Newspaper Page Text
VOL. XXVIII MANNING, S. C., WEDNESDAY., OCTOBER 21, 1914
STATES MUST BUY
IDEA Is TO PURCHASE HALF 01
1;%E BONDS TO PAY
State Governments Can Immediateh
C'reate Strong Artificial Market
These State Bonds Will be Com
patible as Collateral-Southerm
States Have Power to Save Farmer
The South must look to the re
sources of its state governments rath
er than to federal aid for any relief
from the financial stringency that
threatens to follow demoralization of
the cotton market, in the opinion of
W. P. G. Harding, a prominent Ala
bama banker and a member of the
federal reserve board.
In a statement issued at Washing
ton Thursday Mr. Harding urged that
immediate relief measures be taken
by the several states to tide over a
situation he said was now "becoming
acute." He made it clear, however,
that his suggestions were not in the
nature of an official expression ema
nating from the reserve board, but
set forth merely his personal conclu
Mr. Harding's statement was ad
dressed particularly to the people of
Alabama, in support of the plan re
cently suggested by Senator Bank
head for extensive purchase-of cotton
by the state government, to ;be paid
for by an Issue of state bonds.
"What .is really needed is a mar
ket," said Mr. Harding: "and as there
Is not adequate market for the time
being an artificial market. can be
created. Attempts have been Tade
to create such a market through the
national government, but it is clearly
impossible, both from a legal stand
point and for practical reasons, for
the government of the United States
to aid either as a purchaser of cotton
or as a lender upon it as security.
Much valuable time has been lost in
pursuing this phantom hope, and the
sooner our people abandon the chase
the better. If anything is to be done
towards creating an artificial market,
such action must be taken by the
souhern states for themselves.
"Senator Bankhead's plan does not
provide for any new or additional in
debtedness, but seeks to change the
form of liabilities already incurred by
:>anerting individual* debts into
o'ligations of the state.
"When he proposed that the state,
purebas one-balf of all the cotton
actually grown within her borders at
a price representing what is probably
the, average cost of production. 10e
per pound. and'that payment be made
by an issue of 4 per cent. bonds pay
able on or before. three years after
date, he points out the way to estab
lish an-artificial market, by means-of
which the cotton surplus in .Alabama
,can be carried over beyond the dan
ger point, and he has, in my opinion.
suggested the most practicable way of
sectring Immediate and effective re
"I have taken oceasion to ask job
bers and bankers iI various sections
of the country for their views and I
do not belyieve that any creditor of
an Alabama farmer or merchant
would hesitate to take thos3 Alabama.
bonds In liquidation of obligations,
for In most cases the only security
they now 'have 'is the eanity in the
cotton in the hands of thousands of
individual holders, for which there is
pra'tically no cash inarket. This ap
parent purchase of c'otton by the state
would be really a mobilization of
debts. a concentration of assets."
While final decision was not reach
ed by -the federal reserve board on
the proposaT for a"$150000,O00 loan
by bankers to aid cotton producers.
enough was accomplished to make it
certain the board. would assume gen
eral -supervision -of the fund if the
plan should be carried out The mat
ter was discussed at 'length at the
board meeting and, although it al
ready has the approval of the board
in principle, .difficulties as to details
of administration of the fund were
encountered which delayed final ac
President Wilson and Secretary
McAdeo, howevera are known to be
greatly interested in the success of
the plan, and it was predicted .that
the board would work out a system of
administration for the fund sattisfac
tory to the government and the par
ticipating bankers. Festus J. Wade.
and George W. Simmons. the St.
Louis bankers who have taken a lead
ing part in pushing the plan had a
lon~g cnference with Secretary Mc
Adoo and later with the board.
*Austrians Report They -Have City
Evacuated by Russians.
A dispatch from TLondon Wednes
day says Viendia makes the claim that
the Russians have evacuated Leni
berg, while'the Russians Tuesday de
nied a similar report that they had
given up the siege of Przemysl. It
would not surprise military men if
the Russians withdrew from Galicia
to concentrate all their force. for the
supreme struggle which, with the ad
vance of the Austro-Hungarian
armies into Poland, is now upon thenm
along the Vistula from south of War
sow to their southern boundary.
'SUBMARINE SiNKS ANOTHER.
The British Admiralty announced
Friday that on Thursday German sub
marines or submarine attacked two
British ships, the Hawke and the
Theseus. The Hawke, a cruiser of
7,330 tons, 360 feet long and 6(1 feel
beam, was sunk. Of her cr-ew 5(
were saved, while the remainder,
330. is supp~osed to have been lost.
The Theseus escaped injury.
Air Men Guard Paris.
Two French aerial videttes patrol
led the sky above Paris to take ori
ainy German machines which mighi
Governor Blease has paroled .Johr
Reeder, convicted of murder in 1 9(.1
at Newberry and sentenced to lif
Steel to Make Bayonets.
The French government has order
ed 5.000 torns of steel in 'Pittsburs
fo ue in making banets.
WOULD BUY MANY BALE,
I BOND ISSUE IS PROPOSED IN THI
South Carolina to Issue $50,000.000
Short Term Bonds With Which tc
Buy Farmers' Cotton.
The proposal to issue bonds with
which to buy cotton has eclipsed foi
the moment other measures advocat
ed in the State Senate for relief of
the cotton crisis. Late Tuesday
night Senator Alan Johnstone of
Newberry interrupted a session of the
Senate and passed a motion to go
into executive session. At midnight
the open session was resumed and a
resolution was adopted appointing a
special committee of eight to draw up
and bring in a bill providing for sub
mitting to the people at the general
election the question of issuing sev
eral million dollars in bonds to take
care of the surplus cotton. It is un
derstood that the bond issue will be
in excess of $25,000,000.
The following committee was ap
pointed Thursday: From he c ,n
mittee on agriculturc, Alaa John
stone and Lawson; from the com
mittee on finance, Banks and Stuck
ey: from the committee on banking
and insurance, McCown and Lide.
The Johnstone proposition, in gen
eral terms, is for the State to issue
$50,000,00.0 in bonds for a short term
of years, say three or six, in denomi
nations of $10 and up. The State to
buy cotton a basis of 1Oc a pound and
give the cotton growers in payment
these bonds. The State to warehouse
this cotton, properly insured and
with all the safeguards possible, and
to hold the cotton until the end of
the European war and then to sell it,
the idea and expectation being that
by then cotton will command a big
price. With the proceeds thus ob
tained the State is to call in and re
tire the cotton bonds and the sur
plus or net- proceeds can go to the
support of the public schools.
The cotton growers are to sell their
cotton outright to the State and to
take in payment these bonds, and the
idea is for the. people then to pay
their obligations with these bonds.
In other words, this would be mak
ing the bonds the. same as currency
and to take the place of money.
It must be made clear that the
idea is not to sell the bonds to some
northern financial interests and pay
the cotton growers in cash, but to
buy the cotton and give in payment
to the growers the State bonds. Ob
viously the matter of selling $50,
000,000 of State bonds for cash now
would be practically impossible.
Whether the bonds are to be non-in
terest bearing bonds or - say 6 per
cent., is a detail yet to be worked
out. The special committee will hold
conferences and work out the details
-and then bring in the joint resolution
to submit the question to the people
in the coming general election. It
will be' necessary under the constitu
tion for the joint resolution to re
ceive two-thirds vote of the people to
become "effective, this being neces
sary to increase the public debt.
It is probable that they will call
the financiers and other citizens of
the State to confer with them and
get the benefit of the best experience
and advice and knowledge of every
one in framing the measure.
With $50,000,000 bonds under this
plan the State of South Carolina
could buy 1.000,000 bales of cotton
at $50 per bale, based on ten cents
per pound. As the crop of this State
is about 1,400,000 bales it can be
taken care of this way.
SHOULD BE NO LIMIT.
President Wilson'Said to Oppose One
Officials close to the White House
hve 'admitted the trutb of reports
th..t President Wilson had opposed
the single term plank of the Balti
more platform in a letter written to
Representative Palmer of Pennsyl
vania last year when the, subject was
being considered by the House judi
ciary committee- It was said, how
ever. the letter was not to be made
The president has not publicly dis
cussed the one-term question. but
has been understood by his friends to
believe that there should be no con
stitutional restrictions limiting presi
dents to one term.
GO BACK TO PEN.
Blease Renoves Noted Safe Crackers
from Chain Gang.
By -order of Gov'. Cole L. Blease.
Thomas Nolen and Charles Howard,
who are serving ten year sentences
for a $10,000 safe robbery at Enoree,
have been taken from the Spartan
burg .eounty chain gang and sent
back to the State penitentiary. The
men were transferred from the peni
tentiary to the chain gang only a few
months ago, and why Gov. Blease has
seen fit to put them back in the
prison again has not been disclosed.
Faculty and Students of Mercer Uni
versity Become Suddenly Ill.
Thirty students at Mercer univer
sity, and three menmbers of the fac
ulty are dangerously ill at Macon
from ptomaine poisoning. which the
city bacteriologist. followving an anal
tical examination, says is due to
milk from rusty cans. The dormi
tory was thrown into a panic when
one member after the other became
Boston "Braves" Win.
The Boston National League cham
pions won four straight games from
the Philadelphia American league
champions and are thus entitled to
the world's championship.
Bomb Explodes in Church.
Two bombs exploded in New York
-churches within seven hours Tuesday.
An 1. WV. W. leader was last year
arrested in a church.
Sighted German Squadron.
According to Petrograd informa
tion a strong German squadron is
cruising around the Aaland island,
Seven dreadnoughts were along.
Thp Kaiser Wilhelm canal, between
- the North Sea and the Paltic. has
been closed to commerce during thE
connain of the war.
CAN PLANT A THIRD
HOUSE PRORIITS CULTIVATION
Of NOR[ COTTON
SIX ACRES TO ANIMAL
No More Than Six Acres of Cotton
Can be Planted to the Work Ani
mal-One-Third of Land Cultivat
ed Left'to Cotton-Violations Fin
ed $25 to $100 on the Acre.
The House of Representatives
Thursday passed a bill limiting the
cotton 'acreage to one-third of the
land planted and providing that not
more than six acres of cotton be
planted to. each work animal.
The bill reads:
"Be it enacted by the general as
sembly of the State of South Caro
"Section 1. That it shall be un
lawful for any person, by himself,
his agents or employees, to plant or
cultivate in this State in any year a
greater number of acres of land in
cotton than one-third of the total
acreage of land planed and cultivated
by such person in said year: Pro
vided, however, That in no case shall
any person plant or cultivate in cot
ton more than six acres to each regu
lar work animal used in his farming
operations in said year.
"Sec. 2. That any person violating
the provisions of th:is act shall forfeit
as a penalty a sum of not less than
$25, nor more than $100, for each
and every acre planted or cultivated
in excess of the number herein allow
ed, to be recovered in any court of
competent jurisdiction in an action or
proceeding brought in the name of
the State; and said penalty when re
covered shall be paid over to the
county treasurer for the use of the
county in which the said offense was
committed. Said penalty and the costs
of the proceeding In which the same
is recovered shall .be a lien upon all
of the property of the person adjudg
ed to pay the same, subject only to
liens existing .prior to the passage of
this act and liens for taxes: Provid
ed, That judgment for said penalty
and costs be entered and enrolled in
the office of the clerk of court of gen
eral sessions and common pleas as
other judgments are now allowed to
be entered and enrolled where the re
covery is had in such court: And
provided, further, That where the re
covery is had in a magistrate's court
the same be entered and enrolled in
the office of the clerk of court of gen
eral sessions and common pleas as
judgments of magistrates' courts are
now allowed to be entered and en
rolled in said office.
"Sec. 3. That after any proceed
ing has been taken against any per
son- or persons for a violation of this
act it shall be the duty of the clerk
of court of general sessions and com
mon pleas for the county in which
the offense is charged, upon applica
tion under oath of either party to
such proceeding. to issue a rule of
survey in the case, giving three days'
notice thereof to the opposite party,
the costs of such rule and survey to
be taxed in the bill of costs in the
final adjudication of the same..
"Sec. 4. That all sheriffs, sheriffs'
eputies, magistrates, constables and
rural policemen shall be charged with
the duty of inspection, the production
f evidence and the prosecutions for
violation of this act.
"Sec. 5. The word 'person' used
in this act shall be held to include
partnerships, voluntary associations
"Sec. 6. This act shall go into ef
fet iminediately upon its approval.''
The vote on the final passage of the
ommittee bill, while it shows 77 to
20, is not altogether correct. Mr.
Wlch asked after the vote had been
declared to change his votc, as he
took the position that the House was
rushing things too fast. Mr. Charles,
Mr. Gasque and others voted against
the pending. bill because they favored
total elimination, and felt that if this
bill passed that the goose of the
eliminationists would be cooked.
Others were inclined to take their
hances when the vote came.
The vote resulted:
Yeas-M. L. Smith. Addy. -M. 3.
Ashley, Atkinson. Barnwell, Belser,
Bethea, Blackwell, Bowers, Brice,
Burgess. Cross. Daniel. Dantzler,
Epps, Evans. Friday. Fripp, Good
win, Gray, Greer. Haile, ??all, M. C.
Harrelson, Harper, Hiott, Holley,
Hunter, Hutchinson, Jones. Kelley,
Kibler, Kirby, Lee, Lumpkin, McDon
ad. McMaster, McQueen, Martin,
Massey, Means. Melfi, Miley, Miller,
Michell, Moseley, 'Mower, Nelson,
Nicholson. Odom, Pate, Pegues,
Ready, Riddle, Riley. Rittenberg,
Robinson, Sanders, W. W. Scott, Sea
seney, Sherwood, Shirley, Stanley,
Stevenson, Sturkie, Summers, Thomp
son. Tindal, Todd, Vander Horst,
Walker. Warner, Welch, Whitehead,
Wilburn, C. C. Wyche, C. T. Wyche,
Zeigler. Total 78.
Nays--Bolt, Boyd, Browning,
Charles, Clement. Clowney, Gasque.
Hardin, H. F. Harrelson, Hayns
worth, Kellehan, Kirk, Long. Murray,
t. M. Rogers, W. M. Scott. Smiley,
Strickland, Warren. Total 19.
Paired-Irby, nay: Harvey, aye.
Absent--J. W. Ashley, Baskin,
Busbee, Courtney. Creech, DeLaugh
ter. Dick. Fortner. H-utson, James,
Johnston. Liles, Lybrand, McCravey,
McMillan, Malpass, Mixson, Moore.
Pyatt, L. M. Rogers, Sapp, White.
New York Bankers Enter Pool to
Finance Cotton Crop.
Informal conferences took place at
New York Wednesday :between lend
ing banking interests and representa
tives of Southern cotton crop and
thereby ease the foreign exchange sit
uation. Some of the largest banks
have expressed their willingness to
help in the organization of a fund
amounting to $150,000,O000 with
which to assist planters and other
cotton dealers, whose interests have
suffered severely as a result of the
Elects New Direcotrs.
.\mong the present directors of the
Southern railway are Bishop Kilgo.
of the M. E. church. South. and Dr.
Alderman. president of the University
HE SHOWS THEM UP
REPUR BLICAN INSINCERITY UN
MASKED IN HOUSE.
Congressman Sherley of Kentucky
Riddles Arguments Against the
Eiergency Revenue Bill.
In a speech upon the war tax bill
last week, Representative Swagar
Sherley of Kentucky dealt a crushing
blow to the Republican argument
that additional taxes need not be lev
ied if the government funds now de
posited in national banks were with
drawn and used for the current ex
penses of the treasury. On this point
"Members rail at the Democratic
administration because it has deposit
ed $75,000,000 with the national
banks. Now, the only difference .be
tween the Democratic party's action
in that regard and the Republican
party's action in the past has been
that you deposited money free of any
interest and we have deposited money
and asked 2 per cent. interest on it.
"Now, the fact is this, also known
of and admitted by all thinking men
who are not talking simply for the
sake of party advantage: We have
lived under a currency system that
has been the worst currency system
of any civilized nation on the globe.
Under it your discount rate upon
speculative loans was always less
than it was upon commercial loans,
because there was no mediur* whe re
by you could rediscount commerdal
paper, and therefore, the New York
banks having reserves deposited with
them by the interior banks had to
loan money upon such character of
collateral as would enable them in
rdinary times to immediately get it
back when money was called Zor by
the interior banks that had looncd to
them; and hence loans were w.ade
upon stock and bond collat-ral, a col
lateral that is readily coavertible in
odinary times, but which In time of
great distress becomes the, most diffi
cult and in many ways the wrost col
lateral that a bank could have. Here
were the banks of America with a
great mass of this collateral. Here.
were more than a thousand millions
of dollars of American securities
owned abroad, every government in
Europe wanting gold, and gold only,
to finance the war, and every one of
the peoples of those countries struck
by the 'blighting effect of this war,
with the need to immediately use
every possible resources for cash. The
necessary result was the instant of
fering to America of vast quantities
of these American securities held
abroad, with a consequent destrue
tion of their market value. If the
banks had not been in a position, or
had refused to protect in some degree
those offerings, they would have de
stroyed much of their own collateral,
their own securities would have dwin
dled, credits would have vanished,
many would have faced bankruptcy,
although in point of fact more than
solvent, amply able ordinarily to take
care of all demands.
"If the government with that situ
ation had let the country understand
that it was going to add to the -bur
dens of the banks instead. of taking
from the burdens of the banks as far
as they could. you would have had a
panic in this country, and then the
very men who are here railing
against us because we do not go to
the banks now and draw out this
oney. would have 'been loudest in
heir statement that it was a r'efusal
f the government to help business
nd financial .institutions that had
orced the panic on us.
"I say to you that it takes- courage
nd statesmanship of the highest or
der to face disagreeable tasks, to
face them knowing that criticisms
will be made, which, to the casual
hinker, will carry weight, and to do
t without regard to political for
unes. because it is in the true inter
ests of your country. I do no believe
there is a man within the sound of
y voice, acquainted with real finan
cial transactions, with world currents.
but that in his heart of hearts ap
proves of the action that he govern
ent has taken in strengthening the
anks throughout the country at this
time instead of undertaking to weak
Petrograd Issues Official Statements
Telling of War Successes.
An ofiicial communication issued
from the Petrograd general head
uarters says: "The fighting on the
east Prussian frontier continued on
October 7 with the same ferocity. In
spite of German reinforcements all
their attacks in the region of Wir
ballen (Russian Poland) and Phili
poff have .been repulsed with great
losses. By a night assault the Rus
sian troops have captured the village
f Kamenka, near Bakalargewo.
"In the foirest of Massalstchizna,
west of, Ratchka, our troops in a
night attack surrounded a .German
detachment, which was partly exter
mined, the others being dispersed,
abandoning their rapid firers.
"Russian troops have also captured
the town of Biala (in Galicia, b3
miles west-southwest of Chacow). In
other regions there is nothing of im
portance to record.
"In the attack against, the
Przemysl garrison conditions are in
our favor, our troops5 capturing by as
sault a strong fortification, constitut
ing one of the principal positions.'
PASS BILL FOR PAY..
Geneal Assembly Takes (Care of the
A fler considerable debate and
wranging, the House of Representa
tives Wednesday, by a vote of 36 to
68 adopted the Creech concurrent
resolution providing $200 and mile
age for each member of the general
assembly, while the Christensen res
olution. which has passed the Senate,
giving to each member $5 per diem
and mileage, was killed by a vote of
:6 to 66. The Senate passed the
Creech resolution providing for $200
~ay with a proviso that any member
who wished to do so could leave his
pay in the State treasury.
ltehellion in Africa.
The northwestern portion of the
Union of South Africa has rebelled
against Great Britain.
Austrians in Lemberg'?
An unconfirmed rumor from Lon
don says the Austrians have retaken
ESCAPED FOR 20 YEARS
MAN LIVING N GREENVILLE AR
RESTED FOR MURDER.
Killed Acquaintance, Whose Brother
Caused His Arrest After Hunting
Him so Long.
Nearly 20 years ago T. A. Lewis,
who has been living about three miles
from Greenville, killed Albert S. J.
Perry near Campobello, and from the
time of the killing, which was on
Christmas day, until Monday night
Lewis has been a fugitive.
A brother of the dead man hunted
for him all these years. and Monday
night Sheriff Rector of Greenville and
Sheriff White of Spartanburg placed
Lewis under arrest. He made n3 re
sistance :and at the jail said he was
the man wanted. He explained that
he and Perry both then in their teens
had a quarrel over a girl: that Perry
beat him and finally he threw a rock
which strack Perry in the head, in
fliteing fatal wounds.
Lewis said he would have given up
and stood trial long ago but was urg
ed by his parents to avoid this. Their
importunings resulted in his kreep
ing out of the tolls of the law until
Monday night. Lewis has a wife and
five children who lived with him at
his home near'Greenville.
The brief facts of the crime are:
Christmas day, 1895, along with oth
ers. Albert Perry and T. A. Lewis
took dinner at the home of William
Eubanks, who lived beyond Motlow's
Creek and Campobello, three miles
to the left of th.e town. In the after
noon something was said about some
music and Lewis volunteered to go
and secure an accordeon. As the
afternoon wore on, Lewis became
more and more intoxicated, and the
task -of taking him to the home of
William Rudisail, where he was
working as a farm hand, was given
to Albert Perry.
With much difhculty. Mr. Perry,
then 20 years old, got the maa to the
porch of the Rudisail's. where Mr.
Rudisail, his wife and daughter, took
charge of him. Mr. Perry started
back to Mr. Eubanks- to get his mule.
Re had gone only a few steps when
some one cried out, "Look out for a
rock." As he turned, the rock struck
him over the left temple. It is
thought that Lewis got loose from
Mr. Rudisail in some manner. So
far as it is known, the young men
ad always been friends. Albert Perry
ied January 3. 1896.
Nothing seems to have.been beard
of Lewis after that, except rumors.
Every clue had .been followed by the
lead man's family. W. L. Perry is
ow living in the house where his
rother was killed. The family have
Lived in the Campobello neighborhood
ror about 27 years.
Friday afternoon Sheriff White re
eived a letter from an officer in
3reenville asking if he wanted a man
by the name of T. A. Lewis for a
murder committed in that county
tbout 16 years ago: The sheriff be
,an to, look over the records and
ound that Lewis had been adjudged
:uilty of the crime January 4. 1896,
Boyce R. Pollard being coroner.
Pan-America Union Expresses Hope
of Peace to Warring Nations.
Secretary Bryan has cabled to the
yelligerent nations of Europe a peace
resolution adopted last week by the
overning board of the Pan-Ameri
an Union, which comprises the Unit
d States and the other twenty Amer
cani republics. The resolution, pre
ented by the Chilean ministei on
nstructions from his government, fol
'In view of the awful strife now
evastating continental Europe and
rousing- universal sympathy, while
profoundly disturbing the industrial
and commercial interests of the
world, the governing .board of the
Pan-American union hereby resolves
:o convey to the governments of the
ellgerents countries an earnest ex
ression of its hope for peace, as a
ribute to the sentiments of frater
aity which have inspired the meeting
>f the Pan-American conferences."
WILL VOTE THURSDAY.
Eouse and Senate Do Little in the
Total elimination sentirnent is
growing in the legislative halls at
olumbia. Tuesday the House clear
3d its decks to give the right of way
to the discussion of the cotton acre
age measures and it was determined
hat there would be no vote on any
one of the pending propositions until
'hursday, and there is no compulsion
that a vote is to be Laken then. The
Senate is disposed to wait and see
what the House will do.
It is urged as one point In favor
sf total elimination that if the bill
be passed and other Southern states
co not go into the plan that the gen
eral assembly that meets in a few
months can repeal or modify the act;
he total elimination plan being sup
plementary to othecr reduction plans
and dependent upon unanimous
agreement on the part of the other
otton States to reduce acreage.
WOULD DIVE FOR MINES.
Woen Offer to Remove German
Mines for Japanese.
A hundred women shell divers of
Shima province offered their services
to the navy to clear the mines from
Kiao-Chow Bay. The offer was de
clined, as the law prohibits the em
ploymen in warlike operations.
These divers are accustomed to re
main in the water for a long period.
Their idea was that, unseen by the
enemy, they could dive for the mines
near Kier-Chow and remove them to
the Japanese warships.
Sc'heldt Won't he Forced.
The German government has as
sured the Netherlands that it has no
intention of violating the status of
Zapata Attacks Mexican Towns.
Zapata caused a reign of terror at
Mexico City Saturday night by an
attack upon the suburbs of the Mexi
Rig Cotton Loan in Sight.
The raising of the $150,f00.000
fund to finance the cotton crop is vir
tually assured. says a New York dis
LONGEST SITTING IN HISTO1Y OF
Record of Democratic Party Since Its
Advent into Power-Article In
cIudes Only the Domestic Laws
Passed-No Reference to Foreign
Policy Being Bade.
The first regular session of the
sixty-third congress, which began De
cember 1. 1913. will be concluded.
Begun as an interrupted continua
tion of the special session called by
President Wilson a month after his
inauguration, it is the longest sitting
of congress in the history of the na
The work, including that of the
special session for tariff reform and
income tax achievement of the first
Democratic congress since March 4.
1895. The chief enactments include
the new currency law, anti-trust leg
islation, repeal of the toll exemption
provision for American coastwise
ships in the Panama canal, and the
provision to build a government rail
road in Alaska.
The congress was remarkable for
the fact that in less than two years
it had to deal with conditions arising
from two foreign wars-the revolu
tion in Mexico and the European con
flict-and was on the verge of -facing
war between the United States and
Mexico. Both of these situations de
manded emergency legislation, some
of which may have far-reaching effect
upon the future course of the nation
in its foreign affairs.
As a rule the utmost co-operation
between Democratic leaders in con
gress and President Wilson marked
the session, although one notable
break occurred in the party over re
peal of the tolls provision of the Pan
ama canal act. This led to an align
ment which placed the president and
some of the party leaders on opposite
sides. Among those who took issue
with the chief executive were Speaker
Clark and Majority 'Leader Under
wood. Speaker Clark's defense of
his opposition to repeal furnished
ne of the most spectacular climaxes
in the history of the House.
The president appeared before
joint sessions of the House and Sen
ate on five occasions. He delivered
iis general legislative message De
cember 2. Subsequent mressages were
n anti-trust legislation, the Mexican
ituation, pleading for continuation
f "watchful waiting." the tolls re
peal bill and the necessity for a war
Among the important laws enacted
by the -congress since December 1,
Federal reserve act, creating
twelve regional reserve banks, and
rederal reserve .board of ^control and
reforming the currency system.
Federal trade commission act,
reating a commission of five mem
bers and absorbing the bureau of cor
porations to investigate organization,
onduct and practice of industrial
4orporatons, inquire into unfair com
etition and alleged violation of anti
trust act; to aid the department of
ustice and the courts in the prosecu
ion of business offenders: to make
ublic information deemed to be of
ublic interest relating to industrial
onditions and to recommend reme
dial 'business legislation.
The C layton anti-trust act, which
>rovides or guilt of individuals con
iected with corporations convicted of
iolating the anti-trust laws, limit
nuterlocking directorates, prohibits
holding companies which will lessen
ompetition, prevents exclusive and
tying contracts, liberalizes laws re
lating to injunction anid contempt
nd exempts from prosecution under
anti-trust laws agricultural, horticul
tural, fraternal and labor organiza
Act repealing provisions of the
anama canal law exempting from
essels engaged in coastwise shipping
f the United States.
The Alaska railroad law, providing
or government construction and
peration of 1,000 milies of~railroad
with telegraph and telephone lines.
from the lower Pacific coast to in
terior waters and mineral region of
Alaska at a cost not, to exceed $25,
Laws placing on a war footing the
rolunteer militia and naval militia of
the states, subjecting them in time of
war to the call of the signal corps of
the army. -. I
Law regulating cotton future sales
n stock exchanges, providing a tax
of 2c a pound on sales for future de
ivery unless actually delivered under
onditions and grades established by
the department of agriculture.
Other legislation placed upon the
statute books included sco". of local
mprovement laws, many measures
relating to land entries, and the fol
General appropriations.,.for govern
ment expenses aggregating approxi
Appropriation of $20,000,000 for
rivers and harbors improvement at
discretion of war department, passed
as substitute for $53,000,000 speciiic
appropriation bill after prolonged fili
Act prohibiting importantion of
opium except for medicinal purposes
under treasury regulation and plac
ing prohibition tax of $300 a pound
n opium tianufactured in the United
States for smoking purposes.
Act authorizing payment of money
orders at any money order office in
ountry although drawn on specified
A provision~ for election of United
States senators under laws govern
ing election of members of House of
Representatives in states where legis
latures had not passed special elec
Act reorganizing diplomatic and
onsular service of the country.
Act providing for government leas
ing of coal lands in Alaska and to
prevent monopolization of natural re
sources of the territory.
British Airships Lost.
The British aviators who destroyed
the German dirigible Friday return
ed to Antwerp but landed in the line
of fire, both of the machines being
Senator Tillmian on His Job.
Senator Tillmuan has returned to
n-ashingtn oreume his dinties
WOULD RESULT IN WRONG
ENTIRE NATION CAN NOT BE
TAXED FOR SOUTH.
Carter Glass Points Out the Absurdity
of Placing Further Burdens on
People Besides War Tax.
Chairman Glass of the House
Banking and Currency committee
told the convention of the American
Bankers' association at Richmond
Wednesday that he felt confident that
proposals for government valoriz=.
tion of cotton and of the sale of gov
ernment bonds to take the crop off
the planters hands would not result
in action by congress. If it were
done, lie declared, it would not be of
permanent benefit to the cotton pro
Outlining some recent legislative
history, he said it often was "more
important to prevent things from be
ing done than to do things. Espec
ially is this true with reference to
some of the propositions pending,
such as the suggestion to have the
government going into the cotton
business by valorizing this single pro
duct at the expense of all the Ameri
And so with the other suggestion
that the government sell $250,000,
000 worth of bonds and use the pro
ceeds for the purchase of a single
roduct-and this at the very mo
ment that the government already is
levying taxes on the American people
to raise $100,000,000 to cover the
deficit in the treasury occasioned by
the stoppage of importations caused
by the Tar in Europe.
"Every sane and patriotic citizen,"
he declared, "whether of Massachu
setts or Mississippi, Virginia or Cali
fornia, deeply sympathizes with cot
ton planters and would do anything
within the limitations of reason and
safe economics to aid them in their
distress; but it can not be expected
that congress will resort to measures
for the relief of any single American
product, the enactment of which
measure would wreck and ruin the
entire financial and commercial fabric
of the country.
"I can assure you that it is not
pleasant for me-a Southern man
and chairman of the Banking and
Currency committee of the House
to submit to the reproaches and up
broadings of my Southern colleagues
for being unwilling to help their des
perate schemes of relief; but I sim
ply can not with any regard for my
oath as a representative in congress
or with any appreciation of the re
sponsibilities of my 'position yield my
judgment to-such unreasonable and
"These things ought not to be done
and I feel confident will not be done.
If done they would not help the cot
ton producer because the latter
would be seriously injured by univerz
sal constriction of credit and impair
ment of confidence that would inevi
THE WAR HITS UNCLE SAM.
How It Cuts Into the Business of the
The department of commerce has
just issued a review of consular re
ports showing the far-reaching ef
fects of the war on our trade. Great
Britain bought three billions' worth
of goods in 1912. The United States
furnished 20 per cent. of this total.
Germany purchased two and a half
billions the same year, 15 per cent. of
which came from the.,.United States.
Eleven per cent. of the billion and
a half dollars' worth of products
bought by France came from the
During August this country sold
$110,337,545 worth of goods to for
eign nations. During the same month
of the preceding year it sold pro
ducts valued at $187,909,020.
The way our import trade has suf
fered is a matter of- grave concern to
the treasury because of the effect on
revenue. For the first eighteen days
of September there was collected at
the various custom houses $10,845,
576 while during the coresponding
period of the last fiscal year there
was received $17,673,974.
The customs revenue for the pres
ent fiscal year is $22,200,000 less
than it was during the last fiscal year.
That is to say, there will be easily a
loss of $100,000,000 during the pres
ent fiscal year, and perhaps more.
Officials hesitate to think what the
loss will be during the fiscal year
1916 if the war continues.
Consideration of these facts
brought the president and his advis
ers to the conclusion that the strict
est economy must be practiced. Con
sequenly the word has gone down the
line to cut out of the estimates every
thing not absolutely necessary.
SWORD)S INTO PLOWSHARES.
Bryan Has Condemned Army Swcrds
Madde Into Paperweights.
Secretcry Bryan has made public
the fact that he has had the blades
of a score of condemned army swords
converted into paper weights in the
form of plowshares.
The paper weights will .be present
ed to the ambassadors or ministers of
the twenty-nine powers now signatory
to peace commission treaties with the
United States. On each will be en
graved the prophecy of Isaiah:
"They shall beat their swords into
The hilts of the weapons melted
down will be presented to the mem
bers of the Senate foreign affairs
M1AKE BIGGER GUNS.
Edison's Engineer Says Germans Are
Adolph F. Gail, an engineer in the
Edison laboratories, who arrived in
New York Tuesday on the Hellig
Olav, said Germany w'as building a
number of guns which would make
the 16-inch siege guns used against
Liege, Namur and Antwerp "look
like bean blowers." The guns, ac
cording to Mr. Gall, will have a cali
ber of 19.50 Inches and 21.45 inches,
and are .being rushed to completion at1
the Krupp plant in Essen.
English Sailors Aided Belgians.
Three British naval brigades as
sisted the Belgians in the defense of
Antwerp. Two thousand of the sail
ors were forced to retreat into Hol
and where they vill be interned.
TWO BATTLES RaIE
FRANCE AND POLAND FACE CoN
ALLIES RilN IN WEST
The Two Battles Have Both Been Go
Ing on For Weeks and no Appreci.
able Results Shown-AU Sides
Claim Advances-Austrians Aoe
Battleships in Incendiary Fire.
Two great battles in the European
war, one in northern France and Bel
gium, the other in Russian Poland,
both with a front of 300 miles, have
reached their height, but the public is
allowed only an occasional glance of
their progress -through official com
munications. These frequently are
widely at variance.
From the French report it appears
that the western battle is going slow
ly, but surely, in favor of the Allies.
Under the pressure of the troops of
the Allies, the Germans, who started
to advance on Calais and other
French coast -ports, have been forced
to evacuate the left :bank of the Lys
River, which is .a considerable dis
tance east of the points their advance
guards reached last week.
Evidence that the German assaults
are being delivered with less force is
conveyed in 'the intimation that be
t.ween the Somme and the Oise their
artillery attacks are not being. fol
lowed up with infantry'charges. It
is possible that they have withdrawn
some of their troops. from this posi
tion to strengthen their advance to
ward the coast, but it is considered
this would be risky, as it *might per
mit the Allies to break- through a1d
interrupt the communications of their
armies fighting north of. the. Aisne.
In the centre the Allies ilso have.:
advanced, particularly towards Cra
onne, and several German trenches
are reported to have been cariled to'
the northeast of the road from Barry
Au-Bac to Rheims and. to the north
of Prunay, in the direction of Beine,
which is slightly to'the southeast of
Although the.Germans have failed
to break the allied line and have
themselves been compeiled to give"
ground, -they are now in a better post
tion, having a front which stretches
from the Swiss frontier to Antwerp
and Dutch territory, so that there are
no flanks which the. Allies can turn.
The Allies can. attempt to break the
line, however, and this is believed to
be what they are trying to do on the
Of the big battle in Poland the
Russian official report says there is
no important change td record. Rome
is again responsible for the report
that the Russians have defeated the
Germans south of Warsaw, but this
is believed to refer to the fighting in
which the Russians claimed to have
pressed the Germans back.
There has been more fighting south
of Przemysl, in Galicia, on the Stry
Sambor-Medyka line, which disposes
of the report .that Lemberg has been
evacuated by the Rissians, and also
throws doubt on another report that
Przemysl has been relieved.
The Austrians say they are attack
ng the Russians in this position,
hile the Russian report claims vic
ory over the Austrians, from whom,
t says, the Russians captured' seven.
fficers,. 500) men and several machine
In East Prussia, the Russians says,
here is no change in the situation.
The Germans, according to Berlin
ewspapers, have- reoccupied Lyck,
ad for military reasons have moved
he .civilians out of Goldap, which is
the centre of the region where the
Russians are advancing from Su
Austria, which next to Belgiumi Is
said tQ have received the hardest
knocks of the war, has suffered an
ther blow in the damage done by
ire to a new battleship and several
estroyers which were a.bout complet
d at Monfalcome. The fire was in
endiary and shows to what length
Austria's internal enemies will go to
ripple her. The battleship was to
ave been launched Sunday with Im
The Australians also have helped
to cripple the German cruisers In the
Pacific by the seizure of the German
ship Comet, with a wireless station
aboard, which was to be utilized to
keep in touch with them.
The movements of the Turkish
leet, which has been strengthened by
the former German cruisers Goeben
ad Breslau and which been cruising
in the Black Sea, has led to the, sus -
picion that it is about to attack the*
Russian fleet. Already firing bas
been heard off Kustenje.
It was reported to-day, however,
that Turkey has hinted that unless
more money is forthcoming she will
be compelled to demobilize her army.
Turkey' usually raised funds in
France and England.
WILL HARDLY ADJOURN.
Southerners Force Congress into Ses.
sion After Saturday.
Efforts of Southern members of
ongress to procure legislation aimed
o relieve the cotton situation result
ing from the curtailment of Europeani
markets arouses considerabDle doub.t
as to the time of adjournment. Dem
cratic leaders would make no pre
Representative Underwood, the
ouse leader, said the attitude of leg
islators from the cotton states practi
cally had made adjournment impos
sible by next Saturday night.
Senator Simmons, in charge of the
war ,tax measure, insisted a vote
would be reached by Saturday night.
An amendment will be proposed by
Southern senators to provide for a
$250,000,000 government bond issue
for the purchase of 5,000,00)0 bales
of cotton, or one-third of the season's
.Boll Worm in Florida.
The pirik boll worm, said to be
more desi~ructive than the boll
weevil, has made its appearance In
Will Buy Cotton.
The Victor Talking Machine com
pany has authorized each of its 2,000
agents in the south to purchase for
them a bala e ofctton at ten cents. -'