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FOR THE SCHOOLS.
A Concensus of Opinion on the Sub
ject of Libraries.
WRITTEN BY J. FRANK FOOSHE.
Should Be Read tby All Parents.,
Guardians or Others Who Are
Interested in the Wel
fare of Children.
The following is the second part of
an article written by M1r. J. Frank
Fooshe, editor of the Winnsboro News
and Herald, for The State.
FOR SOUTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS.
With an increased interest in the
study of the history of South Carolina
there ought to be a demand for more
books on the subject: and in the fol
lowing suggestions there is opportuni
ty to get the best that there is. With
out a single exception the works of
Simms and the four volumes of Gen.
McCrady's history were most heartily
suggested. Next in favor to these
came "Horseshoe Robinson'' and the
"Life of Marion " by Weems. Tim
rod's poems, Hayne's poems. "In Old
St. Stephens" were mentioned more
than one time each. Others that were
mentioned were: "Shadows of the
War," (published anonymously(. "The
Earth Trembled." "Story of Old
Fort Sumter," Craddock: "Cateechee
of Keowee." "Mrs. 31eans' Story of
Dr. Boldridge in this connection
suggested a book that ought to be
within the reach of every teacher in
the State. After mentioning several
of the books already mentioned above,
he adds the following: "And in some
respects better still the telling of
thrilling incidents in South Carolina
history by the teacher. There are
Mr. McCants also makes a sugges
tion that the lives of prominent South
Carolinians be read and adds: "Instead
of this we have them reading sketch
es of Franklin, the first man to set up
the dollar as the great American'
STICK TO BOOKS.
In regard to the advisability of sub
scribing a part of any library funds
that might be in hand for current pe
riodicals and magazines the unanimity
of opinion was against this in a school
as limited in its resources as the one
for which information was being ask
'ed. The stand taken by almost
everyone was that where the funds are
small decidedly better results can be
had by the expenditure of the money
for books. Where the library is al
ready well established :md where the
resources will permit it is recom
mended that there be an effort in this
e writer of this article trusts
that he may be pardoned for adding
to the suggestions contained in the
above answers some of his own person
al experience in the matter of estab
lishing and conducting a library. A few
years ago he took charge of a school of
about 80 pupils and about 40 of these
were in the classes above the usual
fourth year. The school -building was
fairly good for the community and
the surroundings were about as favor
__able as those of most country towns.
The furniture in the building.
though home made, was very good.
The one thing laking in the opinion
of the new teacher was a school lib
rary. In much of their work the
pupils from the very start showed
many commendable characteristics.
but it was very evident that their
reading had been seriously neglected.
To remedy this defect was the one
work that he set out to do. The first
step in-this direction was not an effort
to purchase some books, for in - his
opinion this would not have been ad
visable till some interest' had been
aroused on the part of the children in
this new feature. Fortunately he
had in his possession quite a.collection
of books that were suitable for the
children to read. These he carried to
the school room with him, laid them
on his desk, and invited the children
to read them whenever they felt like
so doing. From the very first they
accepted this invitation, and found
this a most valuable way' to put in
much of the time that would have
otherwise~ been spent in idleness.
Special attention was also given to
reading them such selections as it
was thought would be stimulating in
arousing in them an interest in their
reading. , In visits to the various
homes books that were therein noted,
and from their owners a loan of the
same was asked. There were a good
number of real suitable books to be
obtained in this way, which together
with those to which the pupils had al
ready been given access. made a very
good little circulating library. All
the while the matter of their reading
was emphasized in every way possible.
Nor were the efforts in this direction
without results, as is evidenced by the'
fact that within six months more than
200 volumes were read. At the close
of the school an entertainment was
given for securing funds with which
to purchase a library, and a nice little
sum was secured. The books, about
40 in number, were soon purchased.
In the light of the six years that
have paassed, since that time he would
say that he made some very serious'
blunders in the selection thereof. Ex
perience has since taught the lesson
that in the purchase of any books.
however small the amount therefor
may be, that quality is of far more
consideration than quantity.
When he came to the historic Mt.
Zion he was very much surprised to
find but that little had been done in
the matter of providing a library.
The total number of volumes therein
was about 100, all of which were good,
but few of which were well adapted to
-be read by the children of the age that
is usual with pupils of secondary schools
Unfortunately these wvere in the lab
ratoryv, where the pupils rarely ever
went except for their recitations in
physics. Fortunately for him the
number of books that he had that
were suitable for children had been in
creased to nearly a hnnmdred. Follow
ing out the thought that he had for
years entertained that it is better for
a book to be worn out by use than for
it to rust out, he placed these on the
desks of the different teachers of the
school with the request that they in
vite the pupils of their rooms to read~
the same as freely as if they belonged
to the school, the privilege of taking
the same home being extended in
many instances. With a very few ex
ceptions there was not a home repre
senN < where there were not some
good books for them to read, but in
every instance there were found in
this miscellaneous list some book or~
books that were not on the table at
home. The result was that the same
were freely used. The teachers all
found 'that the interest that the pu
pils took .in this reading increased the
interest in their other work, and they.
therefore readily cooperated in the
matter of getting them more interest
ed in reading the books that had been
placed at their disposal. The next
step was to get books for the library.
Before this was undertaken a ice
case was secured by means of small ta
contributions on the part of a dozen
interested friends. The funds for the
tirst purchase were secured by private
contributions which were supplement
ed by a donation for a similar amount
by the Mt. Zion society. Since then
a part of the money that has been
used for purchasing the books that
have been added has been raised by
means of entertainments. V
The practical working of thislibrary
has been most satisfactory to teachers,
pupils and patrons. It might be add
ed here that one thing that has add
ed to the successful conduct thereof
has been the fact that each pupil has
all the. while been provided with a!
list of the books therein. This list
gives each one an opportunity to be
come acquainted with the books in the
library, and as is suggested by one of
the number whose answers are quoted
above and mere opportunity of looking
upon and learning the names of the
best books is oftentimes of itself a
stimulus to reading. In the distribu
tion of the books the plan of having
each child make out a list of the three
numbers that were perferred and
handing the same in the day before
the books were let out has been fol
lowed: and there is no thought at this
time of changing this method that has
proven so successful. A special advan
tage that this method has is that it
not only assists the child in getting ac
quainted with the books of the library,
but it also makes it possible for the
children to make a more intelligent
comparison of the books that have
been read. And with all due respect
to all the teachers of the whole teach
ing profession the one that is likely to
have the gteatest inftence upon this
or that child as to the books read is
the pupil who sits next by. The teach
er's greatest opportunity, therefore,
is in getting the first pupils started
right in this matter of reading. There
is possibly no other phase of school
work in which the cooperation of the
parents can be so easily secured.
Without any feeling of egotism
whatever the writer from the experi
ences mentioned above most hear ..y
endorses all that has been saixd re
gard to arousing the interest of the
children as the firstestep that is neces
sary in establishing a library and that
the successful-maintenance thereof de
pends very largely upon the teacher.
LIST OF BOOKS.
The following is the list of books as
it was sent out with the exception
that a good large number of the books
are here presented in groups:
Aunt Joe Books (6).
Cooper's complete works (12).
Abbotts' Biographies (12).
Miscellaneous collection of books
published by the Educational Publish
ing company, containing quite a num
ber of valuable books of scientitic and
historical stories (40).
Flaxie Frizzle series (6).
-Elsie books (9).
Alcott books (4).
Pepper books (4).
Thackeray's complete books (15).
Linen books, containing some old
child classics (12).
Warner's World's Library of BestL
Dickens' Complete works (30).
Alice's Adveni.ture in Wonderland.
Aunt Martha's Corner Cupboard. sh
Arthur, Bonnicastle. l
Adam Bede. t
Autobiography of Franklin. p
Aunt Polly's Shed Brigade. t
Arabian Nights. t
Boots and Saddles-.S
Blue Fairey Book, The.
Ben Hur. e
Beside the Bonny Brier Bush. i
Being a Boy. .
Boys of other Countries, in
Barriers Burned Away-.h
Boys of Old Monmouth, Thme-.
Birds and Bees-.a
Boys Froissart, The. a
Cathedral Courtship, A. t
Colonial Children. b
Children of the Cold-.s
Cyclopedia of Quotations-.t
Christie's Christmas. r
Christee's Old Organ. f
Captain Bailey's Heir. s
Chambers' Encyclopedia. g
Defense of Charleston.
Days of Bruce. du
.Daisy Chain. an
Denslow's Mother Goose.
Don Quixote. in
Eight C~usins- 10
Each and All. -
Eight Hundred Leagues on the s
Fables and Rhymes. ar
Folk Story and Verse. 1;
Four Girls at Chatauqua.
Four-Footed Americans. de
Fifty Famous Stories Retold. 1
Fables and Folk Stories. $
Father Goose. 12
Flower of the Family-.b
Gay Worthies. t
Golden Gossip. 7
Grimm's German Fairy Tales. 2
Girls Who Became Famous. mi
Guardian Angel. s
Guy Mannering. c
Hans Brinker. - 8
Heir of Redcliffe. in
Hampton and His Cavalry, '64. t
Hoosier School Boy.
Hardy Norseman, A. d.
Hilt to Hilt.
Huckleberry Finn. t
House Boat on the Styr. s
In the Boyhood of Lincoln. pa
In Ole Virginia. I9
In Mirthland. at
In the Land of Cave and Cliff lo'
Insect World, Thme. ne
Jon Halifax. ti
Last Days of Pompeii. h
Landrum's History of Upper South tb
Lamplighter, The. pa
Little Minister, The. so
Legends of Norseland. h
Little Susie's Stories. 1o
Loyal Little Red Coat, A. i
Lovable Grank, A. t
Little Colonel, The.
Marooners' Island. Ge
McCrady's History of South Caro
ia Vol. 2. .if
Mother Goose (complete.)I
Nights With Uncle Remus. I co
Noble Life, A.
old Gentleman of the Blackstock. A
Pink Fairy Book, The.
Prophet of the Great Smoky 3Moun
Poor Boys Who Became Famous.
Poems of Henry Timrod.
Plant World, The.
Pioneers of the Revolution.
Pillars of the House. 1 and 2.
Pioneer History of the Mississippi
Reminiscences of South Carolina I L
Robinson Crusoe. 35
Red Rock. er
Richard Carvel. 01
Rose in Bloom. se
Rab and His Friends.
Robert E. Lee (Trent). B:
Royal Children of English History. t
Stories from Virgil. 5(
Stories from Homer.
Schonberg Family. ti
Stories of Great Americans. ti
Stories for Little Americans. hi
Seven Little Sisters. cc
Settlers in Canada, The. c
Swiss Family Robinson, The.
Scottish Chiefs. W,
Story of Patsy, The. if
Some of Our Flower Friends. N
St. Elmo. 11
Sarah Carew. B
Story of the Thirteen Colonies.
Stepping Heavenward. C<
Surry of Eagle's Nest. lu
Stonewall Jackson. at
Shakespeare, The Poet. T5
Timothy's Quest. tt
Two Little Confederates. ,5
Tanglewood Tales. r5
The Twin Cousins. CC
Tom Brown at Rugby. T
Tom Brown at Oxford. te
Treasure Island. le
Thaddeus of Warsaw.
To Have and to Hold. ri
Three M3usketeers. of
Tales of Chivalry. tv
Tom Sawyer. te
Universe, The. n(
Uncle Remus. P(
Uncle Tom's Cabin. 11
Uncle Max. rt
Under Two Flags.
Under the Lilacs. ot
Vicar of Waketield. te
Westward Ho. ea
Washington and His Generals.
When Knighthnod was in Flower.
Wide, Wide World.
With Trumpet and Drum.
Whittier's Snow-Bound and other re
Wonder Book. at
Wise and Otherwise. bi
We Two. cc
When I Was a Little Girl. es
Water Babies. fc
Year With Birds, A.o
Young Astronomer, The.
SOXE STAETLING FIGURES. ar
rnchings, Suicides, Homicides and m
Defalcations Last Year. Il
Thle lynchings reported for 1902
owed a decrease of twenty-nine as le
mpared with those of 1901. but the ti
t year they have increased again,
e list standing 104 for 1903, as corn- ai
red with ninet)-six in 1902. of bf
ese lynchings, twelve occurred in ti
e North and ninety-two in the fa
uth. Of the victims, eighty-six se
~re negroes, seventeen whites, and
e Chinaman. One woman was lynch- Pl
in Mississippi and one in Louis. b2
na. . . St
The number of legal executions in le
03 was 123, as compared with 144 T
1902, 118 in 1901, and 119 in 1900.
ere were seventy-seven persons St
,nged in the South and forty-six in le
e North. Sixty-three were whites mn
Ld sixty blacks. ti
Suicides are steadily increasing in ti
e United States and the value of al
tman life steadily cheapens. The inl
icides of one year closely resemble la
ose of another year in causes and ti
thods. No special feature stands
t conspicuously except toe ease with ti
ich the victims can obtain poison pC
>m the druggists. Poisoning is the te
>st common method of committing er
icide, and carbolic acid .is the most yC
mmon poison in use. la
The total number of cases reporten m
ring thae year is 8,597---5,385 med ti
d 3,212 women-as compared with cc
291 in 1902. How steadily suicides
arease annually is shown by the fol- nC
wing figures: In 1899 t.iere were re
340 cases: in 1900, 6,755: in 190], laJ
45; in 1902, 8,291, Physicians, as b7y
al, head the list among profes- to
mal men, the record standing. Phy
~ians, 35; ministers, 5: lawyers, 4:
ists, 4; college professor.s, 2: actors, ca
bank officials, 12. m
The record of embezzling, forgery, kr
faulting and bank-wrecking for of
03 shows a slight decrease, being 5,
,562,165, as compared with 86,769 - ti'
5 last year. The losses are distri- of
ited as follows: Stolen by public di
cials, $615,176: from banks, 81,689,- tv
2 by agents, $1,712,912: forgeries. a
18,817: from loan associations, $188- di
8; by postal e uployees, $17.967: at
scellaueous stealitgs, $2,.174,15:3.
The number or homicides in 1903 a
ows a small increase, being 8,976 as
mpared with 8,834 in 1902, and 7, cc
2 in 1901. ,There was an increase di:
the number'of murders by burglars,
eves and hold-up men. 1
The Better Test. in
"'ve' just learned a new charm to to
i whether or not a man loves you", er
id the girl with the bulging pompa- or
"What is it"? asks the girl with fo
e new diamond ring.
"Why, you take four or five apple
ads and name each oft them for a izi
rticular man, and place them-the Ci
pe seeds, I mean-on the stove, of
d the first one pops is the one that th~
res you." a
"Humph!' mused the girl with thedi
w diamond ring, absent mindedly th
'isting that piece of jewelry about to
r finger. "I know a surer way than
"Yes, indeed. You take one fo
rticular man and place him on the; it
'a in the parlor, and sit close to ga
n, with the light a little low, and atn
k up to him very attentively, and ofi
he doesn't pop you know. it's timeI
put another man on the sofa." fel
SECIAL agents of the president in- th
stigating the postal frauds make be
charge that fcrmer Postmaster 'no
neral Charles Emory Smith and tri
rry eath are responsible for them. cr:
they are we fail to see any reason
ythey shold receve the usual on
LAW AND ORDER.
League Has Been Organized and
Field Agent Appointed.
f ACTIVE STATE CAMPAIGN
o be Commenced at Once and
Pushed Until a League is
Organized in E a c h
The South Carolina Tenperance.
LW and Order league istgetting ready
r an active cempaign. Rev. Vernon
Anson, an earnest and forceful
eaker and a tireless worker, has been
gaged as field worker and general
ganizer. The State says Mr. I'An
n's ability is shown in the wonder
I manner in which he has organized,
lded together and built up the
rge congregation of the Southside
iptist church in Columbia. Ills ex
rience as correspondent of Washing
n papers and in doing other newspa
r work has given him an insight
to human n.ture in addition to that
iich the successful preacher acquires.
Mr. l'Anson is thoroughly aroused it
is cause and will not stop at any
ing short 01 success. Ile has the
arty co-operation of the executive
mmittee, Capt. J. W. Ilamel ol
ershaw.b!.ir. P. L. Sturkey of Green
)od. M1r. Howell 'Morrell of Horrell
ill, Col. T. J. LaMotte of Columbia,
r. Geo. Bates of Barnwell. 3r. W.
Tnomson of Lancaster, .1r. II. I.
ewton of Bennettsville, Mr. Simeor
yde of Charleston and 3r. Joel E.
:nson of Sumter.
At the time of the organization ir
>lumbia fair week the following reso
tion offered by Capt. Ilamel was
lopted: "Resolved, That the execu
e committee memorialize the legisla
re to enact such legislation as will
e the voters of a municipality the
Tht to vote a dispensary out of theil
mmunity." "Mr. IPAnson stated
mrsday that this is the only mat
r of legislation upon which the
igue is working and that every effort
ill be put forward to obtain thil
Oht from the lawmaking body. The
pulation of a town changes fre
iently, and often there is a reversal
sentiment. The law is so consti
ted that once A dispensary is fas
ned upon a community there can be
> removal. no matter how many ap
als are made. no matter how strong
ts grown the sentiment against the
In order to accomplish this and
her reforms. the executive commit
e has decided to form a league in
ch county that the movement may
ve more force.
The by-laws provide the following
gulations for the county leagues:
1. A county league shall be formed
each county seat and may maintain
anch leagues at such points in the
unty as may best. subserve its inter
t, and shall adopt such simple rules
r its government as may be neces
ry to carry out the objects of the
2. The ofticers of the county leagues
tall consist of a chairman, secretary
id treasurer. and an executive coin
ittee in such number as the league
ay decide upon. They shall be
cted annually and hold ottice until
Leir successors are chosen.
3. The chairman of each county
gue shall be ex-otticio member of
e State executive committee.
4. Eatch county league shall elect
mually at their meeting in Septem
r delegates to the annual conven
>n in Columbia, in the ratio of one
r each member of the general as
mbly from their county.
Following is the address to the peo
e which was issued some time ago
the executive committe of the
ate Temperance, Law and Order
> the Peop~le of South Carolina:
The executive committee of the
ate Temperance, Law and Order
gue, in the discharge of the duty
iposed on them, would address tc
,eir fellow citizens a few considera
ns and conclusions as to the deplor
le condition of lawlessness existing
the State, a condition well calcu
ted to humiliate us in the estima
>n of the civilized world..
It is sufticient to call attention to
e fact that 180 homicides are re
rted in the daily papers as commit
d in this State for the nine months
ding September 30 of the current
ar to show that a terrible state of
~vessness exists, and to justify the
ost earnest and strenuous efforts on
.e part of law-respecting citizens te
Besides this record of bloodguilti
ss. crimes of all lesser grades which
sult from a lawless spirit are on the
crease, while elforts to repress them
-the ordinary process of law seem
be singularly ineffective.
THlE DIsRtEsPECT FOR LAW.
It is scarcely necessary to recite thle
ralogue of these crimes against
rality and good order. They are
town and read of all men. The laws
God and man are violated with
tpunity, as witnessed by the desecra
f of the Sabbath, the profanation
the sanctuary of God by scenes 01
unkenness, disorder and bloodshed,
e vioalations of the criminal law.
d the shameful violation of the
spensary law in all its restrictive
d prohibitive provisions.
Under these conditions it becomes
roper inquiry for thoughtful men.
tat. is the cause of this disordered
nidit ion of society, and to seek to
cover a remedy therefor.
Te most painful feature of the
uation is to be found in tile general
difference on the part of thje better
assume element their part in the
forcement of law, and their refusal
neglect to support those appointed
ents who are charged with its en
THE DUTY OF CITIzE:Ns.
We believe it tile duty of good cit
mns of all classes, and especially of
iristians, to aid in tIhe enforcemient
all laws which have beenm placed on
e statute books by their sanction.
d that their neglect or refusal to
charge thleir duty in this respect is
e chief encouragement and support
We commend his excellency. Gov.
yvward, for his sincere effort to en
:ce theldispensary law,. and declare
to be one of the purposesC of otur or
nizationl to render all available aid
d encoragemfenlt to him and his
icers in their laudable endeavor.
In a word, we would call upon our'
low citizens to come promp~tly antd
Idly to the rescue of our State fromn
a perilous position in which we have
ai placed by suffering a small ml
rity of law breakers to imperil every'
ze interest of the people by their
For this purpose we would urge up
the people in every county and
ganized elfort by forming themselves
into leagues for the purposes set forth
in the simple form of organization
which is herewith subinitted.
RURAL MAIL ROUTE.
Some Interesting Figures About the
service in This State.
According to a special dispatch to
the Greenville News from Washing
ton there are 284 rural free delivery
routes doing business in the State of
South Carolina. On an average they
deliver mail to 600 people each. It
will be seen from this that about
175,000 people get the benefit of rural
free delivery in the State. It costs
just about $600 a year to operate one
of these routes, and Uncle Sam is,
therefore, paying into the State of
South Carolina alone the tidy little
sum of $175,000 a year for a service
that is entirely for the benefit of the
people. * The average route is about
23 miles long, so that the rural car
riers of South Carolina travel in the
neighborhood of 6,500 miles every day.
Each route covers about eighteen
square miles of territory, so that the
free delivery system of South Carolina
covers over 5,000 square miles or ter
The people of the State have asked
for 713 routes in all. Of these 284
have been granted and 283 have been
rejected. The other 146 are still
pending. It will be oibserved from
these figures that the people are get
ting just about half as many routes
as they are asking for. At the same
ratio, when all the petitions have been
acted upon, there will be 357 routes
and as many carriers in the State.
The figures of the department show
many interesting things in connection
with rural free delivery in S.)uth Car
olina. In the first place they show
that free delivery seems to bethe uni
versal desire in some districts while in
others it seems to enjoy little popu
The Third District, represented by
Wyatt Aiken, is the banner district
in the State in the number of rural
routes. There are now in operation
within its borders. 82 rural routes.
There are also 21 petilions still pend
ing and awaiting investigation by the
department. The department has re
fused to grant 52 routes asked for in
the district. It will be seen from this
that the people of that district have
asked for 157 routes all told and have
gotten 82, more in proportion than
the State at large.
The Fourth District comes second
in regard to the number of routes es
tablished. This is the district rep
resented by Mr. Johnson. There are
60 routes in operation in the district.
There are 33 petitions still pending,
and there have been 64 rejections.
There have been more applications
rejected in this district than rrom
any other in the State. In all, the
people of the Greenville district have
asked for 157 routes, exactly the num
ber asked for by the people of the
Third District, but they have not got
ten as much in proportion by a good
deal as the people of the third.
The constituents of Mr Legare
have asked for 58 routes. They have
received 10. 35 or their petitions have
been turned down, and 13 are await
ing action. The most of these reject
ed were petitioned'for under the pre
decessor of Mr. Legare.
Reperesenitative Croft has secured
18 routes for his consituents, has 21
petitions pending, and has had 24
petitions rejected. He has fowarded
to the department 63 petitions.
The Fifth District, represented by
Mr. Finly, has 44 routes in operation.
There are 31 petitions still pending
and 31 have been rejected, ma?king- in
all 106 routes that have been asked
for by the people of that district.
In Mr. Scar borough's district there
are 30 routes in operations, 5 peti
tions are awaiting actioc, 33 have
been rejected; in all, 69 routes asked
Mr. Lever has 40 routes in opera
tion in his district, 21 petitions pend
ing investigation, aad there have
been 44 rejections, making 150 peti
tions submitted from that district.
CRUELYY INl SCHOOLS.
Teachers Should be Very Consider
ate of Children Under Them.
Miss Mary B. Shelor, of Oconee
county, has been visiting the county
schools in Oconee andPickens, finding
out what must be done to improve
the common schools. In a communi
cation to the Keowee Courier, publi
shed in the issue of December 23d,
she tells of what she saw during her
canvass of the counties. She says:
"1 visited a school where a 'born
teacher' was teaching. A little child
who was of a nervous temperament
had a nervous chill. The teacher
commanded her to be still. She could
not and was whipped by that teacher.
Another 'baby teacher' asked a weak
eyed boy to take his book down from
In commenting on the above the
Abbeville Medium very truly says
such cruel teachers should never have
been employed. To whip a nervous
little child as described above was an
outrage of the most odious kind and
to make no allowance for weak eyes
in a little boy was inexcusable. Such
heartless. cases are of frequent occur
rence all over the state. The little
children at school certainly lead a
most miserable life, being imposed up
on in so many ways that their condi
tion is pitiable in the extreme. Im
possible tasks are given them and
they are subjected to unjust and ex
cessive punishment for the most trival
of childish faults. They are required
to submit to the most unreasonable
rules and regulations and if they suc
ceed in not violating any of these
they are worried to death by all sorts
of contradictory whims of a lot of
nervous and dyspeptic teachers.
The average thacher has no love
for the work and takes up the time
in fussing and quarreling with the
children. No assistance is given the
child and no explanation is made of
the hard lessons. The unhappy lit
tle children are constantly told that
they have no raising and dont know
how to behave themselves. They are
all taken to be liars, for no confidence
is placed in anything they say. This
folly is carried so far that if a child's
mother should die and he stayed at
home to attend the funeral and gave
that as an excuse for absences his
word would not be taken as true, but
he would have to bring a written ex
cuse from his father or guardian.
If you will look closely at a lot of
'children coming from school you will
not see the buoyance and life that
ought to animate youngsters. The
majority appear to be fagged out and
move as if they had "that tired feel
ing." They have a wild, restless look
about their eye. Eight or ten years of
such tension fits a person for suicide
nd it is the modern method of teach
ing that is really the cause of so many
IN ICY SEA
The Crew of a Vessel Was Lashed!
to The Mast
FOR TWENTY-SIX LONG HOURS.
They Fight for Life on the Water
Logged Boat All Chribtmas
Eve and Part of the
Lashed t6 the mast of a water
logged vessel. with icy waves break-!
ing over them and a deck load of heavy
timber threatening each momerit to
shift and sweep theni into the sea,
Captain. C. S. Edwards and the crew'
of the coasti.ng vessel Ira Bliss held
manfully to life for twenty-six hours.
when they were rescued by the French
For a weary month's trip to Dieppe.
France, their hardships continued.
They returned to New York, as pas
sengers upon the American Line
steamship St. Louis last week.
Sailing from Norfolk for New York
November 22. the Ira Bliss two days
later met strong southwest winds and
heavy seas. The jibsail was carried
away and the waves swept over the
decks. The gale increased, now from
the northwest. The vessel was set
tling, with eight feet of water in the
hold, gaining slowly, despite efforts at
the pumps. The vessel was soon un
Captain Edwards and Mate George
E. Post lashed themselves to the deck
house. in the lee of the mainmast.
Waves continually broke over them.
The three negroes comprising the
crew, praying and moaning. clung to
the wheel house, where one boat was
A big wave wrenched away the boat
and one of the negroes with it. The
captain and mate at, the risk of their
lives drew the negro back with a line
he had caught. Then all came to the
"That night I shall never forget,"
said Captain Edwards.
"Benumbed with cold and assailed
with the pangs of hunger and thirst."
said Captain Edwards, "we heard the
deck load starting and expected each
minute would be our last.
"Groping about in the water, we
found some sweet potatoes adrift.
Nothing ever tasted so good.
"With our few dry matches we
lighted a dry cotton sheet, and
through the night kept strips of the
sheet lighted to attract attention.
Two steamships were sighted. but they
did not stop. Morning found us
lashed to the maingaff, the cabin
house rocking under us, and the ne
groes crying and praying.
"Ilalleujah! halleujah!" suddenly
shouted "Sunny" Williams. about
2 o'clock that afternoon. le was
pointing frantically to the French
bark which rescued us.
"The bark had a cargo of petroleum
and was heavily battered by the sea.
Because of the petroierm v-e could not
get a light. My legs and side were
frozen and the rest of my men were
in bad shape. Rescue had only les
sened the degree of our miserys.
"Later the storm abiated and fires
were lighted in the ship's stoves.
Arriving in France~ we were sent to
Cherbourg and shipped home on the
Fatality ot Lightning.
As near as may he determined. 71:3
persons were kiled by lig'itning in
the United State~s in 1900j, and be
tween 700 and 800 are pnsbably killed
each year, says an. enchange. East
of the 100th Meridi, i thunderstorms
occur all over the conltry, but west
of it, except in the Rocicy Mountains,
the frequency of storms diminishes
until on the Pacific coast 'there are
practically none. The greatut numn
ber of storms occur in Florida, in the
middle Mississippi Valley and the
middle Missouri Valley. The ave:'
age number of storms in eacli in 190u
was forty-tive, thirty-five and thirty.
respectively. The greatest number 01
deaths in any single state was liu-in
Pennsylyania. Ohio came next with
135, Indiana, Illinois and New York
124 each. As to city and country, the
more dense the populationi the small
er the rate to the 1.000,000 of poula
tion, due, of course, to the fact that
the territory of the country is far
greater than that of the city. Besides
this, the metal roofs, telegraph wires,
etc., of the cities serve as conductors.
Lightning rods, as usually put up.
are of no use. A tin roof with gutter
spouts leading into the ground is
much more effective. Barns with
green hay seem to invite lightning.
Maple and cotton-wood trees are
struck touch more frequently than
oaks, these much more than beeches.
Trees are surely a poor place for
shelter, and feather beds are disliked
by the stroke.
THE St.ORY OF THE ARK.
Questions Have Arisen as to Authen
ticity of Voya;;e.
As the case or the story of Jonah
and his brief but intimate acquain
ance with the whale, questions have
been raised about the authenticity of
the story of the tripe of the first house
boat, the ark. Was it possible to con
struct a vessel having the reputed ca
pacity of the famous crafty What
were its dimensions anyway? These:
questions have buzzed in the head of
more than one "old subscriber" and
"constant reader." The editor of the
Syren and Shipping has undertaken
to answer these questions and allay
for all time any doubts as to whether
the writer of the story of the deluge
was ignorant of the subject of ship
building. "Within the last ten years,"
he says "the general dimensions of
the ark have been closely followed by
cargo steamship builders for deep sea
and the Amneircan Great L--kes ser
vice. According to the bible, the ark
was 480 feet long, SO feet wide and 48
feet deep. Her tonnage was 11.41:3,
and she had plenty of room for pairs
of all the distinct species of animals
that are classed by Butlon-244-andI
she could rhave accommodated 1,000
persons and then have plenty of room!
for the storage of supplies. In the
seventeethi century Peter Jansen, a
Hollander, built a vessel of the exact
proportions of the ark, and she was
successful, as records of the times
sow. in making money for her own
ers. Noah, the "Father of Naval Ar
chitecture," is held in profound re
spect by naval architects of today,
who know how immeasurably the
Phoenicians, Greeks and Riomans and
all other shipbuilders fell short of the
excellence of the type of the ark as
a commodious, safe and economical
THrE debate on bathing is broaden
ing out. There are those who zeal
ously advocate the warm bath and
those who advocate the cold bath.
But a new factor has now to be heard
--those who advocate no bath at all,
alleging all Sorts of dire hazards in the
THE COTTON SITUATION
Is the South's Great Staple Menaced
by Poor Seed.
According to Daniel J. Sully, the
New York cotton dealer, the present
serious condition in the cotton markets
of the world, and the danger threaten
ing the textile industry of the United
States, of England, France, Germany,
Russia, Switzerland and Spain can be
traced to only one cause-the steriliza
tion or impoverishment of the cotton
seed. He says: "Serious as is the
situation to-day and high as prices
are. the situation will be more serious
and the prices higher each year antil
measures are taken by which proper
seed can be planted for the growth of
the cotton crop. Paradoxical as it
may seem, the curtailment of the
cotton crop is a natural result of the
growth of the cotton seed industry. A
quarter of a century ago the cotton
seed was the bane of the cotton plant
er. He had great difficulty in getting
rid of his surplus seed. It was burned.
cast into the rivers, used to fill gulliet
and hollows and hauled away at n
little expense. But since the dis
covery of the uses of cotton seed oil
cotton seed hulls and cotton seed mea
the demand for the seed has grown t,
great proportions. The South is dot
ted with cotton seed oil mill., an
what was once regarded as refuse nov
brings nearly $100,000,000 a year t
"This would be a magnificient as
set were it not for the fact that the
oil mills demand the heavi-,t an("
richest of the seed, h aving only thi
poorest for the planter to put back i
the ground for the planting of hi.
next crop. The fierceness of competi
tion is such and the prices ftor seed art
so large that within the last five o
six years the planters have impoverish
ed their seed supply to the utmosi
limit. Poor seed brings a poor cottoi
yield. Increased acerage is no remedy.
even if it were possible under present
conditions to extend the acerage mucl
beyond its present limits. Thought
ful men of the South see no pro-pect
of a change in the immediate future.
Surely none can be expreted as long
as the spinners have to scramble foi
cotton to keep their mills going and
the cotton seed mills pay top-notch
prices for their supplis.
"The statistics of the last six oi
seven years show more conclusively
than anything I could say how im
portant a part this impoverishment 01
the cotton seed is playing in cottor
affairs. Since 1897 the acerage plant
ed to cotton in the United States ha,
been increased from 24,000,000 t
approximately 28,000,000 acres. Yei
the yield has steadily decreased. It
1897 the South raised 11.200,000 bales
of cotton on an acreage of 24,000,000.
Tuis season with an acreage of 28,000,
000, the government's estimate is 6,
962.000 bales. Take the average
yield an acre year by year and the
detoriation is shown more convincing
ly. In 1897-98 the yield of lint per
acre planted was 224 pounds. It
1898-99, it was 232; in 1899-00, 210;
in 1900 01. 211; in 1901-02, 188; in
"B3ut even these figures do not
show the real decrease in the vield
per acre. In 1897 and 1898 cottoe
wis extremely cheap, and what re
presented hundreds of thousands o:
bales of lint were le t unpicked in the
tred, because the planters did no'
think it would pay for the piciring.
This season, however, there isn't a
cotton plant in the South that hasn't
been picked of every ounce of its pro
duct. The world,. absolutely requires
10, 700,000 bales cotton this season. It
could use 12,000,000 bales and there
would be no surplus. Cotton is the
most valuable money crop of the
world to-day. It is used in more u1
the world staples than any other of
the earth's products. Its uses are
constantly widening, and yet we are
face to face with the condition ofa
constantly shortening crop. It is idle
to charge the big advance in prices t(
'nanipulation of the market, to weath
er conditions in the cotton belt, to
lack of moisture, lateness of planting
or to any other of the stock causes.
Every student of the cotton world
who gives serious consideration to the
subject will come back to the basic
trouble of the impoverishment of the
"This subject is of far greater im
portance than the average man realiz
es. It is of as great importance to
North as to the South, not only be
cause of the manufacturing industries
of the North that are dependent upon
the cotton crop, but because every
oody wears cotton goods and because
the tinancial world depeods upon the
cotton crop to maintain the financial
parity between this country and Eu
rope. Without our cotton the money
market of the United States would be
in a sad way. Cotton bills are pay.
able in gold, and it is througn the
payment for cotton exported to Europe
that we maintain the gold balance
with the rest of the world. You can
not look for any change in the South
until the danger from the impoverish
ment of the .cotton seed is brought
home to the planter. At present he
is blind to this menace. The present
crop will bring to him at least $150,
000,000 more than any other crop he
ever raised. That would seem to
prove that he is favored by fortune.
The crop of next year perhaps will
bring even much greater returns. But
there is an end to all things, and soon
er or later it will be realized that
what is now a godsend may bring
"The world must have cotton. If
it cannot get enough from the South
it will get it elsewhere. It is true all
efforts to find cotton land equal to
that of the South having failed, some
by reason of transportation ditfculties
and some from other causes, climate
and otherwise. Man is ingenious and
persevering, however, and should a
cotton famine extend over a period of
ten or more years we find a rival of
the South developing in some other
land. In the interim America's manu
facturing is growing and it is confi
dently expected that before other
countries can be made to produce cot
ton, A merican mi:ls will require prac
tically all the new material this coun
try can produce under present meth
Today the A merican cotton makes
up nearly 85 per cent of the cotton
that is grown. Egypt grows a long
staple cotton that is used in the finest
of good s. India grows a short staple
cotton that is used in the coarsest of
goods. America grows the staple
crop that is the medium between the
Indian and the Egyptian, and is the
great commercial necessity of the tex
tile world. There is a distinct rela
tionship between the American and
the other crops, each having a bearing
upon the other and the Egyptian and
the Indian planter share relatively in
whatever condition affects each dis
tinct growth. The curtailment Of the
A merican crop will stimulate the East
nda n to raicing all the cotton possi
ANOTHER HERO GONE.
Gen. Johi B. Gorden Has Passed
Over the River.
SOON FOLLOWED LONGSTRET.
He Was One of the Best Soldiers
of the Civil War, and Serv
ed With Gen. Lee to
Lieutenant General John Brown
Gordon died at his winter home near
Miami, Fla., at 10:05 Saturday night.
His fatal illness, which overtook him
last Wednesday, was congestion of
the stomach and liver, following an
icute attack of- indigestion, to which
he was subject.
General Gordon was ill with this
4ame trouble-that is, very seriously
.o--before. but rallied. The last
ime he suffered an attck it was at
New Orleans, during the reunion of
he United Confederate veterans, of
Nhich organization he is president,
Lnd to which position he has re
peatedly been elected, testifying the
varmth of a'fection in which he was
teld throughout the South. He was
:-ery ill at the time, but rallied to
reatment given him. It was noticed,
iowever, how his strength was taxed
t that time and attending physicians
an New Orleans said that tie-next
ttack meant the death of the
Waen he became ill this week it
vas immediately seen that he was In
L dangerous condition. His strength
vas gone. He could not take nourish
nent. Doctors Gramling and Jack
.an advised that the family be sum
noned. It was believed on Thursday
.ight and again on Friday night that
leath was at hand. for the stupors
ato which he would fall were dis
ieartening to the attendants.
The beginning of the end occurred
Saturday afternoon, serious complica
-ionssetting in, and 6y night his physi
ians bad abandoned all hope, as his
Kidneys refuse to secrete and uranic
poison was very decided. His death
was quiet. He fell peacefully to sleep,
md all was over. As stated, the cause
->f death was acute indigestion. Prior
,o the New Orleans attack he had
suffered from the same trouble in;
Mississippi several months ago.
At II o'clock Thursday morning
consultation of physicians was held
md it was found he was seriously, if
not critically ill. His son Major Hugh
Gordon, who resides at Biscayne. was
with him. A telegram was sent to
his daughter, Mrs. Burton Smith of
Atlanta, calling her to his bedside.
She was with him when he died.- Gen
eral Gorden grew steadily worse until
Saturday when he was unconscious
most of the time.
General and Mrs. Gordon had been
in Florida this winter only three
weeks before his death. His health
had been unusually good prior to his.
fatal attack. He had bought a win
ter home at Biscayne three years ago
and had since been spending a portion
of his winters there. -
ble, but that cannot affect the situs
tion to any material degree. Neither _
can any possible increase in the Egyp
tian output alter the situation. The
whole world depends upon the South.
"We have been .quoted as predict-.
ing that within the next four or-live
years cotton would sell at 25 cents a
pound. This may seem'extravagant
to those who do not realize the extent
to which the sterilization of the seed
in the South has been carried or to
the extent to which the growth of
the textile industry and the use of
cotton has developed. No one can ac
curately measure the demand for cot
ton who does not take into considera
tion the steady widening of its uses
and the hundred or more industries
into which cotton enters in one form *
or another. If there is anyone who
doubts that .to the seed the curtail
mi'nt of the cotton crop Is due prima
rily and chiefly, need only refer himn
to the annual report of George A.
Morrison, president of the American
Cotton Oil Company, which was pub
lished less than one month ago. In
it he says: 'The decrease in surplus
earnings of the American Cotton Oil
Company is attributed to extreme
competition for cotton seed-and prov
.ng to be of poor quality, producing
oil of inferior grade and less than nor
mak' quantities to the ton.' So you
see that even the cotton seed mills
are feeling the effect. When the best
of the seed is of poor quality. what
can be said of that which is left for
the planter and for Mother Earth to
bring forth another cotton crop?"
Charleston Blind Tigers.
According to The News and Courier
Tuesday of last week was a veritable
"field day" for the Charleston "blind
tigers" in the city c-mrt. The News
and Courier says there was twenty
one convictions for violations of the
dispensary ordinance by the court
that day. The News and Courier
goes on to say that "a fine of $25 was
imposed upon each of the followbig
named defendants, who personally
appeared before the court and entered
a plea of guilty as charged: John
Meyer, John iH. Mebrtens, Henry
Sassel Meyer and 0. H. Weiters.
Fines of $50 were imposed upon a plea
of guilty from each of the following
named: A. F. Schultz, C. H. Albers,
S. R. Mooney, R. Hopke, jr., E. H.
Coates, Riddock & Byrns, Thomas
Fields, J. H. C. Drews, Samuel
Sltorie, Mrs. Emily V. Brainovich,
Thomas Marks. John F. Bosch, Henrg;;[
K. Renken, Fruest A. Rodenberg, .
Norman Howard, Vincent Chicco and
Salvator J. Bertucci. In default of
payment of fine those who so elect
can spend ten days in jail." It will
be noticed that the above parties.
pleaded guilty of violating the dis
pensary ordinance of the city and not
State law against keeping blind tigers.
Now to test the sincerity of the juries
in Charleston and see if they will con
vict dive keepers why don't Solicitor
Hildebrand have these parties brought
before the grand jury and see if that
august body will tind true bills against
them for violating the State law
againit selling whiskey? The old gag
that suflicient testimony cannot be
had to convict dive keepers will not
hold good in the case of these law
breakers. Every one of them has
pleaded guilty to violating the city
dispensary ordinance and been fined
by the judge of the city court. They
could not deny when arraigned in
the State court the plea of guilty they
entered in the city court, and, there
fore, the jury would either have to
bring in a true bill, or, do like other
juries have done, refuse to find true
bills against men who openly confess
to violating the State dispensary law.
Why can't the confessiors of these
blind tiger keepers in the city court
be used against them in the Stat4