Newspaper Page Text
VOL.XXVIII MANNING, S, C, WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 13,_1915
MAE THtll MARK:
21 FER EENT IF lHITE VIT[R
ARE I lUTERATE
33 COUNTIES REPORT
Stat Superintendent of Educatlo
Estimats One White Man Out o
Every Five is Unable to Read a
Write-Cherokee Leeds With 20J
Per Cente-Beanfort Lowest, Witi
7 Per Cent.
That 20 per cent. of the white mel
of South Carolina of voting age ar
Illiterate is the estimate made fron
literacy figures compiled by Stato
Superintendent J. E. Swearingei
from thirty-three of the forty-foui
counties in South Carolina, based ox
the returns of the Demociatic clul
This is an increase of 100 per cent
in illiteracy among white voters. U
four years, for the federal census o:
1910 showed that 10.3 of the whitf
voters of the State were illiterate
"Public school organization and ef
fclency are challenged in clariox
tones by these igures," says State
Superintendent of Education Swear
Ingen in his annual report to the
Cherokee county occupies the un
enviable position of showing the
greatest percentage of illiterac
among the white voters of the State
in the figures of thirty-three out of
the forty-four counties reported tc
State Superintendent of Education
John E. Swearingen.
The percentage of Democratic vot
era In Cherokee county who are un
able-to sign their own names Is 29.3.
Marlboro comes next with 27.5,
Pickens third with 26.4, Lancaster
fourth with 25.2, and Spartanburg a
close Ofth with 25 per cent. Figures
were-not obtained from the counties
of BarnyeU, Berkeley, Charleston,
Chesterfield, Colleton, Fairfield,
Greenville, Greenwood, Horry, Lee
* Beaufort carries off first honors in
the, small percentage of illiteracy,
only 7 per cent of her white voters
being unable to sign their names to
the Democratic club rolls. Edgefield,
the home county of the United States
Senator B. R. Tillman and of Super
intendent Swearingen, stands second
with 8.1 and Calhoun is third with
10 per cent., These figures .were ob
tained from the Democratic club rolls.
"The census of 1910," says Super
intendent Swearingen In his report to
the general assembly, "showed 17,
59kwhite males of native parentage
who were unable to read and write
The census further shows that 10.3
per 6eit ofour white voters were
Bliterate.- These figures -were ques
tioned by many, but the Democratic
rolls of 1914 disclosed some interest
jug facts in this connection.
Doubtless hundreds of names were
marked with C cross on these rolls
for reasons that might be easily
enumerated. uow much would it
mean for the cause of education if
every voter unable to write his name
iwould feel humiliated and ashamed
to make his mark. . The need of such
a sentiment Is plainly seen in the
literacy figures compiled from th~e
Democratic enrollment lists of the
Commenting further o the liter
acy figures, Mr. Swearingen says:
e-These figures show that the Con
federate veterans of 60 years are per
haps better educated than their
grandsons of 21. The State was re
deemed, from earpet-bagg rule in
1876. -The Reform movement of
1890 originated in th'e demand for
an agricultural college. Neverthe
less, 20 per cent of the men born
within th'e last 38 years are either
Illiterate or not unwilling to sigr
their names with a mark. Public
school organIzation and efficiency are
challenged in clarion tones by these
The totals from the 33 counties
present an interesting study and af
ford room for 'serious thought. as
pointed out by an educator In Colum
bia Thursday. Of the 30,834 voters
between the ages of 21 to 29 years
reported, 9,799 made their mark; o1
the 28 494 between 30 and 39 yeari
of age, 5,172 made their mark; 18.
249 between the ages of 40 and 4C
registered and of the number 2,565
made their mark; of the 13,394 be
tween the ages of 50 to 59, 3,325
made their mark; of the 12,564 be
tween the ages of 60 years and up
-4.090 made their mark. These thir
ty-nine counties reported a Demo
cratic enrolment of 100,894 and 01
this number 22,251 made their mark
-or, in other words, over 22 per cent
of the white Democratic voters ir
thirty-thzee -counties are illiterate.
The total enrollment of Democrat!
in the forty-four counties was 154.
876, and to get the percentage of
Illiteracy -for the state It would b4
hecessary to have the figures fron
every county. Superintendent Swear
ingen made every effort to gathe:
the figures from each county, but re
peated reauests from the eleven coun
ties named brought no responses. I
Is believed that 20 per cent. illiterac:
among the - white citizens of Souti
Carolina is correct.
That one out of every five whit4
man Is Illiterate, unable to read an
write his name. is bound to add in
creased demand for the enactment o
a compulsory school attendance law
in the opinion of leaders in Sout1
Carolina. If this estimate is correc
the literacy among white men ha:
*doubled-since the census of 1910: il
other words, Increased 100 per cent
The percentage of illiteracy from
the various counties reported amon:
the white Democratic voters is: Ab
beville. 13.2; Aiken, 22.8: Ander
son, 22.6: Bamberg, 11.7; Barnwell
no report: Beaufort. 7: Berkeley, n
resort; Calhoun. 10; Charleston, ni
reuort Cherokee. 29.3: Chestei
17.2; Chesterfield. no report: Claren
don. 1-'.S; Colleton. no report: Da!
1fugton. 20.7; Dorchester, 18.1
Edgefleid, 8.1: Fairfield. no report
Florence. 20.2: Georgetown, 20.5
Greenville. no report; Greenwood, n
renort: IWampton. 19.4: W-orry, no re
port: Jasper. 19.3: Kershaw. 24.9
Lancaster. 25.2: Laurens. 12.5: Lei
no report; Lexington. 18.3: Marior
22.4; Marlboro. 27.5: Newberr3
13.3; Oconee, percentage not given
Orangeburg, no report; ,Picken!
26.4: Richland. 12.3: Saluda, 16.3
Spartanburg. 25; Sumter. 13.8; Ui
Ton, 19.3; Williamsburg, 21.2; YorI
h PRESIDENT ON SUFFRAGI
HE AGAIN REFUSES TO AID TU
President Wilson Interested in th4
Fight But Believes the Issue is i
State One Only.
President Wilson declined Thurs
day for the sixth time since he enter
ed the White House to support a fed
eral constitutional amendment foi
woman suffrage When a delegatior
of Democratic women, who declaret
they had helped elect him, presentet
a plea that he support the proposei
amendment he reiterated his previou.
k declaration that he considered suf
frage a State issue.
Mrs. George A. Armes, presiden1
of the District of Columbia Wilsos
and Marshall League; Miss Alberta
Hill, of New York, and Dr. Frances
McGaskin, spokesman for the delega
tion, reminded the president that th(
House would vote on the suffrage
amendment January 12.
"I am most unaffectedly compli
o mented by this visit that you have
paid me." the president told the wo
men. "I have been called on several
times to say what my position is on
the very Important matter that you
are so deeply interested in. I want
to say that nobody can look on the
light you are making without great
admiration, and I certainly am one of
those who admire the tenacity and
the skill and the address with which
you try to promote the matter that
you are interested in.
"But I am tied to a conviction
which I have had all my life that
changes of this sort ought to be
brought about state by state. If it
were not a matter of female suffrage,
if it were a matter of any other
things connected with suffrage, I
would hold the same opinion. It is
a long-standing and deeply matured
conviction on my part and, therefore,
I would be without excuse to my own
constitutional principles if I lent my
support to this very Important move
ment for an amendment to the consti
tution of the United States.
"Frankly, I do not think that this
is the wise or the permanent way to
build. I know that you perhaps
unanimously disagree. with me, but
you will not think the less of me for
being perfectly frank in the avowal
of my own convictions on that sub
ject; and certainly that avowal rep
resents no attitude of antagonism,
but merely an attitude of principle.
"I want to say again how much
complimented I am by your call and
also by the confidence that you have
so generously expressed in me. I
hope that in some respects I may live
to justify that confidence."
WANTS CONSULS WITHDRAWN.
Germany Notifies U. S. That Consuls
Must be Acceptable to Governor.
Secretary Bryan had before him for
consideration the formal notification
from rimny th'at American consuls
in Belgium must be acceptable to the
German military authorities and ask
ing for the withdrawal of certain con
suls for the present. at least. The
United States now has consular repre
sentatives only in Brussels, Antwerp,
fAege and Ghent. Since the war broke
out they have been engaged chiefly in
looking after refugees and aiding in
relief work, as there was little regu
lar work to do.
Although the text of the communi
cation has not been made public, it is
believed in official circles to be simi
lar to the one sent Argentina and
other neutral countries, and that,
while the Berlin government is not
insistent that consuls in Belgium take
out new exequaturs from German offi
cials, It announces that such consuls
must perform their duties only by
permission from the military author
Ities controllng the territory in which
the consulate is located.
STORM DAMAGE IN GEORGIA.
Heavy Gale Wrought Injury in South
ern Part of State.
Two persons were killed, several
others badly injured and property
worth many thousands of dollars was
damaged by a violent wind storm
which swept northern Florida and
southern Georgia Wednesday night,
according to reports. Wire commun
ication with the affected territory
was sthspended until after midnight
and only meager details have yet
The greatest damage apparently
was in south Georgia, and all the
fatalities reported were in that sec
tion. W. J. Spain was killed at Quit
man, and Mrs. Thomas Sawyer and
her son were seriously hurt when
their home at Abbeville was wrecked.
Residences, farm buildings, trees,
ences and telegraph poles were
'lown down and trees were uproot
d Felling timber injured live stock
>n many farms. Reports were that
nuch damage was done along the
Florida East coast, but its extent has
'ot yet been determined. Little dam
ge resulted in this city.
ATTACKED FROM AIR.
Dunkirk Being Subjected to Attemipts
by Air Fleets.
The Dondon Daily Mail's corre
spondent in France reports that a
'zeppelin skirted the French seacoast
near Gravelines twelve miles south
west of Dunkirk Wednesday and then
turned westward toward England,
and that it is rumored that two other
Zeppelins preceded it.
"Thereafter throughout the hole
day" the correspondent adds. "Dun.
kirk was subjected to German aero
plane raids and attempts to droi
bombs, but owing to the vigorous fire
of the town's guns few bombs fell
At one moment six aeroplanes were
hovering over the town, but were
compelled to retreat. Apparently nc
damage was done."
Issued Fraudulent Passrerts.
-Maurice Dieches, a New Tcrk law
- yer, and eleven others, he e bees
arrested to break up an alleged con
spiracy to furnish Germany army of
fiers and reservists with Americar
passports to enable them to ieturt
- to Germany from th'is country with
out danger of molestation by the
Canz Wins Victory.
Troops of Gen. Carranza won
victory over a command of Vill:
troops near Torreon, on Tuesday
.Two trains of arms and ammunitio2
- 4~"~- -
G'AIPAIUNS 0O Oh
IUSSIAN LAUNCH NEW AIRY 11
EAST PIUSSIAN LINE
FIlBTING 13 FIERCE
French and German Battle Around
Sennheim-Rain and Mud Halt
Battles in South Poland-Constan
tinople Tells of Captive Russians
But Ignores Defeat In Caucasus.
Although severe fighting has been
going on in France during the past
day or two it has been discounted by
the Russian successes against the
Turks in the Caucasus and against
the Austrians in the Carpathians.
In both eastern and western war
theatres the Germans have been ex
ceedingly active. Steady progress is
noted in their official statements re
garding operations in Poland and the
French official bulletins report vio
lent German attacks in the Argonne.
in the region of Verdun and around
Steinbach, in Alsace.
Details, as usual, are lacking, as
the long drawn out battle are re
ferred to briefly, seemingly as a mat
ter of routine, unless something of
an extraordinary nature occurs. Re
garding the operations in the west
as a whole, a British eye-witness, who
has been the regular chronicler of
events, says that "really marked pro
gress has been achieved by' the Al
lies." He adds, however, that "the
German defensive is an active one,"
and that it must not be inferred that
progress has been other than slow
and laborious or that the final result
in within Immediate reach.
Petrograd reports: "On the left
bank of the Vistula on January 6,
there was an almost general lull
along the front of Sochaneczew-holi
mow, where only desultory fighting
"The Germans, with a view of ap
proaching our positions, are endeav
oring to apply the processes of siege
warfare. In certain places they ad
vanced by sapping and are resorting
to steel shields in protecting them
"In the region of the village of
Sochaczew the G rmans who on the
night of the 6th captured part of our
trenches, were forced out of them in
the morning by bayonet attacks In
the course of this fighting we captur
ed live quick-firers and a number of
Berlin reports: "Military officials
say the great battle in western Gali
cia again has resolved itself Into a
strugle for certain definite positions
in which both sides are well intrench
ed. They assert that the Austrians
are fihting excellently in their pre
pared positions, and that Russian at
tempts north of Gorlice to push for
ward in the direction of Cracow and
on the south of Neu Sandek have fail
London reports: , "The Russians,
with all their other fronts to cover,
have found another army with which
to take the offensive against the Ger
man position at Mlawa, on the east
ern tPrussian frontier, and Wednes
day night report the capture of a vil
lage on the road to that town.
"The Germans still are hammering
at the liussian line drawn directly
across the roads to Warsaw from the
west, but, It Is reported, with less
force behind them. In West Galicia,
however, where they have reinforced
the Austrians, they have held up the
Russian advance near Gorlice.
"In southern Poland rain has stop
pel the fighting. Neither side is able
to move there, owing to the high
water and the mud.
"The Russians continue to drive
the Austrians through the snow-cov
ered passes of tho Carpathians and
out of Bukowina, and simultaneously
are dealing In detail with the rem
nants of the Turkish armies In Trans-.
caucasa, which are reported either
to have been routed or surrounded."
Neither Turkey nor Germany has
conceded the defeat of Turkish
armies in the Caucasus as claimed
offiially in Petrograd. The latest
offcial communication from Turkey
altogether Ignores the fighting In the
Caucasus and dwells upon the strug
gle which has spread over the Per
sian frontier to Urumia, an impor
tant town where the Turks say that,
aided by Persions, they have defeated
Berlin reports: "Reports from
Constantinople say more than fifteen
thousand Russian prisoners captured
in the Caucasus are being conveyed
to the Turkish Interior."
Vienna reports the battles in the
Carpathian forest district, which now
have lasted several months with alter
nate successes continue. These are
battles of minor importance and often
take placve in lovely valleys widely
separated from each other.
Paris reports: "Reports were re
ceived Wednesday evening of violent
German attacks In the region of Las
signy, in the Argonne, at the cross
ing of the road from Le Four de Paris
to Varennes, and that from La Haute
Chevauchee, In the region of Verdun,
and on the ridge which dominates
Steinbach. All these attacks have
"In the region of Lille we repulsed
with success a violent German at
tack on one of our trenches. This
trench. In the beginning lost by us,
was recaptured with great brilliancy
and by the exploding of mines we
demolished a portion of the German
fields works. Between the Somme
and the Aisne there has been noth
ing to report except artillery engage
"In the Woevre district the ad
vance made by us to the northwest
of Fllrey is more important than was
at first taken to be the case. We
made ourselves masters of a portion
of the enemy's first line."
Berlin reports: "In the western
arena of the war the English and the
French continue to destroy Belgian
and French villages behind our front;
this they do by bambardment.
"North of Arras severe fighting is
still going on for the possession of
the trenches we took by storm Wed
"In the western part of the forest
of Argonne we made further pro
gress. The attacks which were de
livered January 5 in the eastern part
of the Argonne, not far from Courte
Chaussee, advanced as far as our
trenches, but the enemy was driven
back from o positions all along the
lneEwitheh - y~r
ties Vera conorJatively slght.
"e the west of Sennheim (Cer
HELD UP MANY TIMES.
TRIP FROM LONDON TO BERLIN
HALTED VERY OFTEN.
American Reporter Takes Letter
From Herbert Hoover to Ambassa
dor Gerard in Berlin.
The delays and interferences. .to
which neutrals travelling bttween
London and Berlin -are still subject
were well illustrated by the experi
ences of an Associated Press repre
sentative who just made the trip and
undertook the amusingly hazardous
task of carrying an unsealed letter
from Herbert C. Hoover, chairman
of the Belgian relief commission in
London, to Ambassador Gerard in
The correspondent had made every
preliminary preparation that embas
sies and traveling bureaus could sug
gest. He had lodged four photo
graphs of himself at the American
embassy. He had waited in line over.
an hour to have his passport vised at
the Dutch consulate in London and he
arrived at the Victoria station in Lon
don three hours before the train for
Folkestone was supposed to start.
There the suspicions of various na
tions are to hos treacherous purposeo
were first aroused.
"Have you any letters or photo
graphs?" was the simple. question, to
which his candid reply started the
trouble. He answered he had one
photograph and one letter. The
sleuth, who was at the moment. un
screwing the top of a bottle of tooth
powder, presumably to. ascertin
whether the contents were lyddite or
some equally deadly agency, lopking
up keenly, accepted the progrede
proofs of domestic devotion (the pho
tograph was the picture of his wife
and child), and opened Mr. Hoover's
"Do you realize that this letter
contains the names of many British
ships?" queried the vigilant defender
of his majesty's shores.
"I do," said the reporter with all I
the solemnity of the wedding cere-|l
"Yet you want to carry it to the
"Will you please talk with Inspec
tor Seacock, of Scotland Yard?"
Inspector Seacock, whose name re
called the Crippen trial, gave the I
American a searching glance. "Do
you know what all these ships are?"|I
was his first question.
"Mr. Hoover says, if you will no
tice, that they are the ships which
are carrying the food to hungry Be:
glans," was the reply.
"Well, you can't take it to Ger
The reporter then wrote on the
envelope a suggestion that Mr. Hoov
er send it t Ambassador Gerdrd in
the embassy pouch and asked the In
spector if he could get out of the pen
to get a messenger. There seemed
to be no definite reply, but after a
few moments' delay the inspector re
turned and said: "On second thought
I think you can take it. It seems to.
be a perfectly open metter."
So the messee went safely to Hol
land, where the inspectors at Flush
ing and Ozendaal never hesitated in
will meet with Mrs. H. Yarborough
at Bentheim, on the German side of
the frontier, the letter came in for
expert examination on the part of the
whole staff of the helmeted inspec
tors, whose questions ranged from
inquiries as to the place of birth of
the reporter's. parents to questions as
to the business and motives of Mr.
Hoover. Every passenger on the i
train was passed and many of them
were staring in at the suspect through
the window before the staff finished
with the reading of the letter.
"Don't you know that it is forbid-i
den to carry such a document Into
Germany?" "Can you swear thati
these ships ree.lly are carrying food
into Belgium?" "If you are not per- 1
sonally aware of the exact facts, I
don't you realize that you may be
committing a serious crime to en
deavor to carry this letter to Berlin?"1
And so on. The reported murmured
somethng about running the risks if
it would help a hungy people. This
gave him his courage and In his best
German, he asked what they pro
posed to do about it. This was an'
inspiraton, as nobody had thought- of
it before. It was decided that..the
reporter could go on. that the in
spectors would consider the possibili
ties of harm in the letter and, if it
seemed wise to give it to him, it
would be seat to his Berlin 'address.
One week later it had not been so
POLICEMEN KILL BURGLAR.
New York Policeman Is Alsa Killed
When He Makes -Arrest.
A policeman and a burglar were
killed and an alleged highwayman
was mortally wounded in two revolv
er battles New York police fought.
with four robbers caught in an at
tempted hold-up and a burglary.early
Tuesday. The dead: John Haus
man, policeman; George Hennessey,
burglar. The wounded: "Jack"
Dutton, police character.
Dutton and an unidentified negro
companion, who escaped, shot and
killed Hausman as he tried to arrest
them after an attempted hold-up.
Hutton was shot four times by police
men who trapped him a few. blocks
away from the scene of the killing.
Hennessey was shot and killed by
Detective Axel Jensen, who found
him prying out a store window.
Boy Killed In Runaway. --
Oscar Black, 14 years old, of Green
ville, was killed Monday when a team
of mules ran away, their lines catch
ing about his neck and dragging him
to his death
Protests Against British Action.
Gov. Slaton of Georgia has pro
tested to Secretary Bryan against the
action of Great Britain in placing
naval resinous products on the abso-.
lute contraband list.
nay) the French again attempted
Wednesday night to obtain Posses
sion of the height called 'Hill 425.'
Their attack broke down under fire
and the height remained in our pos
"Fighting in upper Alsace for pos
session of the heights near Sennheinm
and Steinbach is described as the
most violent of the campaign. The
fighting for houses .around the
square in Steinbach was especially
CITY OF PARIS DUG IN
HUGE CIRCLE OF ENTRENOH
MENTS PROTECT CAPITAL.
Army of Excavators.: Have Been at
Work Since First .of September
When Germans Threatened Siege.
The army of excavators that early
in September began -to. dig Paris in
when a German siege was threatened
has completed its work.
The General Confederation of
Workers alone sent five thousand vol
unteers, who provided their own
working tools and -were merely re
compensed by s daily ration of food.
Thousands of Belgion refugees have
also assisted in the work.
Jaris now lies in the centre of an
Intrenched camp, the diameter of
which.is about sixty miles and whose
circumference is nearly two hundred
miles. 'Iiis is surrounded by row
after ro'v f trenches thoroughly cov
ered. in ith -ogs and turf throug
which lodpliolds have been left for
All of tIem communicate with each
other and contain transverse banks
of earth to prevent them being en
filaded by infantry or machine gun
fire. Out beyond them- are rifle, pits
and barbOAd)yre entainglements plac
ed in all-positions where an attack
Still other: precautions have been
taken In- front'of the advanced line of
trenches by digging deep ditches
whose eixstence is hidden by a light
oveing of branches and turf, mak
ng them invisible to approaching cav
alry, infantry or artillery, aftd form
Ing veritable traps Into which an at
tacking force might fall a prey to the
lefenders' machine guns and rifles.
The- approaches to. the trenches
'rom the rear consist of subterranean
alleries permit the reliefs to be made
without rny evposure of the men.
All along this front posts of obser
ration'have been established, each of
which is constantly occupied by 'at
east- thred men provided with power
ul field glasses and in direct tele
honic communication with headquar
:rs and witlr:the artillery'batteries
n the immediate vicinity. The em
lacements of 'these batteries are
Mnown only te the headquarters staff
md the men who serve the guns, all
)f which are buried In the earth, only
heir muzzles protruding. For the
>enefit of the gunners the ranges of
LIL prominent objects in the front
iave been measured.
Behind the lines pf trenches runs a
ght railroad line for the purpose of
)ringinglup ammunition'and food and
aso, If 'ecessary, reinfoi'cements of
nen to tiy point which may be men
Led. Further provision for the con
reyance'of reinforcements is' at hand
n the large numbers of automobiles
f all kinds which can make the jour
ey speedily from any one point to
Lnother carrying groups of armed
The existing forts also have been 1
trengthened, but now only serve as
upporting polnt* and depots for lage
>odies troops. resting.o fm their
The Parisian delights in making
unday trips to observe the works I'
ended for his defence, and, although
e is not permitted to learn the see
-ets of the arrangements, le has been
be to see sufficient to inspire him
SHOT 'MAN AND WOMAN.
arm Hand Gets Shotgun and Kils
Victini as They Try to Escape. .
3. I~ouglas London, a farm' hand
~ormerly employed by Charles Whea
on, -of St. Johnsburg, Vt., shot and
dled Will Lane,' a fellow- employele
nd Mrs. Wheaton, then' committed
Details of the tragedy Indicated
hat London, arme I with a rifle,'went
o the Wheaton farm during Whea
;on's .s~bsence. Lane fled to the barn
m he. ring London's announcement
hat he inteded to -kill him and re
eived a bullet through the abdomen
when London fired through the door.
London then entered the house and
sursued Mrs. Wheaton - towards a
~ront toom. ils first 'shot' missed,
iut as the woman closed a door, Lon
Ion fired through the panel and the
ullet pierced Mrs. Wheaton's -heart.
Retuning home, 'London told Mrs.
Kilburn that he had killed Mrs.
Wheaton and Lane, and-'ordered hdr
: give the alarmn, as he was-going to
till himself. After Mrs. Kilburn had
led, London went into the barn and
shot himself through the -head.
201 OF CREW SAVED.
D~utter With 54) Men Reaches Shore
in Dead of Night.
Another cutter from the .British
battleship Formidable, sunk'-in the
Englsh 'channel Friday, has reached
Lyme-Regis, Dorsetshire, with 50
men brin'gingt the total <(f saved up to
201. When the cutter left the For
midable she had 60 or more men
aboard, but' all but~50' s'.iccumbed to
exposure, having been in an open
boat for some 20 hours_ in a violent
The men -were scantily-. clad - and
uffered terribly from the cold .dur
ing the tripi to shore. Some died dur
ing the day and were passed over
board. Upon the arrival.of the cutte.r
at Lyme-Regis, at 11 o'clock Friday
night, six we're found dead in the bet
tom of the boat. A policeman heard
aries of help and, going to the beach,
found the cutter 'with the -men, none
of whom: could land without .assist
ance. Some were so exhiausted that
artificial respiration was necessary.
A terrible southeast gale was blow
ing during the trip and although the
men took turns' at the oars It was Im
possible for them to keep warm.
Burglar Caught by Posse.
A paty of Lalrense citizens chased
a white man suspected of burglary
and .cornered him in a house Wednes
day, where he made a break for-lib
erty. He was shot and wounded.
Turks Occupy Riisstan Base.
Berlin 1eports that Ottoman troops
have occupierd Urumiah, an impor
tant town of Persian Armenia, with
a population of 30,000.
Three .Negroes Electrocuted.
Three negroes wer elterocuted in
Trenton, N. J., Tuesday night for
murder. This was the first triple
electrocution in New Jersey.
$250,000 for Canal Op~ening.
President Wilson will ask congress
for $250,000 to defray expenses caus
ed by the Panama canal opening del
PA3SEMIERS IN SUIfAY HAVE
ONE WOMAN IS KILLED
Seven Hundred Passengers in Two
Stalled Trains Set Wild by Dense
Smoke and Fames From Short Cir
cuited Cablew-Two Hundred Per
sons Injured, Many Seriously..
More ihan one hundred persons
were overcome by smoke, cut by fly
ing glass, bruised and otherwise in
jured in- a fire aboard a -train in the
subway of New York city at the
height of the rush four Wednesday
morning. In the panic and confusion
which ensued police headquarters is
sued a report that from 12 to 20 per
sons had lost their lives, but this
later proved to be unfounded and
only one known death was recorded.
. The entire fire fighting force of
Manhattain; every ambulance in the
borough and every pulmotor that
could be found was brought to the
scene. The fact that scores of per
sons were unconscious led to the
early report thr.t many had been kill
ed. Later.Police Commissioner Woods
and Fire Chief Kenion announced
that so far as they knew there had
been no fatalities.-.
A surgeon attached to the Poly
clinic hospital reported that one in
jured woman had died- in an ambu
ance on her way to the hospital.
Two hundred persons in all were
taken to the Polyclinic, the surgeon
aid, 'but as far as h'e knew, with this
ne exception none had been fatally
- For the first- time in the history of
the fire department a special alarm
:alled out firemen and battalion
:hiefs without, apparatus to fight the
lames and care for the injured. '
The tie-up started at 8 o'clock
9ednesday morning, the beginning
f the rush hour. - Ai 9 30 a slow
apress service was started, only to
De halted by the discovery of fire.
hree alarms were turned in and
Lmbulances were dispatched. -
From trains stalled between sta
Ions firemen emerged bearing .un
Fire Commissioner Adamson, who
,ssumed personal charge of the sit
tation, sent-ment throughout the city
with' orders to bring every pulmotor
,vailable to the scene. One of the
ictims died before the pulmotors
uld be obtained.
Congestion, the like of which the
ity has seldom seen, prevailed :.t al
nost every subway station. At
rooklyn bridge, the Manhattan en
rance was choked by tens of thou
ainds. For 50 minutes detachments
f- polic-ressrves strugle& with the
:owds.there beforeorderquld,. be .
Elevated. trains and surface cars
11 over the city were packed to over
lowing with the throngs that were
rned away from the subway.
More than 20 bodies we.e taken to
he platform of the Fifteenth street
itation.- Firemen. asserted that the
ube held the bodies of many other
lead, some of the estimates going as
tugh as two hundred.
In an effort to get at the dead and
ying 1n' the subway, Inspector Egain,
f the bureau of combustibles, sent
or a large amount of dynamite with
rhich to rip up the streets.
-Sixty unconscious persons were
aken to the Flower Hospital. Other
ospitals cared for many other vic
is. Ventilator gratings were taken
p from- sidewalks around the Fif
:leth and Fifty-ninth street stations
o0 permit removal of the injured.
Filre Commissioner . Adamson re
~eived reports from the battalion
~hief s thiat the fire was confined to
:o subway cars; that several per
ons had been killed and a great
nany isnjured and overcome.
All-man-hole covers were removed
as well, as the ventilator gratings. In
:he openings thus made firemen
laced -their hose. Other squads of
remen crawled down through the
linding smoke Into the tube and
orked li relays.
Through smoke that -olled up from
:he manhales could be seen the
The fire started in a train between
he Fiftieth and Fifty-ninth street
stations. - Some of the hundreds of
assengers. wedged in the cars said
iterwards that .It started with an ex
plosion and that the train came al
nost -immediately to a standstill.
kboard 1.he train there was a frantic
rush for the end cars.
Through the open doors at each
snd there poured a stream of meni
and women who struggled through
Lhe. smnoke, apparently oblivious of
the danger of the third rail, toward
he two stations. Platforms at these
stations were jammed and -in the
wild rush for the exits some persons
were trampled on.
Emergency calls brought to the
spot every ambulance in Manhattan.
is fast as unconscious victims were
emoved they were laid on the side
alk or carried to stores and offices
nd given first aid treatment by fire
en and surgeons. So great was the
emand upon the fire fighting forces
o aid in reviving the unconscious,
hat hurry calls were sent to Brook
lyn for aid.
The transportation, tie-up result
ing from the fire spread toward the
Bronx and to Brooklyn'and tens o'
housands of persons struggled at
elevated railway and subway stations
n those boroughs* in an effort to
- The bodies of 20 persons lay on
the platform of the Fiftieth street
station an holir after the fire started.
Flames were still raging then and
here wei e many estimates as to the
umber'of dead in the cars and along
the tracks. -B:.ffled in attempts to
reach the victims who lay close to
the burning cars, Inspector Egan, of
the the bureau of combustibles. dis
patched messengers for dynamite.
He said he would use that if neces
sary to rip up the streets and thus
afford the firemen an entrance
through which they could work un
Unofficial~ reports gave the cause
>f the fire as a collision between ex
press trains. At the time of the fire
the subway contained smoke from
flames, extinguished only a few min
utes before at the Spring street sta
It was shortly before 9:30 o'clock
that wisps of smoke began to curl
from manholes along Broadway be-|
t.een the two stations. The spot!
CYCLONE NEAR LAE CITY
RESCUERS FIND BABY UNHURT
IN MIDST OF WRECK.
Frame Building Being Erected mown
Against Old One, Wrecking Both
Almost a Bad Fire.
Wednesday night about 7 o'clock a
very destructive cyclone visited the
Gaskins neighborhood, about six
miles east of Lake City, blowing
do'wn outhouses, trees and the like.
The most serious damage reported
was to- J. F. Lawrence's new house,
which he was erecting just in front
of the one in which he was living.
When they heard the roaring of the
wind Mr. La xrence and the contrac
tor who was doing the work for him
stepped on the front porch to see
what it was, and about this time the
frame of the new house was blown
over on to the.old house, breaking it
down upon the family.
Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Hazelden,
the contractor, after about thirty
minutes extricated themselves from
the timbers and at once began the
work of rescuing the other members
of the family, and at the same time
preventing the ,spread of the fire,
which had caught some of the tim
bers which fell near to the fireplace,
in which there was a large fire. The
wreck was so great that it required
almost./three hours, with the assist
ance of the neighbors, to remove the
broken timbers and rescue all of the
The last one to be rescued was a
baby about one year old, which. was
found in the bed with one of the
joists just across its chest, yet there
was not a scratch on its body, and
except for the cold it appef.red not to
have suffered from the storm. For a
distance of three miles the trees and
all small houses were bldwn down
and the damage is variously estimat
ed, but it will be found to be a con
siderable amount, especially when the
loss in timb~r is considered.
A severe wind storm, in the nature
of a cyclone, blew down everything
in its path for a distance of several
miles in the Cades section of the
county early Wednesday night. Trees.
fences and small houses were easy
prey for the cyclone.
TO ATTACK BORDER.
Villa Would Drive Out Carranza Gar
Gen, Villa is moving, to attack the
Carranza. garrisons of the Mexican
border towns opposite . Naco and
Dougals, Ariz., with 8,000 Conven
tion troops. To drive the Carranza
rorces out of the. border towns is
Villa's solution of the problem of
topping border fighting. It became
known that Villa had communicated
U1s intention to Gen. Scott, United
States chief of staff, to secure an
agreement to neutralize the border
Villa promised not to expose the
A-mericadI-owneto-fir& for more than.
ight hours, at the end of which pe
riod he promised the Carranza gar
risons would have surrendered or
would be driven into the United
Half Villa's forces passed through
Tuarez Thursday en route to Casar
Grandes, whence the troops wir
move overland into Sonora. It was a
"great sacrifice" to -his campaign
against Carranza forces on the east
sr seaboard. Vil~a stated, that he
came north to settle the Arizona bor
President Receives Many Congratua
tory Messages on Birthday.
President Wilson Monday night be
gan receiving messages from foreign
rulers congratulating him on his 58th
birthday anniversary. The first tc
arrive were from King George, 0f
Great Britain, and President Estrada
Cabrera, of Guatemala.
.Led by Secretary Bryan, the presi
dent's cabinet called at the White
House during the evening. Because
of the cancellation of all state din
ners and receptions after Mrs. Wil
son's death this gathering was the
nearest- approach to a social affair
held in the White -House for many
Among the messages received were
several from parents of children nam
ed for the president, because their
birth anniversaries were the same as
his. Mr. Wilson usually answers such
SHOOTS HIS WIFE.
Seen on Man's Lap and Being Refus
ed Admitance Husband Fires.
Mrs. Frances Collins was shot
dead early Monday at her home in
New York. where. she lived with her
husband, William, and her two
brothers. The husband is locked up
charged with murder. Collins, who
is d cabaret singer, and his wife quar
reled early in the evening. When he
returned home he heard her voice in
an adjoining bedroom.
He went to the door, peeped
peeped through the keyhole and saw
her sitting in a man's lap. Collins
demanded admission, was refused
and, it is charged, fired through the
panel of the door. Mrs. Collins fell
to the floor fatally wounded. The
man in whose lap Mrs. Collins was
sitting was her brother George.
Mexican Navy Neutral.
A report at Washington says that
four cruisers of the Mexican navy
have decided to await results of the
fighting in the interior before taking
Cruiser Goebenl Daamnged.
According to dispatches from Co
penhagen the Turkish cruiser Goeben
has been badly damaged in striking
two mines in the Bosphorus.
where the fire burned fiercest was
opposite Fifty-sixth street. Hamper
ed in their efforts to reach the blaze,
the firemen dug into the pavement
with their axes. They make a hole
above the subway at Fifty-third
street. From this opening belched a
olume of smoke and flames as if,
f om a crater. A hose was directed
though the opening and even hand
ext 'uguishers were used.
F r ten blocks the streets were
lined with ambulances that came
fromi 51 the city. A cordon thrown
arou'4 Broadway by the police held
'TO PROTECT TRADE
ENGLAND TAIES STEPS TATU
DELAY Of OUR SHIPS
PLANS BEINi PERFE DER
British Ambassador Says Only Eight
American Ships Have Been Pt
Into Prize Court-Naval Staues
May be Shipped Without DiMculty
Great Britain, Italy and The Neth
erlands have reached an agreement
whereby commerce to the latter two
countries from the United States is
expected to meet with a minimum
molestation. Great -Britain, accord
ing to statemets from both the Brit
ish embassy and State department,
also has taken steps to remedy some
of the complaints made bythe United:
States in its recent protes.
The statements -indicatk- that so
far as Italy and Holland ardconcern
ed, the British government now be
lieves the danger of getting contra
band 'articles through to, Germany
and Austria has been removed. ?,
Should effective measures be agreed -
on between the Allies and the other
European neutrals British officials
believe American commerce in future
will not be subject to delays and in
American Minister Van Dyke, atC
The Hague, cabled Thursday that the
British, French and Russian. mints
ters had given formal assuranees that
merchandise, even of a Aontraband
character, would not be.nolested on
the high seas if consiged to the re
cently established Ne erlands mon
Secretary Bryan received a per
sonal note from Sir Cecil'Spring-Rice,
the British ambassador, stating that
inasmuch as the re-exportation of
naval stores probably would be pro
hibited by* Italy and Holland, ar
rangements would soon be completed
whereby these products could be ship
loed without difficulty to those coun
tries from the United Etates.
The British ambassador al6 issued
the following statement:
"Shipments for Italy In, "Italian
steamers of goods placed on the em
bargo list of the Italian government
and consigned to named persons are
"Articles for Holland (apart from
copper, petroleum and grain, except.
rice and corn), which must be con
signed to The Netherlands gover6
ment, should be consigned to The
Netherlands Overseas Trust to.insure'
"Out of 773 vessels that have pro
ceeded freni-the ite~_
Scandinavian countries, Holandand
taly, since the. beginningof the-mar
only eight-have bee t tbe
Prize Courts and one of these' ,
been released, leaving only seven di
tained for decision of the Prise'.ourt.
By far the greater number of those
detained for examination have been -
"With regard to purchases..qf'c -'
goes the British government has pur
bhased many cargoes of copper and
has not yet condemned or confiscated
any neutral cargo or consgnmnt, .
'ough some are awaiting adjudica-.
In connection with. this statement
government officials pointed out that
while only eight ships have been put
into Prize Courts, scores of others
had been held up for varying periods
of tinie before being released. It was
not only these delays, -but the conse
quent moral effect on shippers, who
hesitated to subject perishable goods
to extended examination in.-British
norts, which brought forth the Amer- -
ian note. The fact that only eight
ases actually were taken: int'rise
Courts has convinced many officIi..
that the bulk of American commerce
was of a legitimate character, and
that most of the detentions of Ame
ican ships were without real cause.
The text ?f the cablegram received
by The Netheriads minister, from his
government was summarized. in the
following statement by the state de
"The -British- and French -minis
ters, who were joined orally by the.
Russian minister, have declared by a
note dated December 28 that con
traband merchandise which is .con
sgned to the recently established
Netherlands monopoly for the receipt
of imports winl not be stopped. They
also declared that their government
would not stop foodstuffs (the necee
saries of life) consigned to mer
chant~s unless the merchants are be
vond a doubt mediums of delvery -to
the governments at war with Great
Britain, France and Russia.''
"The British ambassador'gave Mr.
Bryan a general summary of :-tbe
status of some specific questions rais
e'd outside of the Americanl--noteon
the general subject of commerce. Mr.
Bryan issued the following statement,
based on the ambassador's memo
"The question of rubber is belier
ed to be approaching a satisfactory
settlement. Progress Is being made
with the question of naval stores,
and it is expected that arrangements
will be made by which shipments can
be made to The Netherlands and
Italy and other neutrals without dif
CAPTURED BRITISH LANDED.
German Auxiliary Cruiser Kronzprins
Wilhelm Seems to be Active.
One hundred sailo from fot~r
French and British acaptured
and sunk by the Ge -a-uniliary
cruiser -Kronzprinz W ,have
been landed at Las Palmas,
Islands, by the German
The craft which fell Into
man hands were the French steamer
Mont Angel and the British steamer
Bellevue, sunk December 4; t
French sailing vessel Annie Marie,.
sunk September 17 and the French ~
ship Union sunk November 22.
German Airmen Drop Bombs.
Berlin says German airmen have ~
dropped bombs on British armmuni
tion stores on the ontsirts of Rosen- ~
dael and Goudskerque, near Dun-'
kirk, France. The explosions tille .
and indured a hundred pegss nu
.eae +oa p ortion at one oet -