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A NW IVENTIGIS
Of a clumbia Mechanic That May
MUCH IS CLAIMED FOR A VALVE,
Which is Said to ,e :I,1t'e to lffect
a Saving- o' at L e:st One
fil'th ol* the Coal Used
The Columbia StIte says "The
1rooks Improved Steam Valve com
pany" of that city has hen not iia
that the patent ofice has granted an
"allowance" on the contri vanck' which
this company has sought to have pat
ented. The allowance means that
the authorities have acted favorably
and that the latters patent will be is
sued in a few days.
The valve which this company has
in its possession is said to be one of
the greatest inventions of recent
years. The inventor is a machinist
who spent 18 years in the Southern's
shops in Columbia. but for some reason
his name is withheld on the ground
that he himself does not for the pres
ent want his identity made public.
The inventor put his contrivance
into the hands of a friend, Col. I. I.
Brooks, who is the clerk of the su
preme court, and the latter. with the
advice of Gen. M. C. Butler. has been
able to get it patented. The object
of the valve is to economize the use of
coal and to increase the speed of a
locomotive. Colonel Brooks Iselieves
firmly in its practicability.
To a reporter of The State he said
Wednesday: "We claim for it that
we can save from 20 to 30 per cent. of
the fuel used on locomotives. We
claim that we can increase the speed
from 20 to 30 per cent. This invention
will get rid of the 'used steam' which
is called -back pressure' and retards
theprogress of the engines as they are
--working today. The valve is very
simple in its construction, so simple
that every machinist who has examin
ed it is struck immediately with its
practicability, and many have won
dered why they never thought of it."
When the application for a patent
had been tiled some time ago there
was a protest from the attorneys of
several inventors who were endeavor
ing to perfect something of the same
kind and claimed the right of priori
ty. Colonel Brooks went to Washing
ton and was accompanied by Mr. J.
B. Edwards, a practical machinist.
The latter explained the valve to the
satisfaction of the patent office and,
upon his showing, the "allowance"
was issued. At the suggestion of
General Butler, patents under the
U-Wws of ill foreign countries have been
applied for by the company.
A practical test of the valve will
be made in a few days. "We have ob
tained permission from the superin
tendent of nmotive power of one of the
largest railroad systems to have an
cnigine fitted with this appliance in
order to make calculations," said
Colonel Brooks. "When we went
into his ottice this superintendent
planced at the model and said, indiffer
ently, -Oh, I have seen a great many
valves like this.' Mr. Edwards inter
jected, 'You never saw anything like
this in your life.' That caused the
railroad official to make a minute in
spection, and he was so well satistied
that lhe ordered an engine placed at
our disposal wlaen the patent shall
have been secured. 'If it will save us
*one per cent. of coal it is valuable,
but if it will save us 20 per cent. it is
the greatest thing we could get bold
of,' the superintendent said to us.
"The engine will be examined and
tested as to speed, coal consuming
-capacity, etc., before the appliances
are attached," continued Colonel
.Brooks, "and the other tests will be
made to show the merits of the valve."
The practicability of the valve
must be settled before any plans for
the future will be made, but Colonel
Brooks would like to have the con
trivance manufactured in Columbia.
-- THREE MEIf KILLED.
Coal Cars on a Death Trip in a Coal
The breaking of a coupling, follow
ed by the runaway of a string of load
ed coal cars in the Sunshine mine at
South Fork, PIa.,'late Thursday after
noon, caused the death of three men,
the fatal injury of one, and more or
less serious injuries to mine others.
Tony Border, of South Fork, aged
Joseph S. Strank, South Fork aged
Frank McClain, of Ebenfield.
--e651baugh, of South Fork,
spine injured and breast crushed, will
_Albert Paul, of South Fork, arm,
leg and collar bone broken, serious.
William Parker, South Fork, crush
ed about head and body, will recover.
A half dozen others whose names
could not be ascertained were badly
The accident occurred about 5 p. m.
as the men were leaving the mine. A
trip of about 25 loaded cars was being
hauled to the surface by an endless
chain. When the cars left the centre
of the-mine tifteen ore men climbed
- aboard. All went well until the trip
reached a "dip" about 100 yards from
the mouth of the mine. The train
climbed three-fourths of the steep
grade in safety, but a short distance
from the level track the hitching be
Sween the second and third cars broi'e.
Instantly th~e niine slope was tilled
with shots of the men as all of the
cars with the exception of the tirst
two commenced to back down tae
grade.' Slowly at tirst but with grad
911y increasing speed the cars spec
do~nwards, giving the men scarcely
in opportunity to jump and save
themselves. When ab~out 200 yards
nom where th~e hitching broke the
foremost car left the track and the
emainder of the train pilled up back
UELP FOR Ti.E INJUR.ED,
Those who 'had been fortuna~te
enough to jump from the runaway
cars quickly ran to the outside and
told of the accident. Help was quick
ly brought to the men buried beneath
the pile of wreckage, wvhich tilled the
six-foot heading for a distance of
twenty yards. A t a late hour Thurs
day night the wreckage had been
cleared away and the injured all taken
A NEBRASKA woman committed
suicide because the newspapers and
magazines declined to publish her
poems, which causes .the Washington
Post to remark that there arc times
when the work of proecting the pub
n-.- ticcae sad caes like this.
BILL ARP WRI TES HISTORY
For the Benefits ot the Young Peol
of the Conitry.
So many young people who r
C'urageCd and will answer their i
qui ries as5 ;a as I cai. These you
pe plie co, !iw 4untrv lows hIa
sciwols toi*,o to, but they lack books
readinL boks. cyclopedias. biogi
phies. and if 1 was as rich as Carne
I would plan a library of such bot
in every comimunity. I would hav
million sets of some standard cycloi
dia prinited for every schol. even
They cost lifty million dollars. T.
would diifuse knowledge among t
yo1ing people and do mnoie good th
alie is dinug in the big cities. Ii
what we most need in the South Z
historical books that will be stand:
with us and relate the truth abc
the South and secession and the Co
federacy and slavery and the war al
reconstruction. I ha:1 a cyclopec
that gave a whole column of apol(;
for old John Brown and the pediur
of every Northern race horse, and
mention of .ohn 1:. ibordon or Forrt
or any of our Southern poets
author's or orators. 1 swapped it<
at half price f. r the I nternational
Dodd, Meade & Co. The tributes
that work t: I )r. I)avis and Lee a
.Jackson are all that could be desir
and more than was expected.
I wonder what has become of th
-reat Southern publishing house th
was projected in Atlanta some tit
ago. That is what we want and mt
have to verpetuate Southern histo
and defend our fathers and grat
fathers from the slanders of Northe
foes. I L is Northern histories. Nort
ern novels and Northern plays tt
a:e :iready poisjned the minds
thousands of our young people. Or
v-st&rday I glanced at a serial stc
in na Atlata paper and the tirst tii
I saw was a verce which read:
",John Brown's body lies mouldering
But his soul keeps marching on."
In a Missouri paper I saw wher
Yankee troupe were playing "Uni
Tom's Cabin." And now a fool f
low from Wisconsin wants to get c
Governors to appoint delegates to
convention in Atlanta to determi
the race problem. and it. is said t1i
that man Spooner is at the bottom
it to get up a Presidental boom I
himself. I suspected there was
niggor in the woodpile, for th<
Northern politicians never do at
thing from patriotic, unseltish n
tives. Hlanna's scheme fell throu
and Spooner thought he could pat
it up. But the South never was m(
aroused and united on the negro qui
tion and will resent all interfereno
whether it comes from Washington
Wisconsin. Wisconsin: What iml
dence! A State whose foreign popu
tion is 62 per cent. of the whole, a
of these there are 88,000 who car
speak English, and only 760 negr<
in the State and three times as ma
Indians. What does Wisconsin kn,
or care about our race problem?
in the last few days I have receis
three letters from young people wat
ing to know something about the C<
federate flags, what were the desig
and who designed them. I wish tl
I could sketch them and paint the
in this letter. but all I can do is to<I
scribe them an~d give their histol
There were four in all, but only t
lived to see the end at Appomattox.
No. 1, or the "Stars and Bar
was adopted by the Confederate Ci
gress at Montgomery. Its stars we
on a blue tield and its red and wh
bars made it look somewhat like 1
Stars and Stripes, and sometimes v
mistaken for the United States fi
and so General Beauregard designe<
No. 2. "The Battle Flag," a
General Joe E. Johnson adopted
and it was never changed. It wa:
blue cross, or rather an X studd
with stars and set on a red field.
No. 3. In May. 1863, the Confed
ate Congress adopted a national nII
It was a miniature battle flag set
a white field that had a white bort
at the side and at the bottom. 1
it proved to be a mistake, for it h
too much white and afar off was it
taken for a flag of truce.
And so on March, 1865, Congre
adopted No. 4 as the national nI
This had the same battle flag on
blue field, but the white border 'v
smaller and a red one put on the o1
side of that. This flag did not we
very long, only about a month, t
nevertheless it remains as the natic
al fag of the-Confederate States.
But the dear old battle flag No.
was the tighting banner of every Co
pany. Our wives and our daughts
made them for the boys in gray, a
many of the~A were smuggled ha
hame again after the surrender a
still kept as household treasures. O
boys, the Rtome Light Guards, h
one, and one night the young peoi
gave a tableaux performance in t
city hall to raise a little money to p
some benches in the desecrat
:hurches. for all the pews had be
taken out and converted into hol
troughs for the staff horses. C
scene in the tableaux represented
battle tield where women were mm
tering to the wounded and the dyir
and one dying soldier, the ensign, hi
this old tattered and war-stained ii
grasped in his hand just as he held
when he fell.
Te Spanish commandant of t
post was there with his wife, a
when he discovered the flag, got fu)
ously mad. Hie jumped up on I
seat and yelled; "Take dat t'ing ar;
dat is treason --dat is an insult to
and de United States. I send for
soldiers and I arrest the whole part!
lie ran wildly down the stairs a
across the street to his (quarters a
cae back quickly with hialf a doz
Dutchmen in arms to make the arre:
ie marched the young men over
his oflice, but paroled the young lad
uutil he could hear from Gene
Trhomas, whose headquarters were
Louisville. I was naayor then and
had same hot words. Hie said tina
he would release the young men un
he could hear from General Thom:
So I wrote to General Thomas by t
same mail. Ige very graciously f
gae us, bu~t warned us not to do
any more. for the display of a Con!t
erate 11ag was treason and the puni:
ment of treason was death.
This is enough about tlags. Th<
is no treason in displaying one nc
Time is a good doctor and Time ket
rolling on. My wife and 1 had anoth
wedding last Saturday--and gc
trieds were calling all the afternc
to say good words and congratulate
Io our long and happy married li
Eary in the morning, while my w
and the family were at breakfast,
cime inI late and slipping up behi
her planted a venerable kiss upon I
"Shc half C110sd mC in her arms,
She clasped me in a meek embrace:
(No she didn't. either.)
And bending back her head, looked
And gazed into my face."
rc Yes, she did that, for it took her by
..,.surprise. I hadn't kissed her sine"
the tirst day of last .liie -whh was
her birthday. Twice I Year satislivs
her now. I:L A I'.
A HUGE SWINDLE
a- In viich United States Officials
a special dispatchi from vashinz-!
i- tor ti thle Spartanburg .irnal s:s
at the devehopIent that a ('oniee.iitiln of
be covernmieit ttitcials with the gct
rich(luick concerns was alleged in
I carges riled with the pr.sident caused
rd a sensation in Washingtou.
ut As far as possible the details cf the
charges and the progress of the inves
id tigation ordered hy the president are
ia being kept secret, but in otlicial cir
,Y eles the matter is being discussed with
ec much intrest.
nt I is said that the plan- pursued
St was the securing of names of shady
or concerns against which the govern
)IT ment was about to proceed. These
by firms would then be approached with
in a proposition to put their husiness in
d a shape acceptable to the government
ed for a certain stated amount down and
a weekly or monthly payment. This
at being ag.reed to. the way was made
at clear whereby the get rich-quick fel
ne lows continued operations witiiout fear
st (f molestation.
ry The amount alleged to have been
d- secured from the shady comp mies is
rn not settled deinitely by rumor. but it,
b- is averred by stme tnatit reached into
itt more than a millon dollars. which
of were divided amoni a certain few.
ly It is averred by others that the
ry sum total will be far larger than this.
ra because the operation included fully
half a score or more of ily-by-night
. schemes in business, each of which
was forced to contribute liberally.
The investigation by order of the
president will be pushed vigorously.
a Fourth Assistant Postmaster Gener
le al Bristow, who has charge of it. is
el- ordered to go to the bottom of it. no
ur matter wao may be involved.
a General Tyner, whose retirementi
ne was demanded by the president not
at because he was personally implicated
of in the scandal. but because of his ad
or vanced age and the desire to place a
a stronger man in his place, (ICeiiCs that
se there was any wrong doing in connee
.- tion with his ollice respecting the
o- rights of 'turf investment coin panics"
h to use the mails.
ch He says that there was not a word
re of evidence in the report of the post
S- otlice inspector to prove that the con
e, cerns were in the nature of lottery or
or fraudulent in their character, and
- therefore the only course open to the
la- office was to allow them to use the
it. General Tyner says that Harrison
*S J. Barrett, his nephew by marriage.
By and formerly assistant in his otlice,
i" had, as an attorney, represented one
of the turf companies, but this was
ed only after Harrett had severed his
it connection with the department, he
:ns General Tyner says he took up the
iat cases of concerns alleged to be fraud
m ulent or on a lottery basis, and. after
7- dropped. Hie dictated a letter an
vo nouncing that no further steps would
,be taken. reserving the right, how
ever, in the last paragraph of his let
n- ter, to reopen the cases. One comn
re pany published this letter, omitting
ite the last paragraph of warning and
e the department was severely criticised
asd. for the issuance of the letter in ques
nd The Club Against the Home.
a "Club Life vs. Rome Life" was the
ed subject chosen by Rev. George White
man from which he recently delivered
a sermon in Buffalo, N. Y., lHe re
n ferred to the late tragedies in that
Ler city, and drew a lesson from them
t that should be remembered. Recent
ad events, be said, nave revealed the gay
is- irreligious life which many of Buf
falo's more prosperous people live.
There is a growing godlessness among
smany well to do persons. The type
'of depravity among persons in the
a higher circles is often worse than in
the slums of the city. This gay god
less way of living often manifests
,ve itself in what is spoken of as club)
ut life. I adm~it that clubs differ in their
- aims, but I believe that that which is
2mechanically called club life is oppos
Sed to the interests of the individual,
ferring specially to the Bturdick mnur
d der he said "a murder is committed in
k our city and two divorce cases are
d revealed." These he said, have some
ur relation to club life. This is an aw
ad ful condition but the facts warranted
le the charge. He closed by saying.
e A merica is fast following in the steps
Ut of the -old Roman empire, the home is
ed despised: children are an encumbrace;
na poodle dog is of more value than
sa baby. Wealth and pride consume
ne the life blood of the.nation and aristo
cratic weakness saps democrati~c
s- vigor." This is a true indictmnent,
and unless such warnings as these are
dheeded our country will perish as did'
S.the great Roman empire did. Though t
lespeople will refer to Mr. Widemnan
as a calailty ho~wler, but he is not.
liHe sees things as they are, and he has
id the courage to denounce the sius of
ri- those who are rich and oc'cupy a con
Sspicious pla.:e in the pub~lic eye. The
y, hope of this great country is a fearless
Sministiry and an incorruptible press.
."A Terrible D)isaster.
uThe steamer Mariposa, which ar
nd ived at San Francisco one day last
en week from Samoa, brings news of the
;tdisastrous hurricane which swept rover
to the Poumotui group of islands in .lan
es uary. In all over 60~0 lives were lost
ral and' the tinancial loss will exceed $550,
0n0. The Pomoutu group of islands
e inumber about 1A20. Relief measures
yhave been instituted and everything
lpossible is being done at A pia and
other places in the Samoan group to
lie relieve the sufferings of the Pomioutu
On a Sad Maissioni.
The State says Gov. Hey ward was
re called to Savan~nah Thrsa .by the
w.news of the death of his grandmother.
s Mrs. 1)uncan L. Clingch. and of his
ier aunt. Mirs. .1. H1. M. Cliach. The
od former. who is the widow of Gen.
on Clinch of Georgia, a general in the
us Indian wvar, died in Charleston, but
fe. her remains wvere taken to Savannah
ife for interment It is a sad singular
I circumstance that she and her daugh
nd ter-in-law died on the same day. Gcov
er Heyward hopes to be in his (ihlie
A German Lieutenant Sent Hete by
the Berlin Komite.
HE IS PLEASED WITH THE SOUTH
The mexican Weevi! is In.juring the
Texas Crops Very Seriously,
Views of* the Nearo La
Lieut. C. 1'. A. Weydig. an officer
in he German army and an oiicial of
the Agricultural Komite of Blerlin, is
regiteIred at Wright's hotel. lIe is
here for the purpose of investigating
the cotton ind(ustry in this country
trid comes with a strolg letter of re
ference from the secretary of agricul
tui'e at Washington. commending him
o the courtesy of the planters and
manufacturers in the south.
Like many of the officers in the Ger
man army Lieut. Weydig is a distin
guished koking fellow, being more
than six feet in height and asstraight
s an Indian. H is life has been one
Af adventure and he seems to have
fortned a passionate attachment for
outheriers. lie intended to leave
the eit.y yesterday, but was persuaded
not to do so by the city editor of The
State in order that he might visit the
tlympia mill. lIe isat present loeat
ed at Sanz lay, East Africa, and has
charge of the exseriments that the
German government is making in that
ountry in cotton growing. For the
past tive nI'ontls Lieut. Weydig has
been traveling in the south investiga
ing cotton conditions, and the result
of these observations are inore than
"The south," said the lieutenant,
'need never have any fear that any
country in the world can grow cotton
that will in any way hurt her inter
ests. It is perhaps superfluous for me
to say that her sea island cotton is
the tinest in the world and she has
lands enough to grow millions of more
bales when she has mastered the lab -r
"Your laburer in Africa is nearly
all negroes, is it not?" was asked.
"Yes. Niggers, niggers: we have
them everywhere. I only wish we
could send you a few imillion of them.
The (erman government. as is well
known, has no such sentiment about
the negro as that which brought on
the war between the north and south.
In German East Africa there are some
5,000,000 negroes and about 900 white
meu. The negroes are nevertheless
under absolute subjection and for the
smallest infraction of the laws of the
colonies are most severely punished.
They are freemen by courtesy and are
DaId small sums for their labors, but it
is doubtful if any slave masters ever
handled negroes as do the German of
icials. For all that it is exceedingly
diicult to make their. work, and
Lieut. Weydig said that the south
had his sympathv in its labor battles.
"I have." said the lieutenant,
"traveled more than 900 miles in
A frica without seeing a single white
man, and I know the nigger.
The negro in South Africa would be
absolutely uncontrolling i f it wvere not
for what is called by courtesy the
lw. As a matter of fact the law is a
few Gatling guns that now and then
mow them down like sheep if they
don't make cotton.
Biut that is neither here nor there.
and it was not a matter that Lieut.
Weydig cared to discuss for, obvious
reasons. He only smiled knowingly
when the subject was broached and
said that they were freemen, but
"were made to work." TIo the south
ern negro of today this will perhaps
be a novel idea of freedom. Lieut
Weydig had recently visited Booker
Washington at Tuskeegee, and lie
said he thought he was a line jnan.
He did not explain why he visited the
ngro.educator and the writer did not
press the subject, but lie gathered
that it was a matter of curiosity to
see an educated negro more than any
thing else, as it has not been reported
that the German government proposes
to attempt to educate the millions of
negroes she now has under her rule.
It is not that sort of a government.
The German idea is that the negro
Lieut. Weydig war greatly inter
ested in his recent visit to Texas.
"The Mexican weevil is the most
serious thing that menaces the south,"
said the lieutenant. "It is making
great inroads in Texas and it is only a
short time when it will work up in
Tennessee and in, other parts of the
south, 1 fear. The Texas State gov
einent has alreadly otfered $50,000
for a remedy for this evil, and I think
in time something will be found that
will do away with the pest. it is
certainly a very serious matter. In
the State of Texas alone I tind that
it caused a loss of $1l,000,000 last
year'. It is a line State and a great
pity that it should be handicapped by
Mr. W. B. Smith-Whaley extended
the courtesies of the mammoth Olym
pia mill Friday afternoon and great
was the admiration of the German of
tial, not only for the big institution
itself but for the tireless energy which
has enabled Mr. Whaley to build 19
cotton mills, among them, this one,
the largest in the world-more than
the great German government has
even contemplated building.
"Where is the largestecotton mill in
Germany?" the lieutenant was asked.
" V hat is its capacity?"
"Forty thousand spindles."
Mr. W\haley modestly informed t'e
German ollicial that the capacity of'
the Olympia was 100,30O0 spindles now
and that he contemplated making it
just eight times as large as it was.
The latter was v'ery quiet for the
next little while and when he and the
writer had pairted from Mr. Whaley
he inquired rather anxiously what
manner of man was he.
The almost beautiful cleanliness of
the mills impressed the visitor most
favoraly and he frequently comment
ed on the neatness and attractivenes
of the little homes in the mill village,
a compliment wvhich Mr. Whaley
doubtless appreciated. as the German
goenment and people are famed for
their cleanliness in their industries
and in all matters. in f'act.
Mr. Whaley told the lieutenant
that mill owners wvere more anxious
than the State governments for the
welfare of their children in the mill
and he pointed out with some pride
the churches and schools that the mill
owners maintain at their owvn gre at
expense for the benefit of the opera
tors. Ie said he hoped to see the age
limit made 16i years.
"We have the interest," said Mr.
Whaley, "of our employes absolutely
a heart .mnl wear doaing things daily
AN ARCTIC M.EAL.
;etting supper For Men and Dogs 4
on the Polar Ice Sheet.
Dogs were unhitched and fastened, as
isual, and then each of the Eskimos
-limbed over the ice foot with his snow
mife and disappeared behind the para
)et. where the other two were already c
utting snow blocks. I fastened my I
logs, got out their ration of. pemiuican. i
:ut it up and fed them, standing by c
vith whip in hand to see that there i
vas no bullying, and that each dog got
als share. Then I unpacked the cooker.
>l can and kitchen box, passing them I
ip the ice foot as high as I could reach. I
did not wvait for the completion of the
gloo to commence my preparations for 1
upper, but with a few strokes of the
pade excavated a niche in the snow
ank. put the cooker in out of the wind.
iled the lamp with oil and the boiler
yth ice, p'aced a few snow blocks 1
iround it for still better shelter and
ighted up. By the time the igloo was t
orupleted I had enough water melted
or our tea, and supper was entirely
eady by the time my men had fed the
logs, and they lost no time in freeing
.heir clothing of snow and joining me
n the igloo. Still less time was con
mmed in putting away the tea and bis
:uit and pemmican, and less again in
,alling off to dreamless slumber.-Com
ander Robert E. Peary In Outing.
Speed of the Pulse.
The rate- of pulsation depends entire
ty on the movements of the heart, each
eat representing a contraction of the
left ventricle. The normal pulse of the
idult male varies from sixty to eighty
eats in the minute. The range of the
ndividual variation Is, however, very.
great. The range In females Is even
rreater, some having a pulse rate of
:ver eighty, others less than sixty, the I
majority showing a higher rate than
In children the rate Is more frequent: I
A.t birth, 128 to 144; first year, 120 to 1
130; at sixteen years, ninety. In old 1
ige the pulse is usually above seventy- I
two, but often also between fifty and I
sixty. The pulse rate is higher in short
than tall persons and also varies some- 4
what with the time of day, independent
of meals and movement, diminishing in <
the forenoon, rising in the afternoon,
sinking during the night and rising in I
the morning. Habitual pulse rates be
low fifty-six and as low as forty-six I
have been observed in healthy adults, I
but they are rare exceptions. We know
f no case on record of a healthy pulse
so low as thirty.
His Hot Bath.
"I had a law partner once in Missis
sippi," said a southern lawyer, "who
began to feel the effects of long years
of hard work at his profession, and he
was advised by his physician to go to
the Arkansas hot springs and take the
baths. The day of his arrival an at
tendant shut him up In a bathroom
and, giving him a thermometer, told
him to let the hot water run until It
had reached a certain temperature and
then to shut it off.
"The old fellow had more clear grit
than any man I ever knew. When the
attendant went back an hour later, my
partner was standing up in a tub of
boiling hot water. The skin was fair
ly cooked off his feet. but he vowed
he wouldn't get out until the specified
temperature had been registered- He
was' holding the thermometer up in
front of his face instead of putting it
in the water."
Plants That Wear Overcoats.
Plants have developed almost as many
dodges for perpetuating their existen'ce
as animals, only we don't so easily rec
ognize them. Did it ever strike you
that every seed, bulb or tuber is not
merely a reservoir of material for the
plant that is to grow out of it, but also
a mass of fuel for supplying heat nec
essaryto the sprouting seedlet? More
than this. If you look at the early
spring buds and flowers, you will notice
that those which are likely to be ex
posed to frost, such as catkins or wil
low and hazel, are well-protected by a
thick covering of soft material, a reg
ular plant overcoat.
"It does not always pay to be too
smart," said a lawyer. "At our board
ing house a new waitress was employ
ed, and a young chap asked her what
he should call her.
"'Call me Pearl,' she said.
"'Are you the pearl of great price?
"'No,' answered the girl. 'I guess I
am the pearl that was cast before
swine.' "-New York Times.
-Wanted to Pay.
Very much indebted customer enters
a butcher's shop, remarking, "I'll take
a leg of mutton, and I want to pay for
"All right," replies the butcher, hand
ing forth the meat, which customer
takes and starts to go.- "Look here,"
cries the butcher, "I thought you said
you wanted to pay for it?"
"So I do," was the reply, "but I
The majority of men recognize noth
ing in human affairs as good unless it
yields some return, and they love those
friends most-as they do their cattle
from whom they hope to obtain the
most profit. Thus they lack that loveli
est and most natural form of friendship
which is sought for its own sake only,
nor do they know from experience how
beautiful and how lofty such friend
"What are you writing?' asked the
"Just dropping a line to my governor,
wishing him many happy returns of
the day," replied the sophomore.
"Why, Is this his birthday?'
"No; pay day. He sent me a check
this mornng."-Philadelphia Press.
ror their welfare that bring our repu
atain as business men seriousl.' into
gu estion." Your average German is1
t cold bsiness proposition. lie has:
;om ething to sell and he .wants his
price for it. lie pays his workman
oi hire and the latter then has to
lok out for himself. So when Mr.
Whaley informed the lieutenant that
bee proposed to put up the best hos- I
pital for his employes that his money
:old buy the latter's countenance
showed another wide latitude of sur
lie expressed his admiration over
tnd over again for the remarkable
mill and thanked Mr. Whaley very
tvarmly for his kindness.
The lieutenant cxpressed his great
Iddmiration and friendship for south- 1
3rn people. "They are the most hos
pitable and delightful people that I
ae ever met," he said, "and I have
raveled much. New York is a great
iy, but it is dollar, dollar, dollari
here all the time and one gets tired 1
ff it sometimes. Every moment of
he time 1 have spent in the south
a s been pleasant."1
The lieutenant is going to take sev
ral American young men back to
,hojitank River Fisherk Land Theta
by av. Ingenious Method.
Those who crab for market on ti
'hoptank river, Maryland, have an in.
enious method of catching crabs it
uantity. A rope about the thickness
f a clothesline several hundred feel
3ng is kept coiled in a keg. At inter
als of two feet along the entire lengtl
f the rope the fisherman has untwisted
t and inserted between the strand,
hort pieces of salted eels. The torsiot
f the strand holds them tightly ir
ace. Each end of the rope has a ke.
muoy attached, together with a heav3
tone. Arriving at the favored place
isually on oyster beds, he throws a kei
verboard and pays out a highly "cent
d rope as he sails. When the othei
nd is reached. he anchors it with an
>ther stone and throws out anothei
>uoy. After-lowering his sail he wait:
flew minutes, then takes his stand ox
he bow of his boat. Alongside of hin
s his landing net. with a handle si:
bet long. He raises the buoy an<
tone and, hand over hand, pulls hi
oat along the line. When a crab
linging to its refreshment, comes h
ight, he seizes his net, dashes it unde:
he crab and flings it into the boat. Th,
vary crab may loosen his hold and div<
'or the bottom, but such is the fishet
nan's dexterity that his net is swifte:
han the crab. One seldom gets away
several hundreds of crabs are oftei
aken at each overhauling of the rope
WVhen he has caught all he wants, b
>acks them in barrels and sells them t<
local dealer, who ships them to mar
cet.-Country Life In America.
"Doing" Earope In Your Mind.
According to a Cairo contemporary
>ersons who wish to let their friend
mow that they are "doing" Europe oi
princely scale the while they are liv
ag In retirement for a time need onli
pplly to an agency in Paris, which wil
mdertake to send your letters to prac
Ically' any place in Europe you may se
ect and there to have them Posted fo
rou on any date you may choose. Thi
lemand for such an institution aros<
>t of the absolute horror the Parisia
f "high life" has of being suspected o
-emaining in Paris or its environs h
:he bathing season. One feature of th<
oke is that you can not only get you
etters posted from some distant spot
ut you can get answers received fo
ou and reposted to your temporary hid
ng place. There are great possibilitie
'or American travelers in this. Wh:
2ot stay in America and "do" Europe
-New York Tribune.
Insurance Has Its Humor.
An enterprising insurance agent in
luced an Irishman to take out an accd
lent poucy for his wife. A few day
Later while conversing with a friend i
is office he was startled to see th
rishman rush In, brandishing fiercel;
"Ye rascal!" he yelled, springing tc
ward the agent. "Ye wanter ches
Fortunately the enraged man wa
isarmed and held fast by the agent
Eriend, who -was a powerfully buil
an. The Irishman, struggling to ge
"Let me git at the spalpeen! Thin)
v it, chargin' me foive dollars fer a:
ishident ticket fer me ole woman, ax
she jest 'b:oke her leg a-fallin' dow
htairs! Wot's the good of the ticke
One of the most ill founded of a:
popular delusions is that blushing
he special characteristic of the femal
sex. As a matter of fact, except in th
rnse of very young girls, men blush fa
more readily than women. The we:
bred woman never blushes at all, whil
it is a matter of everyday experienc
that in the excitement of business (
political discussions men's cheeks rec
len with very little provocation. Whai
ever may have been the case a hur
dred years ago, the modern woma:
shIws her emotion not by blushiing, bt
by turning pale.-London Tatler.
Mathematics of Love.
"Margaret," he began, "I have $3,75
in the bank. I own half interest in:
patent churn company that clears $1
00 a year. My salarwyis $20oaweel
with prospects of a raise to $22. I hav
a aunt who will leave me twenty-se1
en shares of a railway stock now quoi
ed at 5i3. Tell me, Margaret, will yo
"Wait." she replied. "till I get a per
For she never had been good at mex
tal arithmetc.-Newark News.
The Bathe of Caracalla.
The Romans appear to have bee
well off in the matter of bathing place
In the first and second centuries. I
the baths of Caracila 1,000 bather
eould be accommodated at one time
The inclosed area was 360 squdrx
yards, but it included a course for foc
racing. The bathing establishment wa
240 yards in length by 124 wide. Th
remains of the walls are 8 and 10 fe4
thick and in some places as much as 5
feet high. _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Love Above Par.
Towne - Poor fellow! He certaini
does love her for all he's worth.
Browne - He loved her even mor
than that today.
Towne-How do you mean?
Browne - He sent her a ten dolla
bunch of roses and borrowed the pric
from me.-Philadelphia Press.
Men are like sandwiches - there
nothing In some of them, and the mor
there is in others t~e worse they are.
For a woman to love ss ame men Is lk
asting a flower into a sepulcher.-Hav
mngaged some two or three and has ir
tructions from the Berlin Komit
o engage some more. They must 1
roung men who are educated in th
Lgricultural colleges that make
ppeciaty of cotton production. Lieul
eydig's; station in German E.ts
~ifrica is Sanz Bay, but he will ii
'eturn there for some months. Il
ft the city Saturday morning.
GROVER Cleveland went all the wa
o brooklyn to eulogize Henry War
3eecher, who hated the people (of t
outh without a cause and basel
l andered them with falsehoodsi
urope as well as America. No dout
he blind followers of the defunc
arover endorses all he said in prais
f the South's worst enemy.
MEPHIS and Nashville are engage
n a war of words as to which city hi
e most and the "'widest oper
amblers. We agree with the Ai
usta Chronicle that it would be be
er to devote the time spent to pr
;enting arguments for reducing ti
umbers and shutting up those tha
-amain, in both cities.
. Shaky Itope Bridge64
in the wilds of South America many
tope bridges exist. and in writin-of
them a tra ler, who published through
Messrs. LOWnans -The Great Moun
tains and orests of South America,"
says: -There being no trees here. such
bridges as were necessary were usual
ly constructed of _a couple of ropes
stretched across a chasmii. upon which
was spread a rough kind of matting
made of pliant brusliwood or a sort of
rush. Such bridges swung about fear
fully and cracked under the foot as if
about to give way. Often -1 held my
breath while passing such a bridge,
momentarily expecting the rotten con
trivance to part in the middle. There
was plenty of evidence in the skeletons
of horses and mules on the rocks be
low that accidents not infrequently Oc
curred. but I was assured that not
many men were lost, which. of corse.
was an exceedingly comforting assuir
ance. especially as I noticed that the
guides were careful to see tiat either
I or George was the lirst to cross
these confounded structures. At one of
these places we saw on the rocks 300
feet below the skull and bones of two
men who had been lost about eight
Snakes Waste Little Time Eatinr.
A serpent will go for weeks. some(
times even for months, without feed
Ing. Then it may take three rabbits oz
ducks, one after the other, at a singlc
meal and afterward become torpi
while digestion proceeds. When, after
a sufficient period of fasting. it getE
disposed to eat and a rabbit happens tc
be introduced into its cage, it may
plainly be seen that the rabbit's pres
ence is quickly noticed by it. Th(
snake will begin to move slowly aboul
till it has brought Its snout opposite th
rabbit's muzzle. Then, in an Instant, i1
will seize the rabbit's head in its
mouth, simultaneously coiling its pow
erful body around it and crushing il
to death at once.
The action is so instantaneous that ii
is impossible for the rabbit to suffer
r Certainly it can suffer no more that
when killed by a poulterer. The snak
does not Immediately u1icoil its folds
but continues for a time to hold its vig
tim tightly embraced, sometimes rock
Ing Itself gently to and fro. Then il
slowly unwinds Its huge body and onc
more takes the rabbit's head in its
mouth and swallows It.
Superstitions About Dread.
In Brittany when a housewife begin
to knead dough she makes a cross witi3
? her right hand, the left being placed ir
the trough. If a cat enters the room, i
Is believed the bread will not rise.
It is supposed that certain women car
- cause the. dough to multiply itself. Or
the coast of the channel the dough i
5 adjured to imitate the leaven. the mil
ler and the baker and to rise.
a The oven is a sacred object and con
nected with crowds of superstitions
The oven is dedicated. with ceremo
nies. In certain places in Brittany thi
t wood is watered with blessed water
Bread must not be cooked on certali
s days. as on IIo!y Friday or during th
B night of All Saints. when the ghost
t would eat it.
The lntrG. w-.on2 or 1'rks.
SForks are articles of such commor
i household necessity to us that we hard
' ly realize that there was a time, anm
i not so long ago either, when forks were
t entirely unknown.. A knife was usei
at the table to cut up food, but th:
-food so cut was afterward conveyed b;
the fingers to the mouth. Rich and poo:
1 'alike were accustomed to this metho<
S a'nd so thought It perfectly correct.
e It was about the, year 1600 and in th<
reign of James I. wvhen forks were firs
introduced into England. This "piect
1 of refinement." we are told, was de
rlved from the Italians.
r Serpent Worship In India.
.- Serpent worship, once very widel3
.diffused, survives In India. Sometim~e
.when Hindoos find a cobra in som
crevice in the wall of their house i
t will often be reverenced, fed and pro
pitiated, and if fear or the death o:
some one bitten by it induces them t<
remove It they will handle it tenderi:
and let it loose in some field. WheI
Hindoos are bitten, they have far more
confidence In their magic spell o1
"muntra" than in any medicine, even i
they do not scruple to- make. use o:
Fill the Place Well.
SWhere one man is called to be a here
on some great scale 10,000 men arl
called to be courteous, gentle, patient
There are conspicuous virtues whicJ
make reputation, and there are quie
virtues, the virtues of private life
which make character. It is not ever3
man's duty to fill a large place, but it I:
Ievery man's duty to fill his own place
SA Niarrow Margin.
- John Stuart Mill was once dininj
with two brilliant French talkers wh<
twere given to monologue. One ha<
possessIon of the field, and the othe
was watching him so intently to stik<
t in that MIll exclaimed aloud, "If hi
stops to breathe, he's gone."
"Remember," said the serious citizer
"that wealth has its responsibilities."
"Yes," answered Mr. Cumrox. "S5
e long as you are humble and obscure
you can say 'I seen It' and 'I done it
and eat with your knife all you wan
r to."-Washington Star.
She-Dear, you have crushed and al
s most suffocated me. What kind of
e hug do you call that?
. He--That's a Metropolitan street rail
way hug.--New York Life.
Falmouth Is probably the oldest por
a In England. It was used by the Phcon
cans at least 2,500 yearrs ago.
Let the Sunshine In.
C The room should be sunny in all ai
e ments except a very few affections
C the eye, for sunshine is the best gert
destroyer we have, and will make
.room more wholesome and sweet tha
tany disinfectant, savs the Scotsmar
t owdays it is not considered neces
e sary to darken every sick room a~s
- used to be. It is more fashionable an
much more healthy to let in sunshin
all over the house than it is to clos
the blinds so that the furniture ma
ynot fade. It is cheaper -and muc
Spleasanter to have a faded carpet tba
it is to have a case of sickness, an
Ythe doctor's and the nurse's bill to pa
The dark, stuffy room, whisperin
voices and tiptoe tread have passe
way, fortunately for the patient.
THE Atlanta Journal says: "Wi
dham J1. Bryan says he wants to 0:
s ganize a party for Mr. Cleveland's e:
clusive use. Then let him organ
-- one for himself. and perhaps tlt
- Democrats will have a showing.
- Bryan has a party already if the si
e and a half million votes he receive
tt when he ran for president can I:
termed a party.
THROWING AN OLD SHOE.
- iii, qCurious Wedding Custoli 1i of
The origiu of the cuiious custom of
throwing an old shoe after a newly
marrie'l pair for luck has been traced
back to a French peasant origin by a
young man interested in folklore and
quaint customs. In -southern France,
after the wedding ceremony, the girl is
escorled to her new home by her girl
friends and left alone. The young hus
b:un<. also in the hands of his friends,
is next led to a point a couple of hun-,
dred yards away from' the dwelling
whi er: a halt is made. Then the girl'
rejected suitor. if there be such a one.
arius himself with an old sabot. or
wooden shoe. while the bridegroom.
ducking his head. makes a dash for the
house'. The disgruntled suitor throws
as hard and as true as possible. and
the crowd cheers or derides, according
to the success of the shot. A wooden
shoe is a formidable missile in the
hands of an angry swain. and the
bridegroom is justitied in haiving some
misgivings as he sees his defeated rival
pr:Wioicing in :iticipalion of the wed- -
ding day. Just think. says the search
er into folklor'. how great a relief it
wouli I. even in this country. to take
a cr:wk at the fellow who had done
you out of your best girl without hav
ing the police step in! Over in France
the custom has a wider meaning. It
signifies that the last ill feeling is thus
thrown away, and it Is the depth of
disgrace for the man who hag thrown
the shoe to harbor any further malice
against the young couple.
A Trying Moment.
She was a nice little cousin from the
country. and she had come to a city
luncheon given by some swell friends,
says a New York paper. She was hav
ing a beautiful time and chatting away
merrily when the salad course came
on, and the butler passed a small
cream cheese. It was on-a doily placed
on a fiat plate, and a silver knife lay
The couzitry cousin was busy talking
and without an instant's hesitation she
took the plate, cheese and all, and set
It down by her own salad plate. The
butler gave a decorously repressed
start of hcrror. the other guests began
to talk very fast and the little cousin,
suddenly appreciating what she bad
done, turned scarlet and sat and gazed
at that cheese in dumb agony. and
wished she could die then and there.
But the hostess, who sat by her, said,
gently putting the action to the word.
"Do let me cut you a piece of the
And then the plate was passed' on,
and everybody began to breathe once
more. But the cousin didn't speak
again for ten minut'es.
A Heaven on Earth.
The ancient moguI buildings In the
palace of the kings of Delhi are mar-,
vels of beauty. Two -of these-the
L)iwan-i-am, or hall of public audience.
:nd the 1)iwan-i-kl:as. or hall of pri
-ate audience-were built by the Em
r.>r Shah Jahan about two and a
L.aif comi-uries ago. when the mogul
style. cf architectue had reached its.
io:.t (eeorative period. The smaller
cf U'm t.o th li 1iwan-i-khas, is fa
mous for its jewel-like finish.,'and It is
round the walls of tihis apartment that
the Persian inscri-ption runs, "If there
is a heaven on earth, it is this." The
larger hall contains the great mogul
throne. Both buildings are of marble
Inlaid with designs in precious stones.
A Turtle Race.
"One of the most curious races I ever
saw," writes a correspondent 'of the7
;London Tatler, "was on Mir. Oarl. Ha
genbeck's lawn at Trnmburg. 'Some
seven children mounted on the backs
of large turtles or tortoises raced across
the lawn. To give impetus to their
queer steeds most of them armed them
selves with cabbages, which they tied
to the end of sticks, ever and anon
dangling them as tempting morsels in
front of the turtles. It was a strange
race and occupied some time. Every4
now and then a turtle would grasp a
piece of cabbage and then auietly eat
It before resuming Its journey."
Flowers on the Stage.
No actor who is imbued with the su
perstitions of his professioni will give
yellow roses to -a-friend, nor will he
accept them himself, as he fancies the
fowers are harbingers of misfortune,
jealousy and loss of friendship. Some
managers will allow no natural fidwers
whatever to he used by way of "prop
ertes" upon the stage, but that is car
rying the matter further than is usual
ly considered essential.
IFinnicus-I wonder why it. Is that
those who attain the pinnacle of suc
cess never seem tbo be happy.
Cynnicus--Because the pinnacle. of
success is like the top of a particularly
Stall lightning rod with a particularly.
sharp point, and those who succeed in
perching temporarily upon it usually -
fid that they are targets for all the
world's lightning.-Town and Country
The Boast of an Expert.
"This, ladies and gentiemen, Is the
celebrated trick mule, Dot." saId the
clown as the animal was led into. the
ring. "After many. years of effort I
am able to say I can make him do any
Sthing he wants to."
t The Auctioneer.
Said a consefentious auctioneer: "La
dies and gentlemen, there Is no sham
about these carpets. They are genuine
-tapestry carpets. I bought them from
- old Tapestry himself."
Easy In Combination.
"Dey tells me,'' said Uncle Eben,
"dat contentment is better dan riches,
Sbut I 'spicions dat wif de proper facili
-ties I could hab bof of 'em at once."-=
The Human Body.
A French chemiist, of a particularly
Sinquiring turn, says the Medical
Journal. has determined by experi
ament that the body of an average
man, of about 80 kilos, has all the
chemica. elements represented in the
yolk and white of twelve hundred or
'~dinary s.zedaeggs of the common hen.
SProperl:- reduced, such a body would
furnish 96 cubic metres of gas and
esuflicint hydrogen to fill a balloon
with~ an ascensional force of 70 kilos.
N ormally, the human body contains
niron sulticient to make seven large~
nais. at orthirteen candles, car
onfor sixty-five gross of pencils,
phosphorus to tip eight hundred and
dand twenty thousand matches. to
gether with the constituents of salt,
fifty-nine lumps of sugar and forty
two litres of water. Would it not be
Swell to use some of our surplus popu
lation to these ends. Let us diver
.sity our industries.
THE: Czar of Russia has isSued a
decree providing for the freedom of
x religion throughout his cominions and
d establishing to some degree a local self
e government and making other con
cessions to village committees.