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The Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, January 09, 1901, Image 4

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063760/1901-01-09/ed-1/seq-4/

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TIIE WILT DISEASE.
Some Interesting'Facts About the
New Cotton 8bght.
OF INTEREST TO FARMERS
Invstigation of the Blight In
South Carolina Fields by
the United States
Government.
The United States Department of
Agriculture has just publihed, as bul
letin No. 27 of the Division of Vegeta
ble Physiology and Pathogy. the re
port of W. A. O:ton as=ociate rathoh,
gist of the division, oa the s1 et of
the wilt disease of co::?n, a hiet:t that
has wrought grea: ha.::- in the sea
island cotton fi'ds and has attacked
some upland cotton districts in South
Carolina. Mr. O:ton and ):. E:win
F. Smith, whose report on the same
subjot is referred to in this latest bul
letin, visited this section last year and
spent considerable time in studying the
disease and searching for a remedy.
The report is accompanied by several
plates showing the eff.ot of the disease
oa fields of cotton it has attacked.
Mr. Orton says the wilt disease is
now known to occur on the coast of
South Carolina, where it attacks the
fine sea island cotton, and at Dillion,
Salters, and other places in the same
State, where it attacks upland cotton.
Prof. F. S. Earle, of the State ex
periment station, reports it to be wide
ly distributed in Alabama, particularly
in the southern part, and states that it
is undoubtedly growitg worse from
year to year. It has been reported
from many localities in Geor.ia, and is
known to occur in Florida and Arkan
sas. It is certain that this dis ase is
widely distributed through the S ,uth
era States, and it is probable that it
occurs in many places where it has not
yet been distinguished from oth-r trou
bles, such as "rust" and the effects of
lightning.
The annual loss from the wilt disease
is vy considerable. It is more keen
ly feit by the individual planters than
most cotton troubles, because the dis
ease remains in the soil and gross
worse, wth eaca succeeding crop O2
the sea islands of South Carolina alone
a careful estimate indicates that nearly,
if not quite, one-third of the land
planted to high-grade cotton is affected
by this disease, the larger portion of it
so badly that it is no longer profitable
to plant it in cotton. The loss to the
planters of upland cotton in areas af
feoted and the disease is spreading rap
tionally great. On one farm in Dillon,
8. C., wnere the department has been
conducting some experinents, fifteen
acres of fine land are already affected
and the disease is spreading rapidly on
this and acjoining plantations.
The importance of the disease, how
ever, does not lie so much in the
.amount of the present loss as in the
danger of its fture ineres-e. for it must
ultimately spread so muern as to entai
far greater losses and poriz'ly threaten
the life of the industry unles.s the
methods for its co:.trol are perfecte-d.
The wilt is very distinct from any
other disease of cotton, so that there
need be no difficulty in its identiica.
tion. It usumty makes it first appear
ance in the spring about the last of Mlay,
when the pants are six to eight inches
high. lIt appears in well ddined areas,
which enlarge if cotton is planted on
tne same land again. The fir~t outwardi
indication of its presence is a dwarfe~d
growth and ushesitby appearance ot
the plants. The leaves turn yellow be
tween the veins, their margins shrivcl
up, and some plants wilt and die at once.
In other plants the progress of the
disease is often slow, and many of them
live the entire summr.er andi die late in
the season. On cutting across the stem
of a diseased plant, the woody part
will be found to be stained brown
wherever the disease is present. In the
absence of micro scopic examinations.
this brown discoloration of the internal
* tissue is the best ocular evidence of the
presence of the wilt disease. Piants
may partially recover from a severe at
tack of the wiit disease by the develay
-ment of strong lateral branches near
the ground. Such plaa.ts may be dis
tinguished by theix dwarfed and bushy
appearance and by the tendency of their
branches to lie prostrate on the ground.
The cause of the wilt disease of cot
ton is a fungus, neocosmospara vasin
fecta (Atk ) Erw. Sm , which attacks
the plants fromn the soil. I first enters
the smaller roots and subs. quently
grows from these into the laprovt and
stem, fillung the water ducts with itb
myedtum. The resuit is that the sup
ply of food and moi-ture carried up
from the roots is greatly decrea~ea ane
the symptoms deteribed above are tra
duced. The nature of tn~e fungus ntas
been fully ducaussed in bulietin No. 17
of this aivision, and it witi not ce ne
cessary to enter into detals here, but
only to outline the subjci and to re
cord some aeditions to v..r k~lowledge.
The progress of the diaease is alwais
slow as compared with that of other
plant diseases. The pertod of incubha
tion, or the time elasig after the
young seedling is txposee. to the at
tacks of the fungus aid before the dis
ease becomes manilent, is usually at
least fory das s and efsen muen longer
Much depends on the it asidual plant
itaelf. *lie coAditicas which f..vor the
* progress of L e iuotus througr tne plant
are not iuas undertood, out from some
observattous tuat have been umade it is
belheved tnat lhighly fertilized plants,
growiny vigoruuly, succumb more
poorer than those which have grown on
readlily soil.
In the early history of the wilt dis
ease the cause wa, supposed by the
planters to be the txcessive appslica
tions or injudicious uce of con.?ercial
* fertihiers, ania many of the leading
planters in th~e sea islands made care
ful experiments with v..rious meddi
cations of their ferui.zes, such as the
use of marl, sal. mud, kaznit, and lime,
and the increase or ceceess of the
proportions ef Lro:.phtorie acia and pot
ash. Mr. W. 1W kliaon of James 121
and, South Carolina, a very success
- ft planter, has informend the writ- r
that the result of all these trials has
been to cotnviznce th~ose who maae themi
that the disease can not be controlleai
by any chan-ges in their sy stem of fer
tikzing. '1 he wit dicease occurs in so
many widely sepacie lities and
* under such varica cauurai cond:tions
that it is not probtable that any errors
in the agricultural praetice are the
primary cause of the troujme, although
the pianting of coun ><ar after y ear
on the samte iand a:. the eoaai.on prac
tice of Non- u-eeir tne :ast b ear s
stems in ireparirag tneo gruid in the
spring butL tendl to hastesth pra
of the wilt fungus after i:.LaS onice
been introducca.
The effect of repea:cd i e-tim)s of
the small roots or the c n . if s very
a e somewhat resistant to the disease.
Small u'ts of roots grow from each
point of infection, doubtless on account
of some stimulus exerted by the fun
g.Several short roots will thus
start from a place which would normal
ly have produced one longer branch.
Many of th',;:e little roots are killed
by the fungus and others grow in their
places, so that the tufted appearance
of the rootlets is more pronounced late
i2 the season. The same result has
been produced in the laboratory by in
oculating seedling cotton plants with
pure cultures of the c~tt~n-wilt fun
gus. Similar root tufts are found as
sociated with the wilt diseases of okra,
oowpea, watermelon and cabbage, and
they are believed to be characteristic of
this class of root diseases.
In the case of cotton their presence
:n the roots demonstrates the presence
of the wilt fungus in the soil, even
when the amount is so small that no
harm is visible aside from the reduced
growth of the plants. This dwarfing
of the plants is due to the kiling of the
small roots and is often visible over a
considerable area surrounding a badly
infected spot. For this reason the loss
in vield on such a field is much greater
than would appear simply from a con
sideration .f the badly diseased areas,
as the dwarfing due to the injaring of
the small roots considerably curtails the
yield.
Since the publication of bulletin No
17, the wilt disease has been produced
in healthy cotton plants by inoculating
the soil in which they grew with pure
cultures of conidial stages of ueocos
mosporavas infecta. This removes any
acaotas to the casualrelation of thefun
gus to the diseasewhich might arise from
the failure of the previous inoculation
experiments. Tne plants were grown
for a few weeks in pots, and then a
smali quantity of fungus from a pare
cultuture was placed in the bottom of
each one. Eight days later they were
transplanted to open ground. The first
case appeared after about thirty-five
days. Fourteen out of twenty-four
p:ants contracted the disease. The fun
gus was asundant in the vascular bun
ales of seven plants and they showed
all the other symptoms of the disease.
'he other seven infected plants were
only slightly diseased, although the fun
gus was found in the vessels of the
stem. T he check plants, twenty-five
in number, all remainei healthy. It
will be noted that the length of time
between the inosujation of the soil and
the appearance of the disease in this ex
peritnent (thirty-five to fifty days) was
prac.ically the same as elapses in the
iAd between the germination of the
seed and the first appearance of
the disease. That a larger proportion
of the inoculations did not succeed is
believed to be due to the small amount
of fungus used and to the natural resis
tance of the plants. The cotton plant
inoculation described in bulletin No. 17
were all made in the greenhouse, and it
is now believed that the negative results
were due either to the slow growth of
the plants or to the fact that they were
naturally resistant.
Careful experiments have been made
with a large number of substances appli
ed to the soil in the hope of killing the
fungus, but all the results obtained
up to the present time indicate that
there is no hope of success in the use
of any fangicides sprayed on the plants
or applied to the soil.
Fields uniformly infected with wilt
disease were selected, and over twenty
different substances were applied in
amounts as large as it was thought safe
to use. In many cases the expense of
their application in such quantities was
so great as to make their use impracrible
had they proved efficacious. In other
eases, as in the use of materials sontain
ing cpper, continued applications in
,u h large q-iatities would be likely to
in j ire the soil.
TR&OIC SCENES.
Three Men Killed, One Being the
Sheriff, in Abbeville.
Saturday December 30, as a result of
drunken man's spleen and malice, three
men were killed, one of whom was the
sheriff of the county. Nine o'clock
that night in the office of the Mil
er hotel, several gentlemen were hav
ing a social game of cards. 02e of the
players was William Kyle, a northerner
who has been superintending the build
ing of the addition to the Abbeville
cotton mille. While the game was in
progress John Dansby, a somewhat no
orious character, entered the room. He
was drinking and in quarrelsome mood
It is said that he had a difficulty with
Kyle in the afternoon. In a few mo
ments Dansby managed to have some'
words with Kyle and applied a vile
e~pitet to him.
Aesording to the story of witnesses
K.Ie gatup fromn his chair and rins
rateI witu Dan-by, but without miak
ing any demxonstration of violence
Dansoy drew his pistol, a 45-calibr<
oits, and when a bystander grabbec
his arm he quickly changed the gun too
the other hand and fired, the ball strik
ing K,le in the abdomen. The shooting
occ~red s) q iickly taat those present
hardly realized wbat had happened.
Dansby then backed out of the room,
deciaring he would shoot any man who
attempted to stop him, and started to
the home of his father-in-law, Tom
Creswell, who lhves nianr the cotton
The news of the Ehooting quickly
pread, and Policemen Johnson and
Baen started in pursuit of the murder
er. They overtook him near Cresswell's
house, but Dans by stopped them witb
his pistol and said he weuld shoot if
they advanced. The police then went
to a nea:o5y house and telephoned up
town for assistance.
In a short time Sheriff R. L. Ken
nedy with several citizens responded
to the summons. They surrounded the
house, the policemen being stationed
at the windows an.i Kennedy going to
the front door. Kennedy called to
Das by to come out and surrender.
Dansby came ont, clocing the door
behind him, and with the remarks
" Wel, we'il go to hell together," com
mnced firirig. Dansby was shot twice,
one in the leg and once full in the
hst. Kennedy was struck once in
the left breast near the heart. Both men
emped their pistols Kennedy fell as
soon as he was hit, but Dansby walked
soe 5U steps and was reloading his
pstol when one of the policemen ran
up and grabbed him and took the gun
ot.t of his band. Several others of the
prty were firing at Dansby at the time
a.d tnere is some uncertainty as to who
fired the shots that struck him, but it
is thought that they were fired by Ken
nedy.
Handcuffs were placed on Dansby
ard he was carried to the jail, but died
soon after reaching there, about an
our after the shooting He did not
o-sak after being shot. Kennedy was
earra to the jail and expired within a
e- 4 :nnutes at ter Dansby. Kyle, who
was first shot, lived until 2 o'clock
T UBOARD OFHE &LT
Will Insist on Some Change in the
Health Lawa.
The State board of health held its
annual meeting here Thursday in the
odice of the secretary of state, all the
memibcrs being present save Attorney
General Bellinger, who is confined to
his bed by sickness.
The session-was quite a long one and
many matters of vital concern to the
people of the State were fully and
thoroughly discussed preliminary to
the approval of the annual report. The
report was finally cempleted in all de
tails and in the afternoon was sent to
the State printer. rho board will make
several recommendations to the legis
lature and will insist upon certain
changes in the health laws that are
deemed absolutely necessary to the
effilient working of the State board of
health.
The smallpox situation was very
fully discussed, Dr. Evans the secre
tary giving very much the same in
formation that he had furnished, the
governor. Since then, however, the
disease has spread and is now in sev
eral additional counties. The town of
Union, Dr. Evans says, has been the
greatest and almost sole source of in
fection dating the year. Tae S:ate
board cannot take charge in an incor
porated town without a - proclamation
from the governor. The board holds
that if it is to ba expected to stamp out
contagious and infectious diseases it is
absolutely necessary for the legislature
to give it absolute jurisdiction over tae
State. This is earnestly urged upon
the body.
The board feels also that a registra
tion law enabling it to obtain otrth,
marriage and death statistics from the
towns and cities, indeed the entire
State, is very essential t. its work. The
present law is not working satisfacto
rily. Fir instance no birta statistics
are obtainable frcm Columbia as things
stand. The board wili present a r.emo
,ial to the general assemoly to pass an
act requiring such statistics, providing
a heavy penalty for paysicians fairing
to fife reports with proper officials, mat
tag the county supervisor county
health uffioer and the road commission
ers townsnip health officers.
The meeting Wednesday also devel
oped the fact that .he new act relating
to the transportation of dead bodies,
which is the same in other States, is not
oeing enforced as it snousd be. Tne
matter wish instances cited has been
referred to the attorney general for
alt consideration and such steps as he
may deem necessary.
The report prepared, though incom
plete insofar as statistics are concerned,
wilt be full of interesting matter.
Columbia State.
TALK WITH MARS
Nicola Teala Thinks Ke Has Found a
Twentieth Century Secret.
Not quite two years ago Mr. Nicola
Tesla, went out to Colorado to conduct
experiments in relation to the wirless
transmission of energy which has en
gaged nis attenti'on for several years.
Mr. Tesla found it necessary in order
to carry on his inventions and his ex
periments to the extent he desired to
work at an altitude of several thousand
feet. He found c -nditions suitable for
his purposes in Coloraso and went out
there in the spring of 1899, built a la
oratory about ten miles Irom Pike Peak
and went to work.
What he accomplished in the eight
or nine months while he was working
there he has kept pretty much to hiur
self ever since, but when the National
Bed Cross which was arranging for
ine end of the century meetings of its
various branches enroughout the coun
try abked Mr. Tesla to indicate what
in his opinion, would be one of the
greatest achievements of the coming
century, he gave just a hint of one oz
the wonders he discovered in Colorado.
In a more elaborate way Mr. Tesla
dwelt on his work to a reporter. He re
gards his latest results as far and away
the most important he has ever attain
ed. Briefly, Tesia has beo able to note
a novel manifestation of energy which
he knows is not of solar of terrestrial
urigin and, being neither, he concludes
that it must emanate from one of the
planets. Wnile' he was conduc ing hib
inventions in his Colorado laorat-.ry
one day, the instrument he was using
to observe the electrical candition of
tne earth was affected in an unaccoun
able manner. Is recorded .hree distinct
crhougti very faint movrements one after
the oth r.
These movements were observed not
cnce, but many times, the numoer of
impulses varying, and Mr. Tesla now
trmly believes that, with improved
apparatus, it will be quite possible for
she peopie of tue eanin to com.nunicate
with the innabitants of other planets.
Damages For Lynching.
Among the ren.e lies for lynching
.hat hate been proposed us one teat
to.d. the county in which the ly nihing
occs liable for dam &ges to the neirs
of the person iyoched. 8.uth Carolina
and Onio has embodied this plan in a
1tatute, bus it has proved a dead letter.
['wo suits have been broughut under it.
and in neither was there a recovery.
Bat in one ins acace damages have been
paid for a lynching. 'Tho case was that
of a man who was lynched at V'ersille.,
Ind., for horse steasing. His widw en
tered suit for $5,000 in the Unitcd
States cirsut court at Unicago against
the bondsmen of the sheriff of the
eounty where the l1 sching occured. The
bondsmen effered $4.000 as a coaapro
mise and it was accepted. This is the
frst instance of the kind on recori.
1'he question as ti the ja~risdiction of
federal courts in cases of lynching is
not affected by this case, as it never
came to trial. It is safe to say that had
it been called it would have been thrown
out of court as no theory of federal
jurisdiction that we are aware of wouid
sustain much an action.
Philippine Foreign Trade.
The value of merchandise imported
into the Philippine Islands for the 11
months ended May 31, 1900, is placed
a' $18 290,698; of gold and silver. $1
86310, making a total of $20 196 933
Tee imports from the United States
were valued at $1,450 807. Tne value
of exports for the period named amount
ed to $19.459,003-$17.634,391 in mer
chandise and $1 824.612 in gold and
silver. The value of sne export s to the
United States is set down at $3,594 577.
A total of 69 644 tons of Manila he mp,
valued at $10,582,173, was exported
during the period stated, $3,4zj5 808
worth being shipped to the United
States.
A Bold Attack.
Sadie Hudson, aged nineteen years,
of Washington, Pa., was attacked in her
father's yard by an unknown white
man Friday evening The girl struggled
desperately, but her assailant slipped
a gag into her mouth and bound her
hands behind her back. Hecr father
heard the struggle and hurried out, The
COUGH UP
Said a Bold Highwaym in to a Drum
m it
The mail stage bound for the health
resort at Harrison Hot Springs was held
up at noon Wednesday, -six miles out
of Agassiz, by three robbers. This
place is about sixty miles from Van
couver, B. C. There were nine passen
gers in the coach one of whom was a
woman. All the robbers wore black
masks. 0 2e of them grasped the horses
bridles, while the others covered the
occupants of the coach with riff-s.
There were a dozen mail sacks in the
ecaich and the driver was told to put
these out on the ground.
"Now, if you will please step down
and line up, we won't keep you wait
ing long " politely remarked the tall
est bandit, and the frightened passen
gers obeyed. They held up their hands
and two of the robbers quickly and sy
stematically emptied their pockets.
The woman was poor. Her clothes
were shabby ani her purse-contained
only 65 cents. This the dashing leader
of the highwaymen returned to her
with an added $5 gold piece taken
from the pocket of a commercial trav
eler.
"Madame," he said, "We do not rob
hen roosts. If you will kindly accept
this with our compliments we shall
be really indebted to you. Allow us to
wish you a very happy New Year."
The passengers in all contributed
$2 720 in cash, besides watches, rings,
a diamond stud, and gold sleeve hut
tons. The commercial traveler at first
yielded only about $18, but the stage
robbers were dissatitfied with this
sum and accused him of bad faith.
"You're holding out on us, partner"
said the leader. "Now, if you do ntt
cough up in just thirty second, we will
pump you so full of lead that you will
never know what struck you."
The salesman tremblingly told about
a belt with money. The leader of the
robbers, after apologising to the wo
man for his necessary action, removed
the commercial travelers coast and vest
and triumphantly produced a belt con
taming $2,5900 in gol i coin.
Whitewash for farm Buildings.
Nothing adds so much to the ap
pearance of farm buildings as brigat
and unchanging colors. It costs a
great deal to keep houses and barns
painted, but it is well worth the money,
not merely because of the increased
durability, but because of the improved
appearance. Nothing spells prosperity
in such fair letters, written large, as
well painted farm buildings. Paint,
however, is dear, and for a long time
farmers who desire to keep things in
first-class shape have been looking for
a cheap paint or a whitewash that will
stand the weather and not become in
stead of a clear white a dirty drab in
a few weeks or months. The United
States government has been looking af
ter this, as it does after almost every
thing touching farm life, and has hit
upon a whitewash for its lighthouses
which should stand rough conditions.
We give the receipt as follows: "Take
a half bushel of unslacred lime, slack
it with boiling water, cover during the
process to keep in steam, strain the
liquid through a fine sieve or strainer,
and add to it a peck of salt, previously
dissolved in warm water; three pounds
of groundrice boiled to a thin paste and
stirred in while hot; half a pound
Spanish whiting and one pound of glue
previously dissolved by soaking in cohd
water, and then hanging over the fire
in a small pot hung in a larger one filled
with water, add five gallons of hot water
to the mixture, stir well and let it stand
a few days covered from dirt. It
should be applied hot, fer wbich pur
pose it can De kept in a portable furn
ace." There is nothing in the above
that is not within the reach of every
reader. He can buy the material, ex
cept possibly the ground rice, and he
can buy that and have it ground in the
coffee mill or with his o wn farm mill.
can do all the mixing, and apply it, and
naing applied it to one building he
can soon determine whether he wants
to go around oe farm and make his
farm the envy of all observers. The
ast end of the President's house in
Washing on is emoellished with this
whtewash, and if it is good enough for
te Woite House it is g~od enough fur
any body else's house or barn. A pint
of this mixture will cover a square yarn
and is said to be almost as serviceable
as paint for wood, brick or stone, and
there is no paint known that will egual
it in cheapness. Why not try it?
alace's Farmer.
S.-me Good Aavice.
Before the tater.tate Cotton Growers'
Aws c.ation at Macon, Ga , rtcently,
vir P,,pe IBcown, President of the Geor
gia Agicutural Society, discussing the
cottun prornem said: "f wo y ears ago
we started a wheat movement. Thie
result was that huudreds of thousanes
of busbels of wheat has stnce been rais
ed in this State It has put hucjdreds
- thiousands of dollars into the packets
)f the farmers. How can we ceapen
the coat of the pr~.duction of cotton or
raise the price of it? We have got to
do one or the other. Tbe man who
does the plowing is entitled to a good
living. Land is cheap. The farme~r
can raise his mule cheaper than he can
oy him, h. can raise hi5 flour cheaper,
his meat e aeaper. The Southern f arm
er has nut done his duty until he feeds
his fauail, by his own labjr, nor until
he has produceoi the fot d for city people
and s;op'ped the importation of every
necesity of life into this section."
Were c tton growers' c.,nventions
irng forth such praet cal atvice as this
they do god. It is aay es whic1i has
been given for sev..ral year-, and which
has been aiopted htre and there with
ben ccfietal results to the adopters, what
ever the efif css may have been upon
those persnas who failed to follow it
te question of the profitable prise of
OAton retts, afterall upon the indivi
dual grower.
Lynched by Negroes.
A special from Q iitmzan, Ga., says:
A Negro, who~e nawe cannot be learned
was l.ynched by a mob of his own color
Weneesday night nine miles north of
Q tman, for assausting a small Negro
girl. Bail.ff Pace, of thia county, had
the Negro in charge and was making
his way here. When about to board a
train near Kennedy, a mob of Negroes
who were on the train, prevented him
from doing so, and taking the prisoner,
shot him, with no attempt at conceal
ment of their crime.
VHERE? OiH, V HEE?-The prin
ters auliars-where are they? asks the
Palmetto Post. A dollar here and a
dollar there, scattered over numerouse
s~all towns, miles and mi es apart.
How shall they be gathered in? Come
home! You are wanted! Come in sin
gle file that we may send you out sp.in
to battle for us and vindicate our credit.
Reader, are you sure you have not one
of the printer's dollars sticking to the
bottom of your trousers? Feel down
and see if we are right. If you find it
ndn ithome.
SPLENDID HEGINING.
Autombile Company and Knitting Mill
Among Concerns.
The new century starts off with a
large number of new enterprises desir
ing incorporation. Commissionis and
charters were being rapidly made out in
the office of the secretary of state Tues
day despite the fact the day was
supposed to be a holiday.
First came the commission to the
South Carolina Automobile company
of Columbia, capitalized at $10,000,
proposing to operate a number of elee
trio carriages and vehicles for hire ect.
The corportors are Wm. H. Rose, J.
Sumter Moore, E B Clark, W. H.
Lyles and W. B. Smith Whaley.
Another important new concern
commissioned was the Pee Dee Knit
ting mills of Dillon, Marion county,
with J. ?. E vino, C. S. Herring and
A. B. Jordan as corporators. The
capital stock is to be $10,000.
The Pee Dee Naval Stores company
of Dillon with $50 000 capital was char.
tered. The officers are R P. Hamer,
Jr., president, and A. F. Woods, secre
tary and treasurer.
The Wando Lumber company of
Charleston has increased its capital
stock from $7,900 to $10,583,33.
A commission was issued to the Mer
chants' and Planters' Bank of Gaffney,
with A. N. Wood, Chas. M. Smith,
C E. Wikins, R. k. Jones and W.
C. Carpenter as corporators. The capi
ta. is to be $50 000.
The Woodstock Hardwood and Spool
Manufacturing company of Woodstock.
Berkeley county, was chartered with
W. H. Welch as president and Julius
D. Koster as secretary and treasurer.
The capital is $15,000.
The Cowpens Cotton Oil company of
Conrens was chartered. The capital
is $4,000. C. B. Martin is president
ana W. B. Potter secretary and trea
surer. A commission was issued to the
Latta Supply oompany of Latta. with
E. B. Berry, L H. Smith and D. M.
Dew as crporators. Tne company la
to sell groceries and general mercan
dies, doing business on a capital of
$10,000
Ilie Crutchfield Tolleson company of
Spartanburg has increased its capital
stock from $20,000 to $50,000.
The A. M. Alexander company of
Spartanburg was granted a charter
The capital is to be $5,000 and the pur
pose of the corporation is to deal in
pianos, organs and sewing machines.
A. M. Alexander is president and tress
urer.
The J. T. Snelson Contracting com
pany of Charleston was commissioned
with Jno. T. Snelson, Norman L.
Snelson and T. Snelson of Charleston
as corporators. The capital is to be
$3, 000 and the company will do a
general contracting business in the city
of Charleston. The State.
The Warlike Boers
Whatever may be said of the relative
merits of the Boer and British causes,
it must be agreed that the world has
seldom seen such a stubborn struggle
against overwhelming odds as the Boers
are making. It was supposed that the
capture of Cronje and his army, the
flight of Kruger and the capture of
J ohannesberg and Pretoria would speed
ily end the war. But many months
have passed since these events, and
the Boers arc not only still in arms
but have achieved, in rapid succession,
a series of most remarkable victories
over a foe immensely their superior in
numbers and all sorts of military equip
ment and supplies. According to an
official report, there were in South
Africa on December 1 a British force
available for duty which numbered no
less than 210,203 men, of whom 142,
893 are regutars. The nighest estimate
of the Boer force is 15,000. This great
disparity of numbers represents by no
means the disadvantages under which
the Boers are fighting. They have no
base of cperanuns aud oniy precarious
supplies of food and ammunition. Their
weapons are inferior to those of the
British. Ana yet the Boers, thus ill
provided and scattered in small groups,
have recently struck some severe biows
and contine their wonaierful and au
daoious activity without the slightest
indication of relaxing their resistence,
hopeless as it seems. Since the begin
niag of the war the fbers have infici
ed terrible damage upon the British.
The Briuish killed to Dec. 1 numbered
3,0l8, wounded 13.886, dead from dis
ease or wounds 7,786, nict in ho-pitals
in Sou:h Africa 11,927, sick and
wounciea Isni back to Elngland 35,548.
The war has not made or added to tue
fame of a single British commander,
but it has produced two Boer generalh
wno will take bistoric rank among the
great soldiers of this generation- Gronjer
and Dewet so the Atlanta Jlournal saye
there is no teiling how long the little
Boer army wali be able to keep up its
light, for it does not yet show the slight
Lst dispsition to yield, and the Bnutsh
even with their immense army, seem
to be able to do very jittle witn it.
Making Restitution.
The wile of a Ne w York defaulter,
whose name is much in the puosi
prints, has aided in restitation to the
piuerea bank by surrendering $151),
000 worth of diamonas asd j~welry.
M1uch is being maae of her devotion in
consenting to this step, and perhap,
j istly, because she might have imitat
ed many prou~ieent examples by frecs
ing on to all that there was in eight.
While recognizing fudly the sacrifice
made by the laidy, there is a side to the
ransaction too likeiy to be overleeked,
and frem whiccn we should extract the
real lt-sonz of the case. Wnen the wife
of a $3,001) a year bank teller becomes
the recipient of $150,000 in presents, is
it not about tinme for her to inquire
into the source of all this weaJh?
Much may be granted to the want of
acquaintance with b-isiness methods
by whica a woman may be embar
rassed, but the dudlest wife in the
world knows that she can buy no grea
ter value in jewelry with a thousand
dollars than she can in potatoes and
parsnips. 'The lesson is a very simple
one, known to women as well as to men,
that livitg above one's means must be
at the expec~se tof some one else. When
a $2 a cay man invests $10 a day in a
carriage ride or when a $3,000 a year
man is able to "hold his oen'' with his
$100. 000 neighbor, it requires no spe
cial skill to came to a conclusion. Much
of human misery springs from a man s
paupering of his own appetites; it is
largely acce:erated when he has a wife
whose anxiety for first place blinds her
to the cost. It is not necessary to true
happiness to be either in the swim or on
the visiting list of those who, for the
season, lead society. The pleasure of
home and the enjoyment of the fuifil
ment of natural auties will bring less
pyrotechnicism, but a longer lease of
real happiness.
A dispatch from Pekin says Suh Hai,
the man who killed Baron von Ketteler,
the German minister to China in June
last, was beheaded Wednesday in the
presence of a large number of specta
TO CHECK TEXAS PEVER
Circular Being Sent Oat by Dr. Nesom
of Clem ion College.
The following circular of icqiiry re
garding Texas fever in cattle has just
been issued from the offiaoe of the vete
rinarian at the South Carolina experi
ment station at Clemson college:
Dear Sir: This letter is sent you in
the hope that you will assist the vete
rinarian of the experiment station in
securing some information regarding
the cattle disease known as Texas
fever.
During the past few years, this dis
ease has been prevalent in many sec
tions of this State, but since the pas
sage of the present stock law it has
become very common, especially in the
up country and in the pastures and
feeding pens of stock buyers.
Texas fever is known by a number of
names in different parts of the coun
try, but the more important of these
are splenic fever, acclimation fever,
tick fever, red water, bloody mu.rain,
bloody urine, distemper, mountain dis
temper, etc.
The symptoms are readily recognised
by anyone who has seen cattle suffer
ing from this disease At first, the
animal becomes stupid and leaves the
herd for some seculded and shady part
of the pasture. If they come up at all
at night, they usually lag behind the
herd, appear listless and droop as
though all energy had forsaken them.
The ears are dropped down, the nose
more or less dry, and rumintion (phew
ing cul) suspended. The urine is red
colored, the degree of redness var3ir g
with the in ensity of the disease. In
milk cows the flw of milk -lmost
ceases. Constipation is usually marked,
only small quantities of very dark color
ed cung being voided. The temperature
runs from 103 to 107 F. Some idea of
the fevered condition may be gotten by
inserting a finger in the corner of the
animal's mouth. All of the symptoms
increase in intensity until the animal
becomes almost or quite unconscious,
walks round in a circle, groans and
seem to suffer great pain. Then con
vulsions set in, the animal falls,struggles
violently, and in the intervals between
convulsions, lies on the side snoring
until death follows. Calves do not
developed the severe symptoms and
few of them die from the disease, but
in cattle over three years old, the
death rate is probably 80 per cent. to
90 per cent. The disease may appear
at any time during the summer but
more of ten from July to October.
Post mortem examination of the ear
cas shows the flesh to be almost blood.
less and pale in color, the spleen (melt)
black and easily torn, the bladder filled
with bloody urine the liver and intes
tines yellowish, and the gall bladder
filled with bile
In all cases, an examination of the
skin about the thighs, flanks, neck and
other portions of the body reveals the
presence of ticks, which always go with
Texas fever. The cause of the disease
is a very small animal organism (pro
tosoan) which seems at all times t<
exist in the body of the common cattle
tle tick (boophilus bovis ) When the
tick inserts his bill through the hide -oi
the cow, these little ''germs" gain ac
cess to the blood of the animal and
there develop, producing a case ol
Texas fever in ten or twenty days, it
inost cuses. Death results from the
destruction of the red blood cells, thE
bodies of which go to the spleen and
the colcring matter to the bladder.
Cattle that have bad ticks on then:
when calves are immune to the disease
and will not have it again. Cat tle thai
have not had ticks on them until a yeal
old'will develop the fever as soon ai
they get them.
-The experiment station officials de
sire to assist the stockmen of the 8tat4
in getting this disease under control
and preventing severe losses from it is
the future. To this end we are send
ing you this circular, and re quest that
y ou will read it and answer the ques
tions on the enclosed addressed postas
card. We thank you in advance foi
your cooperation and trust you -wilt
soon return the card to'
D~r. G. E. Nesom,
Clemson College, S. C.
December 31. 19J0.
Our National Crime.
T b. Chicago rribune says:'-The statis
tissoflhomooide in the United States fol
1900I are not encouraging. From 1895 u
1899 there Was a steady decase yea:
oy sEar, the totalsfalling from 10,500 t<
6,225 bat this year the report shoas i
tot of 8,275 an increase Over last yea,
of 2 050. If next year the figures in
crease proportionately the first year c:
tne new century vii De as largely umark
ed by crime as was 1895. From th<
p'resent outlook the izadications ar<
that the iecord of the coming year wilt
De even arker, for human hfe was nevel
held cheaper than at the present time,
and hanging and lynoching make little
impression. Rudyard K p ing was not
far out of the wvay when he said that
murder was the natioual crime of the
Unite~d States.
A Novel Marriage.
A novel marriage took place at An
derson on Decemoer 31. The contract
ing parties were JuoL J. Norris, son of
Capt. P. K. Norris, one of our most
promineat citizens, and Miss Elelen
r-jill, of Nort Carolina. "Watch
Night" services were being held at St.
John's Methodist ehurch, and many
poisons were present. At 11:57 the
riridal party walked down the central
aisle and took their places in front of
Rev. J. B. Uampbed, wno performed
the ceremony. During tae ceremony
the town clock was distinctly heard to
strike she hour. All present were im
jr '.'ed with the solemnity of the oc
casion.
A Fatal Accident.
A dispatch from Winnsboro to The
State says the little daughter of Dis
penser Stevenson was killed by a fall
ing granite post. Several of the chil
dren were playing in the back yard,
and had built a fire at the foot of the
stone column. The little girl was stand
ing near. A Negro boy, unaware of
the fact that granite cannot resist heat,
climbed to the-top, the crumbling base
gave way and the post fell striking the
child on the head. She was picked up
unconscious and carried into the house
where she died about d in the after
nocn.
Right Mr. Bryan.
Acting upon the advice of Mr. Bryan,
the W J. Bryan Association of (Cleve
land, Ohio, has changed its name to the
Cuyahoga Association of Democratic
Clubs. Writing with respeet to clubs
which bear his name, Mr. Bryan says:
"1 think it is better that they should
drop my name in order that no mistakes
that I may make may embarrass the
cause in which we are all enlisted,"
Incidentally he again remarks that
"circumstances will determine who
iho=1d lea the nex dAht."
Quit Kissing Talk.
-Pindar. what is osculation?"
'Oscalation, Nettie dear,
1s a learned expression queer
For a nice sensation.
1 put my arms thus 'ro-nd your waist
Tnis is approxinmation!
You need not fear,
There's no one near,
I then,-oh. dear!
Nettie, that's osculation."
The New York World says pro
miscuous osculation is under the ban.
The kissing habit must cease. The
Demorest branch of the W. 0. T. U.
has declared against it and hereafter
the stolen swcets, txtolled in s'ong and
story, will have the added spice of a
self constituted detective agency of
argus es ed white ribboners successfully
bsffid. The organisation admits of no
compromise. It does not urge temper
ance. It preaches prohibition accord
ing to its principles. The kiss is an
intoxicant, therefore the kiss, like the
saloon, must go._ This decision was ar
rived at recently at the regular meeting
of the Demorest Unionites at the home
of Mrs. Stanley, 448 West Twenty
third street. The matter came up in
connection with the vice crusade when
Dr. Anna Hatfield interruped a torrent
of ekquence apropos of the saloon as
the source of all evil to prove that the
nectar quaffed from red lips was more
fruirfai of consequence-than any aloo
holic beverage ever distilled.
"I =think kisseing is the very worst
thing a young woman can do," said the
doctor, "and the amount -of hugging
giog and kissing that some girls-of
our very bebt families, too-submit to
is literally a mensee~to our morality. 1
know a young man very wellwho declares
that he rarely leaves a girl without kiss
ing her goodnight. He says that the)
not only eagerly accede to his request,
out that several have insisted upon be
ng ii ted."
-1 aslutld have shown him the door,
said Dr. Ewen Miles
WellI, he explained that of course
1e had no respeos fur the girls he
k.esed, 'went on Dr. Hatfield. "But
I tnink women are-very careless about
kissing Mothers should teach their
daughters the evils of is. A girl doesn t
know the danger of kissing. She should
understand how to guard against it. I
have carefully inquired into the. matter
and I find many young women imagine
this is the way to get i usbands. It is
reprehensible. These are the supposed
ly well-brought-up daughters of rich
pareate. Tne girls must be taught that
it is wrong, not only to kiss a stranger.
but to kiss the men they are engaged
to. Too great care cannot be taken."
"I should suggeat that an excellent
and efficient way to stop the impro
priety," said Miss Thomas, "would be
to instruct the young met in the evils
of kissing."
"But they like it," said one woman
impetuously.
Another cited the case of. a modest
youth, who, fearing to yield to the so
licitatioos of an-.osculatory temptress,
had applied to a policeman. But the
law was felt to be a tacit encourage
meat-of all kinds of. stimulants, from
liquor to kissing, and all idea of an
anti kissing bill was promptly aban
doned. The kiss, rela--ively speaking,
was not dissected. No fine lines of de
marcation have been drawn about the
cousinly salute, nor has it been an
nounced whether a male conneotion by
marriage may with propriety embrace
ne wly acquired .feminine family ad
juncts. But the Demorest Union has
pledged itself to eternal vigilance in
the matter of the promiscuous kiss
and the unsanc-ioned application of a
moustitebc-to the-lips that are nearest
will hencefor ward run the gauntlet of
fearless and <xoerienced crusades.
Why the Oyster Crop Fails.
It is pointed out that partial fail
iare of the oyster crop in certain years,
the diminution in size of oysters on
the market and the extinction of
many oyster beds that formerly were
famous-the Saddle Rocks, for in
stance-have been due to want of ma
terial for the production of the oyster
shell. The beds throughout the oyster
belt have steadily deteriorated in late
yerars, and in many cases become ab
solutely worthless, in spite of the fact
Ithat food has been supplied artini
eilly at great expense and trouble,
and wire fences have been used to
protect the oysters from the star
fish. For this trouble the defilement
of the water by sewage and waste of
various manufacturing establishments
have usually been blamed, sometimes
justly, sometimes without cause.
What the oyster plant must have, or
It will perish, Is a full supply of car
bonate of lime with which to build
its shell. Near the mouths of rivers,
where carbonate of lime in mechan
ical solution, as it is expressed, comes
down from the hills and plr~ins of the
interior In drainage, the oyster has
all the material it needs for building
its house, and at the same time the
innowing tide brings It ample food.
-Boston Transcript.
Germany Crowds England on the Sea.
The naval weakness of Britain is no
toriously the subject of earnest pro
test by some of our most effcient ad
mirals afloat, says a London corre
spondent. German efficiency has al
ready secured a formidable and homo
geneous fleet. Already Germany holds
the Atlantic record for speed. Her
system of mail subsidies has secured a
large portion of Asiatic and Australian
trade. Her rate of increase in ship
building, for the first time in history,
has exceeded that of Great Britain.
Germany has already stretched out her
hands for t-he trident. Neither France
nor Russia is impatient to assist us to
recover the supremacy which we have
listlessly allowed to slip from our
hands-Detroit Free Press.
British Like Our Ceneus Methods.
Inquiries have been received from
the British government concerning the
methods of taking the American cen
sus, because it has never been able to
secure such comprehensive data, or
even as complete a count of population,
in ten years of continuous work as the
American system has secured in 12
months. With 24 potential facts con
cerning each individual accessible, the
sociological and psychological prob
lems of the present time, growing out
of the assimitation of large masses of
foreigners with the American people,
become a fascinating study.--National
Magazine.
Hew France Got Into lndo-China.
The connection of France ith Indo
China dates back to 1748, when a ware
house and a trading station were es
tablished in Anam. The old customs of
China still prevailed, the whole coun
try having been under China for many
centuries, until a native vice king led
a successful revolt about the year 1430.
During one of the internecine conflicts
which broke out with due regularity
among claimants and pretenders the
aid of Louis XVI. of France was so
licited, and a treaty of alliance was en
tered into in 1787. Thus originated the
first claim of France upon Indo-China.
Smallest of the Small.
While we are accustomed to think
of atoms as the smallest possible
particles into which matter can be
divided, recent experiments, particu
larly those of Dr. Gustave Le Bon,
have indicated that, through elec
trical dissociation, atoms themselves
are capable of subdivision into parti
cles of amazing minuteness. Many
years ago Lord Kelvin calculated the
probable size of a molecule of air, and
according to him about 25,000.000 such
molecules laid in a row would meas
ure an inch. There would be 600 air
molecules in a wave-length of ordi
nary light. Every molecule is com
posed of atoms smaller than itself.
Now, Dr. Le Bon calculates that the
particles dissociated by the electric
energy which produces such phenom
ena as the Becquerel rays are so
small that even atoms would appear
to be "infinitely large" in comparison
with them.-Youth's Companion.
Strange Snow on Mars.
Prof. Johnstone Stoney, in develop.
ing his theory of the escape of gases
from planetary atmospheres depend
ing upon the force of gravity of the
particular planets concerned, has con
cluded that helium at present is slow
ly escaping from the earth, and in a
distant past time it probably escaped
much more rapidly.' From Mars, he
says, water vapor must have escaped
with about the same readiness as
helium fled from the earth, and ac
cordingly the variable white patches
about the poles of Mars are not snow,
but probably are frozen carbon diox
ide. Other appearances frequently
observed on Mars are due, he thinks,
to low-lying fogs of carbon dioxide
vapor shifting alternately between
the poles and the equatorial regions.
-Youth's Companion.
signals at sea.
The code of signals used by vessels at
sea is prepared by a committee ap
pointed at the international marine
conferences that are held every few
years. We had one at Washington in
1890, another one held at Copenhagen
two years ago, at which revisions were
adopted, which extended and simpli
fled the code considerably. Each ship
is required to have a set of fags and a
supply of rockets which represent 200
or 300 combinations. These can be in
terprted by the codebook into sen
tences covering almost every possible
situation or communication which any
ship might want to send to another.
Ships that pass in the night make sig
nals by fire; in the day by flags.-N.
Y. Times.
Motor Posts in Australia.
A frequent difficulty encou.dsewby
postal authorities in Australia is the
cheap and expeditious delivery of mails
to outlying localities. Many of thesa
places are hundreds of miles from the
nearest railway line, and the route is
apt to be through drought-stricken
country, where the dry roads are at
times impassable even by camels. This
is conspicuously the case in tropical
Queensland. But the government of
that colony has risen to the emergency
and has decided to try the experiment
of dispatching mails to "out back" by
motor car. The result is likely to be
awaited with interest in other place.
than Queensland.-London Daily Mail.
Our Bad Manners. .A
If we could get a consensus of hem
et opinions from foreigners we should
no doubt be told that our dominant
national trait is-bad maners. We
probably never shall live down the ef-.
feet produced by the swaggering, rich
"trippers" and shrieking girls who first
represented us in Europe. They still
are believed to be the true American
types. "The American vulgarizes all .
that he touches" has everywherepassed
Into an adage.-"An American Moth-.
er," in Ladies' Home Journal.
A Disturbing Element.
Lawyer-Are you acquainted with
the defendant in this case?
Witness-Yes; I've known him for
years.
"Have you ever known him to be a
disturber of the public peace?"
"Well-er-he personally conducted
a number of trolley parties last sum
mer."-Chicago Daily 19ews.
Very Rich.
District Visitor-Well, Mrs. O7l.
herty, I hope your daughter has a
good place.
Mrs. O'Flaherty-Ohi, it's a mighty
fone place, enturely! Sure, Bridget
says that her mistress Is so rich that
all her flannel petticoats is made of
slkl-N. Y. World.
Where It Would Not Work.
"Johnny, dear, did you try to mind
the golden rule in your dealings with
your playmates at school to-day?"
"Yes'm; till we had recess. You
can't use It in football, you know. It'd
kill the game deader'n a door naiL"
Chicago Tribune.
No Need of Bait.
Crabshaw-I don't see where woman
acquired her extravagance in dress.
Eve wasn't that way.
Mrs. Crabshaw-Of course not. There
was only one man in the world then
and she had him.-Puck.
The Fashionable Front.
"Madge Mizze Is awfully conven
tional."
"She Is?"
"Yes; she will have a gold monogram
on her note-paper even If she hasn't
got shoes."-Indianapolis Journal.
Sport for Real Fishermes.
At Eyak, Alaska, are great fishing
grounds. Halibut are caught there
weighing 350 pounds, cod 42 pounds -
and salmon 58 pounds.-N. Y. Sun.
Guards on European Roya~lty.
Eery royal palace in Europe has its
specil private police, who, in one guise
or another, are always on the lookout
for suspicious persons.-N. Y. Sun.
Two Suicides in one Firm
The disappearance of E. Churchill
1offman several months ago from Atlan
ta was a local sensatios and the news of
his suicide in New York caused little
surprise. He had beeri connected with
the Southern Agricultural works as gen
eral manager and was president of the
Georgia Handle Compary. When the
agricultural works failed he was called
on to account for eerrain funds atd ma
terial which he failed to do. The corn
pany failed and Coffmsn disappeared.
Prior to the failure of the two concerns
Coffman had lived handsomely. He
left the city when he saw demands made
on him for cash and property of the two
companies would be pressed. LHe left
his wife and ohild hcro in apan~ments.
Mrs. Cofiman was much disturbed over
the troubles and the disappearaboe of
her husband and soon after he left she
uiekly departed. This is the second
Jesth that has ocourrrd as a result of
the failure of the Southern Agrioultural
Works, as Mr. 8. Landauer, its former
reidnt, committed suicide.

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