12 cents.-Record.
Cost Him His Arm.
William iRoelker, a German iron
worker, twisted a lion's tail at East St.
Louis,'and will losc his left arm. John
F. Hummel's circus and menagerie was
to give an exhibition. The animal
wagons were lined up, preparatory to
the parade. Among the animals were
a pair of African lions. The male was
lying at the front of the cage with one
of his paws and his tail hanging outside
the bars. Roelker began stroking the
paw with his left hand. The lion
watched Roelker's procedure. The
ironworker grabbed the tail with
his right hand, giving it a sharp twist.
There was a roar, and one of the lion's
paws caught Roelker by the left slioul
der and stripped off the flesh of the arm
down to the hand, two fingers of which
were torn off.
When a man walks a mile lie takes,
on an average, 2.2633 steps, lifting the
weight of his body with each step.
WVhenhe rides a bicycle of the average
gear he covers a mile with the equiv
alent of only 627 steps, requires little
force, bears no burden, and covers the
sanme distance in less than one-third of
Another Hold Up.
A sp'ciail from Elyria, Ohio. says:
Another hold-ut' occurred on the Lake
Shore roaid west of here. One zane of
tramps held up the officials on a'freight
train and took everything in sight.
M1any shots were fired. 'The trainmen
were not molested. A movement is on
foot to brak up the ang.
CLIMATE AND CROPS.
South Carolina Has Some Crop
Growing the Year Round.
INSPECTOR BAUER'S REPORT
Much Valuable Information Fur
nished as to the Conditions
in This State During
The following is the climate and crop
review for the season of IS98 issued
from the South Carolina section of the
United States weather and crop service
There is no month of the year but
what. in portions of the State, some
crop is either growing or coming to ma
turity. During January, February and
generally the greater portion of March
the active growth of 'crops is confined
to the immediate coast from Charleston
to the mouth of the Savannah river.
where winter vegetables, planted in
the previous autumn, receive cultiva
tion and make more or less growth.
The earliest are marketed in the latter
portion of January, and throughout
February and March. The list of veg
etables increase in variety as the sea
son advances and the area of produc
tion extends farther into the interior.
although confined to the castermost
counties until after March.
The winter season of 189S was mild
and dry. The average temperature for
January was 49 degrees, which was an
average of 3 degrees per day in excess
of the normal. Along the coast the
temperature fell below freezing (32) on
two days only. while the average mini
mum was above the active growing
temperature. The rainfall, however,
in the trucking districts. amounted to
a fraction of an inch only. and the de
ficiency seriously affected the growing
truck crops. Frost did no injury. The
average rainfall for the State was 1.80
inch, which was 2.60 below the nor
February was a cool month through
out the State, with an average tempera
ture of 44 degrees which was 6 degrees
per day below the normal. The mini
mum fell to, or below, freezing on an
average of 16 days for the State. and 5
days in the truck raising districts,
where also, the average minimurm was
below the active growing temperature
with frequent light frosts. The rainfall
was again deficient. The average was
only 0.81 inch, which was 2.SO below
the normal. Less than one-fourth of
an inch fell in the truck region. These
conditions of temperature and rainfall,
while generally favorable for farming
interests, were damaging to the truck
ing interests. and resulted in the latest
and smallest yield in many years, caus
ing a general loss to the truck growers.
The cool weather throughout the State
retarded the growth of winter wheat
and oats, and other simt.ll grains, and
checked the budding of fruit trees and
aided materially in making the grain
crops the finest in many years, and an
unusually large peach crop. The dry
condition of the ground permitted more
than the usual amount of ploughing
and preparation of fields for the usual
spring planting. In the extreme south
eastern counties some corn was planted
during the latter portion of the month.
March was a warm, dry month. The
mean temperature was 59 degrees,
which was 5 degrees per day above the
normal. The extremes recorded were
a maximum of 92 and a minimum of 22
degrees, the latter on the first of the
month. Heavy killing frosts were re
ported from the 1st to the 7th, after
wh'ch warm growing weather prevailed,
except over the extreme western coun
ties, where the average night tempera
tures were below the active growing
points until the latter portion of the
The rainfall averaged -2.99 inches.
which was 1.47 below the normal, but
was unevenly distributed, .having been
heavy in the upper Savannah valley
and at a few other points, and very de
ficient near the coast, where the
drought conditions were intensified, to
the further injury of the truck crops
which were slowly coming to maturity,
and shipments of strawberries, peas,
beans and Irish potatoes were begun.
The prevailing high temperature
caused a rapid growth of vegetation.
The freedom of the soil from excessive
moisture enabled early and thorough
preparation of lands for the usual
spring crops. Fruit trees of all v-rie
ties blossomed during the month.
Wheat, oats and barley grew luxuriant
ly. Lands were prepared for corn, and
much was planted. Some cotton and
rice were planted. Farm work made
April was cooler than usual, with
a mean temperature of 58 degrees,
which was 5 degrees per day below the
natural. The extremes of temperature
were a maximum of 92 degrees and a
minimum of 25 degrees. Frequent light
frosts occurred up to the 2Sth, none of
which, although heavy in appearance.
did any damage except tr. retard the
growth of young corn and cotton.
The rainfall averaged 5.05 inches.
which was 1.91 inches in excess of the
normal, and was evenly distributed.
with an average of eight days without
rain. The rainfall was beneficial ir
supplying, to a large extent, the pre
vious deficiency, thus putting the
ground into excellent condition for
planting, although germination and
growth of the staple crops were slow
owing to the prevailing low tempera
Corn planting made consideraible pro
gress during the month. and the bulk
of the cotton crop was also planted.
there remaining but little of either
crop to plant by the end of the month,
except over the western counties.
where the farm work was delayed, and
was frequently interrupted by heavy
rains. Minor erops were largely all
planted and in the main (lid well.
Many peaches, p~lums, cherries and
apricots were killed in the western
counties by the frost of the 7th, but
elsewhere throughout the state the
prospects for a large fruit em were
unimpaired, except for apples and pears.
The weather was favorable on wheat.
and generally so for oats, rice and to
May was slightly warmer than usual.
with a mean temperature of 74 degrees,
which was 3 degrees per day abov~e tihe
normal. The extremes of temperature
were a maximum of 106 degrees and a
the first week was cool, with light
frosts on the 7th and Sth over a large
portion of the State, but the frost did
no injury other than to retard the
growth of young corn and cotton. Cut
worms were unusually numerous and
destructive during the prevalence of
the cool weather. The temperature on
the 30th was higher at many stations
than ever before recorded in May.
The average rainfall for the month
was only 1.35 inches. with an average
of 8 days with rain. The rainfall was
84 per cent. of the normal, and drough
ty conditions prevailed by the end of
the month, being most severe over the
southeastern counties, where there was
a large seasonal deficiency in rainfall.
The harvesting of wheat and oats
was elegant and nearly finished during
the month. The wheat crop was the
finest raised for many years; the oats
crop was also heavy, except for spring
sown, which was injured by the dry
weather. Truck crops suffered severe
ly.' Cotton developed slowly. being
small but vigorous and healthy. Corn
remained green. but made slow growth,
and in places suffered severely for the
want of rain. Tobacco did well, and
an almost entire absence of destructive
insects was noted.
Pastures failed rapidly; berries and
truck yields were reduced by the
drought. Streams reached very low
stages. and wells began to fail by the
end of the month. Rice grew well, but
on account of the low stages of the
rivers, was threatened by salt water.
Gardens dried up, and vegetables be
eane scarce in places. Farm work was
well advanced, and crops were kept
free from weeds and grass. and were
well cultivated. The dust was dis
tressing in the cities and along the
.June was a month of transition from
the unfavorable conditions that pre
vailed generally during May on ac
count of drought in that month. The
mean temperature was 80, which was
2 derees above the nornial. The ex
treies of temperature were a maxi
mum of 10-> and a minimum of 55. The
temperature rose to or above, 90 de
grees on an average of 20 days.
The average rainfall for the month
was 4.15 inches, which was 0.47 of an
inch below the normal. There was an
average of S days with rain. The
drought of the previous month became
intensified, and continued until about
the 15th, after which date copious and
well distributed showers occurred over
the entire State. rnd prevented the
threatened serious injury to growing
crops, except to truck, gardens, spring
sown oats and early corn. The latter
was too nearly matured in the eastern
counties to be much berefitted. The
absence of rain during the first half of
the month was favorable for finishing
wheat and oats harvest and securing
the grain in fine condition, but delayed
planting of corn and peas on stubble
lands: and transplanting sweet po
tato slips. Cotton plants developed
satisfactorily; they fruited heavily,
and in the more eabterly portions of
the State put on bolls freely. Lice
damaged cotton in many places; other
wise cotton was in a healthy condition,
although small for the season, except
on sandy soils, where it attained nor
Tobacco developed into a very fine
crop, and was unusally free from
worms, fleas and grasshoppers, and
sustained no damage by hail. Some
early tobacco was cut and cured. Rice
did not do well until near the close of
the month, when it began to improve
rapidly. Large quantities of peaches
and plums came on the market but
other fruits and berries were scarce
or of inferior quality. Melons were
smaller and later than usual. The
month as a whole favored farm work,
with a result that field crops were gen
erally well cultivated and unusually
free from grass and weeds.
July was a cloudy and rainy month
with even high temperature. The
mean temperature was S0, which was
one degree per day above the normal.
The extremes were a maximum of 102
and a minimum of 54 degrees. The
cool spell was of short duration, and
did no harm.
The average rainfall for the State
was 7.81 inches, which was 1.71 above
the normal, and was evenly distri
buted, with an average of 14 days with
rain. There was more than the usual
amount of clouidiness. Few severe
windstorms eneurred, and there was
an almost entire absence of destructive
Crop developed satisfsetorily, es
pecially corn, which attained a very
promising condition although the pros
pects did not indicate a full crop in all
sections of the State. Cotton grew too
'much to stalk, and. owing to the con
tinuous wet condition of the soil, did
not receive its usual July cultivation,
and fields became grassy. The plant
lacked sunshine. Cotton fruited heav
ily. with very little shedding except in
a few localities where excessive shed
ding occurred. Tobacco cutting and
euring continued througout the
month, and, the bulk of this crop was
saved without any material injury
from any source. Fresh water for
flooding rice fields became available
early in the month, and the crop im
proved rapidly. Forage and food
crops grew fast. Fall root crops were
planted. The month as a whole was
favorable for all agricultural interests.
Peaches and melons were plentiful,
but other fruits were generally scarce.
The damp cloudy weather caused miuchi
rotting of ripening grapes.
August was a month of~ normal tem
perature and excessive rainfall. The
meanl temperature for the month was
79 degrees. which is also the normal.
Thme extremes of temperature recorded
were a maximum of 99. and a mini
mnumi of 57 degrees. There was an un
usually small range in the night temi
peratures. -The average rainfall for
the month was 9.81 inches. which was
:-.68 inches in excess of the normal.
There were 18 days with rain, and
some rain fell within the State on ev
cry day of the nmonth. Two stations
had monthly measurements of over 24
inches. anrd 18 others had over 10 inches.
The ~rai nfamll at many stations was
larely in excess of any previous
~monthly records. There was a harm
ful deliciec in sunshine. Abundant
moisture and even, high temperature
caused all vegetation to grow rapidly.
and forage as well as root crops did
exceedingly weli; but maturing crops,
such as cotton, corn and rice, de
teriorated. The frequent rains pre
vented haying, delayed rice harvest
fodder that was stripped from the stalk.
Some corn was blown to the ground and
considerable sprouted in the husk.
The humid, rainy weather caused many
ripe cotton bolls to rot. and the seed of
open cotton sprouted before it could be
picked. Much of the open cotton mil
dewed and became weather-stained. The
exeessive rains caused rust to develop,
and shedding of squares and young
bolls. Peavines attained good growth
but could not be harvested. Grass that
was cut for hay was generally ruined
before it could be properly cured and
housed. Exceedingly heavy rains caused
inundations over the southeastern coun
ties, doing extensive damage to cotton,
corn, rice and hay. On the whole, the
month was unfavorable for the staple
crops, but was quite favorable for
minor crops, pastures and gardens.
Whatever deterioration crops suffered
was due to an excess of moisture and
deficiency in sunshine. The first bale
of cotton for the season of 189S was
ginned on the 9th of August, or 12 days
later than in 1897.
September began with a continuation
of the rainy, clammy and warm weath
er that prevailed during August, but
about the 20th of this month there was
a change to cooler, clear weather at
first, and then to clear, very warm
weather. The temperature averaged
about 3 degrees per day above the nor
mal. The rainfall was slightly defi
cient in the central and eastern coun
ties, but over the western counties
there was considerable excess, but
neither the deficiency nor the excess
just noted were great enough to be
After the 10th of September, ideal
weather prevailed for harvesting and
maturing crops. Rust, shedding and
rotting ceased on cotton. and picking
made rapid progress, which as it ad
vanced seemed to indicate a shortage
in the crop over the eastern and cen
tral counties, but also indicated a full
average crop in the western counties,
where in many places cotton continued
to grow, bloom and fruit throughout
Considerable corn was housed, and
much found to be damaged from
sprouting in the husk. Local overflows
of rivers and creeks also damaged some
corn, bit on the whole the early corn
made a good average 3 ield. with many
exceptions, owing to local adverse con
ditions. Late planted or stubble-land
corn varied greatly throughout the
Rice harvest continued throughout
the month, and except where damaged
by floods, yielded heavily. Upland rice
was particularly fine in most localities.
A heavy crop of peavine and other
hay was saved in good condition. The
hay crop was the heaviest ever known
in many localities, and was far above
the average over the entire State.
The season as a whole, for sweet po
tatoes, chufas, peanuts, sugar and sor
gum cane, turnips, and for garden
tiuck. after the middle of June, was
very favorable and the yields largi.
A short resume of the season would
show that the winter was dry with
nearly normal temperature; the spring
cool, with frequent light frosts, and a
deficiency in rainfall amonnting to a
drought of more or less severity, and
entailing considerable loss in some lo
calities. The summer was uniformly
warm an excessively wet. The au
tumn warm, dry and favorable for har
vesting and abundant crops that the
season and the labor of the husband
J. W. Bauer,
DESTRUCTIVE PR AIRIE FIRES.
Five Thousand Head of Cattle Doomed
to Death. Serious Situation.
A prairie fire, probably started by a
spark from a locomotive, has burned
over thousands of acres of grassy lands
between Kiowi and Bijou creeks in
Morgan county, Col., and destroyed
thousands of tons of hay.
Ranchman W. C. Miller and his wife
and child had a narrow escape fro~m
being burned to death. The womani
and the child were badly burned. Had
it not been for the prompt work of the
railroad men and others at Corona, the
town would have been entirely destroy
ed. Going toward the approaching fire
for a mile back fires were started and
in this manner the danger averted.
Thousands of head of cattle are threat
ened with destruction by the forest
In Eagle county. where the flames
seem to be spreading more rapidly
than in other sections of the State,
ranch property has been burned and
the farmers with their stock have been
trying to get out of the path of the
fires for a week past. One large bunch
of about 5,000 head of cattle is now en
tirely surrounded by fire and there is
no chance for them to escape. The re
port came from Deputy G ame Warden
Slaughter, who directed his letter two
days ago. It is probable that the cat
tie have been destroyed by this time.
Dispatches form various points in
the forest fire district indicate that the
fires are spreadinlg, ahd that unless
something is done to check their fur
ther progress the loss will be almost
beyond estimation. Some mining camps
are threatened with destruction and
many ranches :.re doomed.
At Redeliff the fires are within 10
miles of the town and citizens are or
ganizing to fight their advance. A dis
patch states that it is feared that the
little mining settlement at Holy Cross
near Red Cliff has been destroyed.
Communication is cut off the mail car
rier being unable to get through.
Diseases of Cattle.
Veterinary Surgeon Neeson. of
Clemson college, has written a long
letter to Governor Ellerbe in reference
to diseases of cattle in the state. lie
uays that it will be necessary to hax e
an assistant if the business is to be
properly attended to. These letters
have been sent to Washington withi the
covernor's recommendation that the
additional surgeon be allowed. This
department of Clemson- college has
done much good work heretofore and
the state authorities hope the govern
ment u ill send the additional surgeon.
The fliialGazette at Havana
Cpt.lised. lace Thursdayvsigned by
September 2'7. granting pardon to and
ordering the release of all political
prisoners nowv undergoing confinement
in th isand.
BATTLE OF MANILA.
A Retired French Naval Officer's
Observation About It.
THE SPANIARDS NO GOOD.
They are Dreamers and Dwell In
the Past. The Marksman
ship of the Americans
The Courier des Etats-Unis is pub
lishing a series of letters from Manila.
one of which gives an account of the
battle of Cavite by a retired French
naval officer who lived for a long time
in the Philippine islands. and whose
country house was situated between
Cavite and Manila. The views of the
Frenchman are interesting, especially
because they seem utterly devoid of all
"Now. monsieur." asked the corres
pondent. 'since your house was so
near the scene of the battle. be good
enough to tell us what the affair looked
"Well. I will tell you the thing sim
ply and just as it occurred. At 5 o'clock
that morning I was in bed. I heard a
long, dull sound. I thought that it
was a signal announcing the arrival of
a French or an English vessel. My
wife awoke and asked. 'What is that?'
'It is simply a signal.' said I. Two
minutes afterward there was another
cannon shot. 'Hello! What's this?'
said I. 'Is it something serious? That
certainly can't be a signal.' I jumped
up and looked out of the window. I
could see nothing but a little curtain
of fog and a little smoke. Then. to
frighten my wife with what I believed
was a little practical joke. I shouted.
'The American fleet!' I looked out
again. The fog was gone. and. sure
enough. I counted seven American
ships in line. They were advancing
very slowly. I came back to my wife
and said: 'Well, now, let me tell you
that what I said to you a moment ago
by way of a joke was really a fact.
Here the Americans are!' She almost
lost her head with fear. 'None of that,'
said I. 'Cover your head in the bed
clothes and put cotton in your ears if
you want to. but keep quiet.'
"I watched the fleet. It was advan
cing upon Cavite. where all the Span
ish boats were heaped together like
mice in a trap. The Americans were
soon upon them and opened a terrible
fire. They manoeuvred for a while and
finally placed themselves two by two.
the two largest in the rear. and the
others in front. two at the right, two
at the left. all facing the Spaniards.
At 7:30 there was not a single Spanish
vessel afloat; all were either sunk or
burned. The fire of the Americans
was excellent, indeed, wonderful. Each
shot hit the mark. I could see the
smoke and the cloud of dust when a
projectile fell on shore. It was a mag
nificent piece of firing practice."
"But didn't the batteries fire?"
"Oh, yes, the battery at Cavite fired
a few shots, but it was quickly deinol
ished by the shells of the Americans.
It was absolutely reduced to cinders.
1 admired greatly the accuracy of the
American shooting. As I said, every
shot seemed to hit the mark."
"Now, tell us about the protestations
that were made by the consular corps,
and especially by the German consul,
in regard to some broken promises."
"There were no protestations. The
Spaniards came to the French consul
and protested to him on the day of the
battle. I was there at the time. They
were excited and shouted out: 'Senor
consul! Senor consul! They fired at us
with shells that burst!' It was I who
replied to them: 'Ah! shells that
burst!" I exclaimed. 'Did you Span
iards protest in 1870 when Strasburg,
Belfort and Paris were bombarded with
shells that burst? And even two
mouths ago, when you massacred a lot
of insurgents, it was also with shells
that burst!" But that is the way al
ways with these Spaniards. They are
proud, valiant and stubborn, but they
live in 1550 or ray 1610. They have
not changed one bit since then. Chas.
V., Cortez and Legazpi arc the only
heroes they speak of. They do not
seem to know that a great many new
things have been introduced since that
time, among others, shells, new pow
ders, machines, electricity, etc."
"Now, monsieur, do you believe that
with the wise administration of a far
seeing and cultivated nation the Phil
ippines would be a valuable colony?"
"Marvelous, perfectly marvelous! In
the Philippines there are untold riches
and their situation is perfectly unique.
Among other things there are sugar,
hemp, rice and an incalculable quanti
ty of precious woods. And to all these
must be added coffee. tobacco and the
mines. In fact, the subsoil is worth
gold, but it has~ never bcen exploited."
"Have the natives really suffered
much from the Spaniards?"
"Oh, yes. very much; that is incon
testable. The Spaniards never did any
thing~ for themn. .Just fancy that at
Mariveles. at the entrance to the bay,
there are still cannibals. Yes, sir, can
nibals! Just think of that! They are
very gentle and they do not cause
much trouble, I will admit, but they
have a taste for human flesh all the
same, and that prop.ensity has never
been checked by the Spaniards. Thmey
go to church once in a while. and that
is all that is demanded of them."
''how comes it that the Spaniards
did nothing? Why did not the gov'er
nor risk a coup de main to recapture
Cavite and the arsenal?"
"With what? They could do noth
ing. They would have been under the
fire of the American fleet."
"But they had field pieces and it
would not rcquire very hecavy projec
tiest pire the Amecric'an ships?''
"Oyes. they had field pieces. but
they were worthless. in fact. they had
nothing to speak of. Disorder was
everywhere; thme insurgents surrounded
the town on all sides and only watched
their chance to c'apture it. The Spamn
iards found themselves threatened by
everybody. both in the town and out
sidec of' it. Now that the Spaniards are
beaten they arc busy with a problem
which. with their temnper~unent, it will
be di~ieult for them to solve. They
want to find out the cause of their die
feat and they seek for it everywhere
except in themsel-:es. And yet that is
just where it is."
FLEEING FOR THEIR LIVES.
A Mighty Sea of Fire Sweeps Every
thing Before it.
A dispatch from Idaho Springs, Col
orado, say fearful forest fires are raging
on the west side of the divide. They
are beyond control and the people are
fleeing for their lives. How many. if
any. have perished -cannot be known as
there is no way of getting direct infor
mation. Light breezes gives the migh
ty sea of fire new impetus and onward
it goes, burning everything before it.
with no chance for life, stock or pro
perty. Cattle are known to be perish
ing and bears. deer and other wild ani
mals are rushing to the east side of the
divide. The damage will be tremend
ous. The timber losses amount to more
than any money consideration. These
forests cover the hol waters of the
mountain streams where the snow re
main for many months. From such
source streams have been kept carrying
volumes of water sufficient to irrigate
most of the lands of the State west of
the divide. With the disappearance of
the timber the flow of the streams will
be materially lessened. There seems
to be a settled opinion among the
ranchers that these fires were started
by the Indians with a malicious intent.
They say the forcible ejection of the
Indians and there return to the reser
vation more than a year ago because of
their slaughter of game has made them
bitter against the whites.
The forest fires which have been
burning in various places throughout
western Wisconsin for the past few
days were fanned into furious storms of
flame by winds and did great damage in
Chippewa, Dunn, St. Croix and Polk
counties. A general destruction of
telegraph wires make the reports very
incomplete, but it seems that the vil
lages of Clayton, Alamena and Poskin
have been wholly or kartly destroyed,
that Cumberland has suffered heavy
losses and that Glenwood, Barron,
Prentice, Phillips and Turtle Lake
were saved only by great efforts. Re
ports of loss of life are coming in, but
have not been verified except in one
instance. A railroad bridge and trestle
over 700 feet long on the Soo Line,
west of Barron, was burned last night
and trains are running by another route.
Fires have been checked in places by
rains and the subsidence of the winds.
A rough estimate places the aggregate
loss at from $3,000,000 to $5,000,000.
Reports from the western portion of
Colorado continue to tell of the ravages
of the forest fires, which bid fair to
devastate the greater part of the forests
of the State. A special fr3m Glenwood
Springs, the centre of the burning dis
trict, says: "The fires in the moun
tains near here have taken fresh life
today owing to high winds. The sun
has been nearly obscured, all day the
atmosphere was heavy with smoke.
The fire east of Glenwood Springs is
fortunately in an unsettled part of the
country and aside from the immense
loss by the burning of timber, no loss
has occurred up to the present time.
"The stock on the ranges, as far as
heard from, has escaped the fire." A
special to the News from Kokomo,
Colo., says: "Forest fires are raging on
every hand here. Sheep mountain, on
the north side, is a mass of flames,
which are within a quarter of a mile
of this camp. Great apprehension is
felt here for the safety of the town."
R.ECONCENTRADOS ALL DEAD.
So Spoke the Secretary General of
Cuba in New York.
Among the passengers who arrived
Wednesday at New York on the steamer
Washington from Havana was Dr. Jose
Congosto Secretary-General of Cuba
Dr. Congosto said the problem of the
future of the island is a difficult one
and I have studied it without prejudice,
and as a result of this study of years I
believe that it is a social problem and
not a political one. Of course, politics
will enter into the solution, but the
question is how to bring the most pros
perity and the greatest happiness to the
people of Cuba."
Dr. Congosto was asked as to the con
dition of the reconcentrados.
"There are no reconcentrados now"
he answered with a smile.
"What has become of them?" was
"They are gone."
"God knows," was the reply.
"Do you mean to say they are all
"That explains it better than I can.
It is a subject which I p)refer not to
"When asked as to the establishment
of a new navy for Spain, Dr. Congosto
said: "Spain is still a great country,
and she ought to have a great navy--and
Discussing the fall of Sanitiago and
the surrender of Gen. Toral Dr. Con
gosto said: "There were brave soldiers
at Santiago, and if their leader lacked
courage he deserves to be punished.
Santiago should not have fallen as it
did, and if Toral had never entered into
negotiations with the enemy it is like
ly that there would have been a differ
ent story to tell today. It is not true
that the Spanish army there lacked sup
plies and ammunition, for they had
plenty of both whichi they' turned
over to the Americans. If Toral had
p~ushed forward instead of -:etreating to
ward the city, he certai ny would have
caused a replsle. These are things
which he will have to exulain. "
A Perilous Trip.
Th'ie United States transport MIassa
chusetts. Captain Robinson, which
sailed from Santiago September 23. ar
rivecd at New York Wednesday and
proceeded to anchorage off Liberty
island. While at Santiago the coal in
the 31assachusetts' bunkers took fire.
and it was necessary to jettison 100)
tons. A portion of this coal was taken
oni board again. On gon to sea the
fire again broke out in the fire hunkers
and smoldered for three days. It was
finally extinguished by the use of' steam.
and the steamer reached port without
further i ncident. __
A Georgia Tragedy.
.\ sp'uial from W~\ayeross. Ga.. says:
U pritt Lanier'. se: of 8. E'. Lanier, w~as
kile bI re: early Frida'y mn ainag by:
S:ott Veatonz. Lier' went to Iktton's
st re. andt. it is said. t hr'atenedI and
cursed him. whereupon Beaton got a
revolver and shot Lanier. Beaton sur'
rendered. The coroner's inquest is
A RACE RIOT.
Whit:s and Blacks Have a Fight
Up in Illinois.
IT TOOK PLACE AT PANA.
The Blacks Driven from the
Streets to Their Blockades by
the Strikg Union
Striking union coal miners and im
ported negroes engaged in a pitched
battle in the Main street of Pana. Ill.,
Wednesday night. Several hundred
shots were exchanged.
No one was wounded in the ranks of
the union men. The negroes were
driven from the city to their stockades,
carrying with them, it is believed, a
number of wounded comrades. One of
the negroes is reported to have died
soon after reaching the stockade. Des
ultory firing continues at midnight in
the vicinity of the stockades.
The trouble. which has been narrow
ly averted between the striking coal
miners of this city and negroes import
ed from the South to work the mines,
was precipitated at 8:30 o'clock Wed
As usual, the negroes from the stock
ades at the Springside and Penwell
mines were making demonstrations on
S-cond and Locust streets, the princi
cal streets of the city. by parading
heavily armed. The union miners were
in session at their hall, where a Chica
go labor leader was speaking. One of
the negroes appeared at the foot of the
miners' hall and engaged in a quarrel
with a union white miner. Officer
Samuel Smith immediately arrested the
black man and was escorting him to
jail when he was closed in by a posse
of negroes. who, pointing their revolv
ers at Smith, threatened to kill him if
he did not release the prisoner. Smith
continued on his way to jail with the
man. Union miners and others mean
while went to Smith's assistance and
the negroes were driven back. Smith
took his prisoner to Operator George
V. Penwell's store, and upon Penwell's
standing for the negro's fine, he was
Before Smith had released the pris
oner, however, the negro posse had
been reinforced and assumed a threat
ening attitude toward the white men.
David MeGavic. leader of the union
miners, clubbed one of the blacks over
over the head with a revolver, it is
said. For half a block MeGavie forced
the negroes to retreat and then a few
shots were fired. The negroes retreat
ed double quick to their stockades, se
cured rifles, returned to Locust street
and ehallenged the miners to fight.
The opposing forces lined up the street,
the negroes with Winchesters and the
miners with shotguns, rifles and re
volvers. Neighboring business houses
were immediately closed, lights extin
guished and citizens generally sought
their homes. At the word of command
firing commenced. The first volley, it
is said. came from the negroes. The
union men responded with a volley and
heavy firing continued for five minutes.
Much of the shooting was wild and en
tirely harmless to the white men, who
finally drove their enemies in full re
treat to the stockades. The negroes
are thought to have carried several
men with them, and one is reported
A second encounter between whites
and blacks occurred 20 minutes &fter
the first battle, near the Penwell stock
ade. but the firing was scattered and
it is not believed to have been a seri
ous engagement. The miners had full
charge of the business streets at mid
night. Desultory rifle reports could be
heard from the Penwell and Springside
stockades, but no person would ven
ture into the streets near the mines,
and very few are loitering about the
business or residence sections.
The union miners say the battle of
Wednesday night is only a foretaste of
what may be expected to follow. They
blame Operator Penwell for the trouble
and say they will tomorrow swear out
warrants charging him with inciting
Wednesday night's riot. Gov. Tanner
will be asked to send militia to protect
property. and to remove the negroes.
An interesting case came before a
Buffalo court the other day. It was
based upon one woman's remark about
another. "She uses pads to fill out her
figure and make the boys think she's a
stunner."' the defendant is alleged to
have said of the plaintiff. The law
presumes a defendant to be innocent
till proven guilty. The onus of the
burdent of proof, therefore, was upon
the plaintiff to show that she did not
use pads, and the defendant had slan
dered her. The jury was largely com
posed of unmarried men, whose igno
rance of feminine make-ups peculiarly
fitted them for rendering impartial
judgement. After voluminous testi
mony. vigorous cross examinations and
many explanations, the jury returned
a scaled verdict.
Fatal Powder EXplOSion.
An explosion of powder Wednesday
in the rear of the four story building
at 410 North Front street, St. Louis,
occupied by C. & W. MIcLean, fishing
tackle and sporting goods, set the store
on f&e and caused its destruction and
resu!ted in the death of Pauline Bru
der u-d the fatal injury of Florence
iUighbee. A number of other people
were more or less hurt. The loss will
probably amount to $100,000. Partly
covered by insurance..
Wanted toj Hold On.
A dispatch froam Santiigo de Cuba
says Senor Sanchez Garcia, one of the
Spanish judges, who was continued in
office after the capitulation until order
ed a month ago to cease performing his
magistrate functions. but who. despite
the order. has continued to try cases,
has again been ordered to cease under
penalty of arrest. A Cuban has been
appointed to succeed him.
A Neat Swindle.
31iehli: paays a bounty for the heads
of dead En "':J sparrows. It has re
eent1i: rid out over $2,000) to an Indi
ana crowd of sharpers who have killed
thie birds l- ,trowing poisoned wheat
aibout the -treets of Indiana cities.
The carcasses were- shipped to southern
Mlichigan towns, and the bounties col