Newspaper Page Text
VOL. XXVIII. MANNING, S. C., WEDNESDAY, ;JANUARY 26, 1916. N
AEROP ANES MAKE
HOSTILE AIRCRAFT DROPS MANY
BOMBS ON BRITISH
ONE KILLED; TWO WOUNDED
No Naval or Military Damage Done,
But Some Privntc Property De
stroyed.-Some Fires Started.
London.-The east coast of Keni
was'raided early Sunday morining be
B a hostile aeroplane, which dropped
- nine bombs. One person was killed
and six were injured.
A sczc.id attack, this time, by twc
hostile seaplaaes. was m,..d' on the
l Kent coast early in the afternoon. Nc
t casualties have been reported. The
5 raiders escaped.
t An o.icial account of the first raid
given out here, follows:
"The war office announces that,
taking advantage of the bright moon
L light, a hostile aeroplane visited the
I east coast of Ken at 1 o'clock in the
morning. After dropping nine bomb:
in rapid succession, it made off sea
"No naval or military damage was
done, but there was some damage tc
private property. Incendiary bomb,
caused fires, which were extinguished
by 2 a. m.
"The following casualties occurred:
"One man killed; two men, one wo
man and three chadren slightly in
The war office announcement con
r cerning the second attack says:
I "Following the at:-a.l attack on the
east coast of Lent early in the morn
ing hostile seaplanes made a second
attack upon the same locality shortly
t after noon.
"After coming under a heavy fire
the raiders disappeared, p'..-sued by
t our naval and military machines.
I "No casualties have been reported."
MURDERERS ARE EXECUTED.
L Duran Brothers Died, Cursing Ameri
cans, in Cemetery.
El Paso, Texas.-Bernardo and Fed
rico Duran, the Me:ican cattle
thieves, condemned to die by the
Carranza authorities for the killing of
Bert Akers at San Lorenzo, a few
miles below the international bound
ary, were executed in the cemetery at
The Duran brothers died cursing
Americans. Bernardo appealed for
mercy on behalf of his brother, Fed
"It is unjust to kill two of us for
one American," he said. "It is giv
ing two ,,eyes for one tooth. I - am
willing to die, because I killed the
gringo, but my brother ought to be
allowed to live."
The bullets of the firing squad kil
ed Fedrico, but Bern.ardo was still
conscious after he fell and the offi
cers commanding the f ring squad
gave him the "mercy shot" through
the head. 4
The bodies of both Me icans'9
Secretary LaesHo'ses Ran.
Washington.--Secretar'f Lane of
the department of interior a~id 'iEs.
Lane were severely shaken u n
the horses to a carriag'd In 'whd
they were riding smashed' inti!
post and dragged it' 1lil! f 61
down a sidewalk. The nhw n
ed when the horses became! e ta T
In the harness cand fell.
Halifax, N. S.-The British fr ggt
steamei- Pollentia which has beezm re
ported in distress iabout 'i00 miles ofl
Cape Race foundered according to a
wireless message received here. All
on board were rescued.
Miss W'rson Leaves Hospital.
Philadelphia-Miss Margaret W.l
son, daughter of the president, left
the ihospital here where on January
13 she underwent an operation for
the removal of adenoids and both
Goethals on Way Home.
Panama.--Gov. George W. Goethals
of the Canal Zone and Brig. Gen.
Clarence R. Edwards, commanding the
United States troops in the zone, left
Panama on Monday for washington.
Governor Goethals will appear before
the appropriaticn committees of con
gress relative to the Panama Canal
appropriations while General Edwards
will call before the military commit
tees presumably regarding the Pana
ma canal troops in connection with
the general army renreanizainn ndn
A bill has beer. Introduce:1 in the
senate by Senators Ban ks anxl Stuck
ey to abolish the state tax commis
-son. The bill has been referred to
the finance committee.
-By the provisions of the agricul
tural committee bill, which received
its third reading in the senate, public
c weighers of farm products shall be
-appointed in towns of 5.000 inhabi
-tants or more, upon petition of as
.many as 50 freeholders. Such public
-weighers r.re to be appointed by the
- goverc-, upon re:-ommendation of
the town council. and are to be placed
ander bond of SZ00.
No Two Eyes See Alike.
"There Is on old saying that 'seeing's
believing.' In ordinary matters th
may be so," writes Professor John Alt
ken In a letter to Nature. "but thle be
lief Is not necessarily true and in qlu's
tions of color is full of pitfalls. No twc
pairs of eyes see colors alike. This
does not refer to color seeing and cot
or blind eyes oniy, but there is reasot
to believe that all eyes differ more o.
less In their perception of color."
PROGRESSIVE PROGRAM OUTLIN
ED AT'FARMERS' UNION CON
ORGANIZE AND COOPERATE
Nearly Every County In the State ls
Represented at Meetings.-Some
Columbia.-Speakers addressing the
conference held in Columbia under the
auspices of the South Carolina State
Farmers' Union stressed the necessity
of organization and co-operation
among the farmers and business men
of the state if the agricultural- re
sources are to be developed to the
highest point. Practically every coun
ty in the state was represented at the
meetings, which were held in the
chapel my the University of South
Carolina. H. T. Morrison of Char
leston county, president of the union,
presided at the sessions.
President Morrison made a short
opening talk emphasizing the great
necessity of organization and co-opera
tion among the farmers. He gave
some instances of actual co-operation.
The Citrus Growers' association of
southern California, he said, has been
doing a very large business on a very
small paid up capital. "Carloads of
oranges," he said, "are sold while
rolling. Fruit is sold through the
agency for..the benefit of all its mem
bers, thereby securing the benefits of
genuine co-operation." An outline of
t the work of the Scott County Cotton.
Growers' association in Arkansas was
sketched by the speaker, giving their
plan of co-operative- selling of cotton
and cotton seed and showing advan
tages of same to the individual mem'
bers. ' Instances of the loss to the
farmer through lack .of information
and lack of co-operation were given by
Passage of a series of resolitions
intended to aid in the betterment of
agricultural conditions in the state
market were adopted at the night ses
sion of the conference. The session
was held immediately. fellowing the
address at the state house by Clarenc'e
The purpose of the state warehbouse1
system was outlined In an address b,
John L. McLarin, commissi4ner.
explained the system of..gragdig cot
ton. He said that the warehouse sys
tem should be further developed and
a selling agency established as a fart
of its work.
The- farmers' conference adopted
resolutions. indorsing: . :
Re-election of John .Lr "McLaurin,. a
Act for Torrens system of 'regis-'
tration of land titles. --
. ontinnation: of -.appropriatio. or
cattle .tick eradication.
*Creation *of a system or rural
Appropriation -to -meet. the terms
of the Iiever bill. --
- .ome .provision for combating the
ravages on the coming boll weevil.
A ;bill ,nlarging -the escope of the~
state.:bureau - of marketing.
Goverrnor .Names Delegates.
CpSlumnbia.-Gov. Manning has ap
pointed the following delegates to the
i1J annual conference of the nation
aJl.hild labor committee. to be held in
4slieville, February 3 to 6: The Rev.
Z.. T. Cody of Greenville, George B.
,..Cromer of Newberry, John Porter Hol
lis of. Rock Hill, the Rev. A. T. Jami
son of Greenwood. Joseph A. McCul
lough of Greenville, 3. Whitner Reid
of Columbia and W. F. Stackhouse,
ICoast Artillery Company Ready.
Spartanburg. - The Spartanburg1
Coast Artillery company, fully man-;
ned and officered, awaits offical recog
nition from the office of the adjiutant
general of South Carolina. The fol
lowing permanent officers have been
selected: 3. M. Wallace, captain; 3.
Hertz Brown, first lieutenant; J. N.
Wright, second lieutenant; Allen
Rogers, secretary and treasurer.
Guard Appeals to Solons.
Columbia.-The necessity for an ap
propriation of $25,000 to reimburse
the federal government for property
shortage was stressed at two sessions
of the National Guard Association of
South Carolina. A committee was
appointed to confer with the ways
and means committee. "It will be the
last call for the National Guard i* the
legislature fails to make the appro
priation,".. said one of the members
Thirty officers attended the meeting..
Governor Manning and several others.
addressed the association.
Mr. Harper, author of one of the!
three compulsory educational laws in
troduce~d at the 1915 sessIon, Intro
duced a bill in the house to submit
to the qualified electors of the state
at the general election in November
the question of compulsory school at
tendance. The voting unit is made
The standardization of all school
books used In the public schools Is
sought In a bill introduced In the
house by Mr. H. H. Harris. The
measr. provides that the books shall
be those Indorsed by the state board
"Do you know why money is so
scarce, brot bersy' the soap box orator
demanded, and a fair sized section of
the backbone of the nation waited In
leisurely patience for the answer.
A tired looking woman had paused
for a moment on the edge of the!
crowd. She spoke shortly:
"It's because so many of you men
spend your time telling each other
MII ORK DONE
BOTH HOUSES OF GENERAL Al
SEMBLY HAVE BEEN BUSY
ANTI -BOOZE BILL PASSEE
House Rushes Through Liles Bill Pro
viding Chaingang Sentence With
out Alternative for Violators.
Woman suffrage Gains.
Woman suffrage met defeat in the
lower house of South Carolina's ger
eral assembly by a vote of 61 to 5:
on a joint resolution proposing a con
stitutional amendmert to be submit
ted to the voters at the next genera
election. This was the first time tha
the question of vct-s for women ha
been presented seriously and fough
for determinedly o: the floor of the
house. Some mar'exd at its strengt1
In the Palmetto State, others were
surprised that it failed to receive 4
majority vote, while some were heart
to predict that it would receive the
npessary 83 affirmative votes in thi
lower house. Suffragists express grad
Ification at the strength their csa
Schoci Law Good Enough.
Considering that the present opera
tion of the -local option compulsora
school atte..dance law is sufficient fo:
the needs and purses of South Caro
lina, the house killed a bill by Mr
Harper to place the question before
the people of the state in the nex
general election, the county being the
unit. The arguments against the bil
were based on the inexpediency o
changing the existing law this year
the value of education was not dis
counted by any of the speakers. som4
of whom, however, favored the pro
posed measure. to the end that con
pulsory education be statewide at as
earlier date that by the operation o:
the present statute.
A majority favorable report was re
ceived from the finance committee ii
the senate on the rural credits- bill
introduced by Senator Sherard of-An
derson. Senator Christensen reporter
for the majority, with the minority
unfavorable report signed by Senator
Stuckey of Lee county. By the pro
'. sins of the bill, the state would
float bands to the amount of $10O000;
000 to be extended as aid in putylEst
of farms. The issue is to be submnit
ted to the people.
Senator DuRant of Clarendon intro
duced, a bill providing for an amend
ment to.the constitution to change the
time of meeting of the general as
sembly. The date proposed is the
fourth Tuesday in July instead of the
second Tuesday in January.
Work on the appropriations bill is
progressing at a rapid pace. The
?iembers of .the house ways and
means committee and the senate
finance committee are using every ef
fort to complete consideration of all
sections of the bill. J. T. Liles, chair
man of the ways and means commit
tee, .said that It was possible the bil:
would be ready for introduiction it
the house by February 1.
Bills embodying recom'mendationi
of house and senate committees to In
vestigate the public printing were in
troduced in both branches general as
sembly. The two measures in chiej
are Identical in their terms. They pro
vide for the erection by the legisla
ture of a joint committee on printing
In whiCh shall be vested Control oj
"all the public printing, binding, 1ith
oraphing and engraving for the stat4
or any department of the state gov
- "Safety First."
Discussions arose in the house ove1
the adoption of a recommendation b:
the rules committee, amending rulE
58 so that report's of committees oj
free conference shall be printed -it
the journal on request of ten memn
bers and lie over for consideratioz
on the next legislative day.:) ThE
amended rule was proposed by Mr
Mower, who said that the..object ii
to assuire deliberation one the .gnos1
important report on a bilk. Mr. Gray
*aon, objectinig, called attention to thi
fact that the rule would probabl3
lengthen the session of the legisla
ture and that the reports of commit
tee on free conference were usually
the best that could be done for
bill. Mr. Warren, chairman of the comn
mittee on rules, said that the amend
ed rule would expedite the businesi
of the house. The rule was adopted.
-Mr. ~Toole's bill, providing for the
teaching of agriculture in schools,, re
celved an unfavorabile report from thi
committee on education.
The senate has confirmed the fo]
lowing South Carolina postmasters
S. T. King. Georgetown; M. J
Speara, Lamar; A. C. Ligon at Orange
burg. No action has yet been take:
on the nomination of Judge 3. T. Johx
Remodeling of the Columbia unlo:
station has been begun and the worl
will be progressed as quickly as is es
pedient. Tearing away and other pre
liminary steps are now being taker
At a recent meeting of the Union Sts
tion Ccrpany of Columbia. it was d4
cided to make improvements costinj
b~etween $50,000 and $100,000.
Coca, from the leaves of which ce
caine is produced, was known amoni
the Incas as the "divine plant" long be
fore the discovery of America.
A Matter of Figures.
Lobbyist-May I submit some figure1
in support of my contention? Senata
-Well, there'll have to be at least fon
GREENVILLE'S BIG NEW JAIL
Splendid Modern Structure Is Com
pleted. - Equipment Second to
None, Safe and Sanitary.
Greenville.-The new Greenville
county jail is now completed and was
oecupied last week. There is space
for 125 prisoners. This jail is jds1
the anthithesis of the old. which i
replaces, as the new structure ii
strictly modern. Men who have .visit
ed several fine jails state that Green
vile county has one which in equip
meat is second to none. Every.'at
tention has been given to sanitatioi
and to safety. The structure is Are
proof. Provision is made for the sep
aration of different classes of prison
ers. At the front of the jail propel
is a residence section for the jailer
The cells on the first floor will ac
commodate 40 negro men. The sec
ond floor is-identical, and will be uses
for white men. On the third floor ar
cells for 12 white women and 16 negr<
women; also a large cell for boys. J
hospital ward is al. o 'paced on thi
floor. In the basement is a kitchen
laundry, store room, -oonler room anc
so on. A padded cell for violent pris
oners is provided, as. are two. deten
tion rooms and one. consultation room
There are lockers for each cell wher
the clothes and other uelongings o
the prisoners are placed.
This jail costs something more that
$30,000. Its erection was authorizes
by the last session of the general as
sembly. The heating and ventilatioi
systems are excellent. There are
shower baths provided on each floor.
The new place of detention will b
under the management of the char
ties and corrections.. commission
which body was: created by the las
session of the. general assembly. I
is the intention 'of this commission t
conduct the jail in acdord with mod
ern ideals-as a place, primarily, fo
correctional detentions, rather that
merely as a 'place for punishment.
Shkiffs to.AIc Each Other.
Columbia.-Cooperation in the en
.forcement of all laws, was the spirit o
the, talks, delivered - at the winte
meeting of -the South: Carolina She:
ifs' association, - Two seasons were
held, the first - in the assembly room
of the C.amber of. Commerce and th
second in the -Richland county cour
house.. iNearly a- scoreof sheriffs a
Cannon G.. Blease, sheriff of Neu
berry -county, was elected presiden
of the -association to succeed J. E
more Martin, sheriff of Charlestoi
county. T...S. Burch, sheriff of Floc
once county, was chosen as vice press
dent. . Hendrix Rector, sheriff c
Greenville- county, was' nnanimousl;
zy.eleted secretary and treasurer
The by-laws of the association ,wer
amended in order that he might serf
a. second term.
The" following- sheriffs were pre:
lnt: .- Sheriffs 'Burts of Abbeville,
.Elmore Martin of Charleston, SimJ
Miller. of-. Lexington, F. F: Hill c
Calhoun, J. M. Dozier. of Marion,,
:H. M. Tshley of . Aiderson, Canno:
B,. Blease of Newberry, A. M. Salle
of Orangeburg, D. C. Colvin of Chet
tar, J. D. Ackerman-of Colleton, Joh:
C. McCain of Richland, James Mac
fi of Fairfield, 3. A. Lewis of Horr2
. B. Morris of Barnwell, T.
Burch of Florence, Hendrix Recto
of Greenville, R. 3. Polard of Mar
boro and E,. B. Gambrell of Clarez
Cotton in Florence.
Florence.--The cotton ginned I
Florence county for the past seaso
now amounts to 30,017 bales a
against 45,343 last year prior to Ja:
uary 1. The farmers through th
county are going to work bravely an
the lands are pretty well broken al
through the county, ready for sprin
planting. The problema of the fel
tilizers has not been settled yet, bu
the farmer is trusting to providenc
to provide and helis ready for hi
part of it. There has been a gres
deal of grain planted and every pre]
aration being made for raising hogi
Eight Foreign Steamers In Port.
Charleston.-There were In the por
of Charleston one morning recent]
eight foreign steamers and four Amel
ican coastwise vessels, making th
'largest number at any one time sinc
before the war began in Jluly, 11
Six of the vessels are British ships
one Dutch and one German.
SOUTH CAROLINA NEWS ITEMS
W. F. Stevenson of Cheraw ar
nounced his candidacy for the natlo:
al house of representatives from th
Fifth district. He was in the rac
with Congressman David E. Finle
two years ago.
When the Oakland public schoc
at Greenville caught fire a few morr
ings ago 600 pupils marched outc
the building in less than one minute
The Republic Mills of Chester cour
ty have been chartered with a capits
The following officers were ri
elected at the night session: Maj
Pat~rick 3. Drew of Barnwell, presi
dent; Maj. R. F. Watson, of Greern
ville first vice president; Maj. A. E
Silcox of Charleston, second vic
president; Maj. 3. Shapter Caldwel
of Columbia, secretary; Capt. A. C
Doyle of Columbia, treasurer, ani
Lieu. Bartley Bull, South Carolin;
naval militia, recorder,
The members of the legislativ
committee are: Maj. R. F. Watsor
Maj. J.J. S. Caldwell, Capt. 3. Fros
Maj. 3. S. Caldwell, Capt. 3. Fros
and Lieut. George W. Beckett.
The dciet L'i6-ares.
The oldest libraries of which w
have any certain knowledge are thos
brought to light by excavations amon
te ruins of the east. Among these an
te Babylonish books inscribed on cla
-ublts, supposed to have been pri
pared for public instruction about 60
B. C. It Is said by Aristotle ths
Strabo was the first known collecti
of books and manuscripts. This WI
about the year 330 B. C.
MEXICAN REBEL LEADERS IN:
NOVEMBER DECIDED ON
MVILLA EN ACCOUNTABLE
Washinltoh Government . Knew 01
' ians of Rebels But Depended on
Carranza For Safety.
Was i tan.-Death to Americans
in I~eaco, and destruction of their
pro ..,vell as war to a finish
against Cagganza, was determined
upon, It has just became known, at a
formal convention of the Mexican rev
olutionary leaders held in November
at a ranch near Cordoba. Present and
joining in the agreement are said to
haveb eenr epresentatives o f Villa,
3 Zapata,A rgumedo, Higinio Aguallar,
the Cedillo brothers and many lesser
Meager reports of this gathering
came to the state department long1
ago but they were not made public
i and until. this time few people in
Washington knew that there was a
general conspiracy against Americans,
or even that the various rebel fac
tions in the field in Mexico had
effected. any kind of an agreement for
t concerned activities against the de
t facto government.
) The zmassacre at Santa Ysabel, at
! tributed to bandits led by Villa of
r ficers, is believed to have been per
1 petrated in accordance with the rebel
convention order. Officials think the
long period that passed after the Cor
doba meeting before the murders was
because of the time required by the
various delegates to make reports to
their 'commanders, and the fact that
r the news of the convention's decision
had to be carried to subordinate mili
tary commanders by courier. Cor
doba is on the railroad between -Vera
t Cruz and Mexico City and some 1,000
t miles from Santa Ysabel.
The'Carranza authorities have been
fully advised concerning the move
ments' of the rebels and have been
depended upon by the Washington
government to take every possible pre
cautioh to prevent the threats against
Amerkans from being carried out.
They'tre- believed to have the situa
tion fiirly well in hand now, although
9 the- chiefs :whose delegates met at
Cordoba still are in the field, operat
e ing more or less openly.
PRESIDENT'S TRIP APRROVED.
Will Stop at Pittsburg, Cleveland, Mil
waukee, Chicago, Detroit, Des
Moines, Topeka, Kansas City.
n Washington.-Final plans for Pres
ident Wilson's forthcoming trip
. through the Middle Western States
to speak on national preparedness
approved include stops at Pittsburg,
Cleveland, Milwaukee, Chicago, Des
Moines, Topeka and Kansas City. A
rtentative itinerary drawn up included
St. Louis, St. Joseph and Davenport,
but these cities have been eliminated
anzd Milwaukee and Topeka substi
On the Middle Western trip the
president will leave Washington Jan
uar'y 28, and will return February 4.
In addition to formal addresses the
spresident is expected to speak brief
ly at several cities and towns through
e which he will pass.
gGerman Campaign In Egypt
. London.-Germanly's campaign in
Egypt is meeting with obstacles, it is
eannounced here, due to the lack of
ecoal to operate the railroad which the
Germans have constructed southward
through Syria to the edge of the desert
approaching the Suez Canal. The ab
sence of coal prevents the actual
opening of the road to transportation.
IPersia Not Victim of Austrians.
Vienna, via London.-The govern
ment has informed Frederic Penfield,
ethe United States ambassador, that
no Austro-Hungarian submarine was
concerned in the sinking of the Pen
insular & Oriental Line steamer
Insurance Companies Make Claims.
Washington.-Notice that several
- life insurance companies will claim a
e part of any indemnity Germany may
e pay on account of the loss of life on
7 the Lusitania has raised a question
for which State Department officials
say there is no precedent. Heirs of
many of the Lusitania victims already
have presented claims. Final decision
as to whether insurance company
claims on account of policies paid out
shall take precedence will rest with
. Truce a Ruse to Get Time.
-Rome.-Premier Miouchkocitch of
-Montenegro who said King Nicholas
- had prepared documents justifying
the conduct of himself and his min
.1 isters .in regard to the peace negotia
tions with Austria. is quoted in a dis
patch from Brindisi to the Stefni
News Agency as saying that Monte
negro arranged a truce with Austria
e as a ruse to enable her to gain time.
L After the capture of Mount Loveen
t by the Aastrians, the Premier is re
t ported to have said, this gave the
Montenegrins a week's time.
A Long Sid'ewalk.
eThe n nnuai product 0of bricks ini lhe
United States is 53i004.00.000. This
is enough to lay a live foot sidewalk
eight tienes arounld the world.
"W Vhy live in the past? Why not for.
"The bill collectors won't let me."
Stripes for Violators.
The general assembly of South
Carolina, the lower house especially,
seems determined to put stripes on
the person violating any law of the
state relating to the sale, shipment
or st -rage of intoxicants. By a large
majority, 71 to 18, the lower branch
refused to kill Mr. Liles' bill providing
for a chaingang sentence without the
alternative of a fine. Debate on the
measure began early in the afternoon
and was resumed at night. Indications
point to the final enactment of the
bill, as it is said that there is little
objection to "making prohibition pro
hibit" to be found among the mem
bers of the senate. A number of
amendments to the Liles bill were
proposed, but only those introduced
by the author himself were passed,
each of the others meeting instant
death at the hands of a determined
body of legislators. The bill provides
for a ch.'igang sentence of three
months to five years for the first of
fense and one year to five years for
each subsequent offense. No option
of a fine is given a presiding judge.
The bill also carries a provision that
a circuit judge may suspend all of
the imprisonment except 30 days for
the first offense and 60 days for the
second offense; in any instance the
person convicted must serve at least
30 days. The bill does not apply to
cases now pending in courts or to
offenses committed prior to the en
actment of the act, should It pass.
A bill which provides a plan for
the disposal of stocks in the recently
closed dispensaries was introduced in
the senate by Senators Banks, Lide,
Sinkler and Spigner. The general
plan Is to open the dispensaries so
that the surplus stock may be re
tailed under the provisions of the
gallon-a-month law, which becomes ef
fective the first of the year, and to
keep them open until all liquors have
been sold. Sales are to be made only
at the county seats in the 15 coun
ties which went dry January 1. It is
estimated that approximately $100,
000 worth of whiskey was brougbt
No Whiskey "Ads"
The temper of the upper house to
ward positive anti-liquor legislation
was indicated when the Carlisle bill,
making the advertisement of liquors
In newspapers or on bill-boards ai
misdemeanor, passed third reading
and was sent to the house without a
dissenting voice. During the rapid
transit of the bill through the sen
ate no opposition whatever was de
veloped .Violation of the measure Is
punishable by a fine of not more than
$500 or less than.$100.
The big exception to the policy of
retrenchment has been .the indorse
ment by the ways and means com
mittee of the bill providing for a fund
of $50,000 for the enforcement of the
prohibition and- gallon-a-month laws.
Withal it is expected that the state
levy will be kept down to six mills.
A number of bills on taxation pres
age the fight that has been freely
predicted. The latest rumor, how
ever, is that opposition to the South
Carolina tax commission will not
come to a head, the fight being con
fined to the methods to be pursued In
.he assessment and equalization of
property. Various measures and joint
resolutions proposing constitutional
amendments have been introduced,
debate on which will hardly matdrial
ize until after many of the contented
matters left from the 1915 session
have been disposed or.
The South Carolina cotton ware
housing systeD will also come in for
discussion as It Is understood that a
bill will be introduced along the lines
suggested in Gov. Manning's annual
message, providing for a board of
three commissioners. A bill, making
the state's warehouse receipt a safe
collateral for loans, has already been
introduced and it is probable that the
matter will, be disposed of during the
The upper branch through their ap
proval of the Wightnian bill has gone
on record as favoring an open pasture
for lawyers. The Saluda senator by
a small majority carried his point
~abolishing the present requtirement
of two years of specified, study before
one is eligible for the state bar exam
innation. The bill will be sent to the
house this week.
The house commnitee on railroads
returned an unfavorable report on MIr.
McMahan's bill providing that street
cars shall stop on the near side Qf a
street corner for the purpose of tak
ing on or discharging passengers.
Invited by' resolution of the lower
house of the general assembly, Clar
ence Poe, editor of The Progressive
Farmer, made a forceful speech In
the hall of the house on "Legislation
Needed by Our Rural Interests"..
A committee, consisting of Senator
DuRant of Clarendon, Senator Sinkler
of Charleston and Senator Banks of
Calhoun, was appointed to prepare a
suitable mcmoriai on the death of
Louis Appelt, former senator- from
Five Negroes Lynched.
Sylvester, Ga.-The bodies of five
negroes, taken from the Worth county
jail here and rushed in automobiles to
the adjoining county of Lee, where
they were hanged and shot were cut
down and preparations made to bury
them. Coroner's incuest returned a
verdict that the negroes came to their
"death by strangulation and gushot
wounds at the hands of unknown par
ties." Thcre had been no arrests in
connet! Xn with the lynching and what
steps authorities may be taking are
not knov.n here.
Saving the Innocent Ones.
Governor Stewart of Missouri once
found eight convicts mowing the
grass of the staitehouse hiwn. He
questioned themi. Seven of theml sail
they were innoc-ent meni. The eighth
said, '-I stole er hawg. suh, an' it was
a nIos' 'stonishing1 gIod ha~wg:'
"You're. pariidoned: Stewvar tim er
d. "LeaveX. th risout~M a once. W
muhst preserve our iinnocnt convitt
TESTING A SHELL
Ordeals Through Which a Big Gun
Missile Must Pass.
THE SOFT NOSE PROJECTILE,
Its Ability to Bore Its Way Through
Heavy Armor Plate Without Explod
ing Until After Its Impact Was Dis
covered by Ac-ident.
Everybody knows that the modern
shell is one of the most diabolical of
man's inventions, but how many of us
realize that it is also one of the most
delicate and complicated?
tereutly some firms holding- con
tracts for making high explosive shells
took upon themselves to "correct" a
detail in the specification, and, as a re
sult, a certain thread was "improved."
They will never do anything of the
kind again, because all their work was
rejected. The apparent absurdity-it
is, in fact. an absolute absurdity, from
an engineering point of view-is de
signed of set purpose..
There is a somewhat similar anom
aly in the big shell for penetrating
armor plating. which was introduced
in consequence of an accident. One
day a test shell was fired at a piece of
armor plating from the soft side, and
the projectile went clean .through it
and exploded after impact, whereas a
similar shell fired against the front
the hardened and tempered side-shat
tered and left an indentation of only a
This singular incident set somebody
thinking. and in consequence the high
explosive armor piercing shell is now
given a soft nose. To the hard point is
attached a cap of soft metal. with
which addition it will go through the
toughest piece of armor plate. What
happens on impact seems to be this:
The cap spreads.-holding the point and
so enabling it-remember that the shell
is revolving rapidly-to force its-was
unbroken through the hard face of the
plate by a sort of boring action.
No less curious is another fact con
cerning the points of such projectiles.
After the heads have been worked the
shells are left for weeks before they
undergo the next stage, because, strong
as they look. they are liable to snap.
Why? Think of the razor. Constant
stropping twists the grain, with the re
sult that the steel gets "tired" and will
not yield a keen edge. But if you put
the thing away for a few weeks the
grain Vl' return to its normal state,
and you can get a satisfactory shave
In a similar way the grain of the steel
is affected by working. though of course
to a much greater'extent, and until it is
"set" the makers must go cautiously.
Steel shows a like eccentricity in the
making of test gauges.-,A}e. of-4be
measurements. of shells are very fine,
and the instruments employed. are so
delicate that, they have to be used
quickly lest the heat of the hand causes
the metal to expand.
Now. when a groove is cut In a piece
of steel which is to be used as a test
gauge the work is laid aside for weeks,
perhaps months. Why not finish it at
once? Because the groove. though dead
true when cut out, may be otherwise in
a short time, even though it has been~
As a concrete proof of the elaborate
nature of projectile making take the
case of .the shrapnel shell. -'The steel
portion undergoes about a seore of op
erations, a~nd the brass cartridge case
attached to the base requires about six.
teen, counting from the disk of sheel
brass to the finished article. Theea
ttiere is the fuse, the delicacy of whici
Altogether the shell Is subjected .te
about forty Inspections and may be re
jected at-any stage.
After a shell has survived this ordeal
it ought to be, one would think,. per.
feet. but a test shell is taken fron
every 120 and actually fired from a gut
into a bank of sand. It is then again
examined, and if the contour about the
powder pocket is expanded away goes
the whole batch, because if they were
fired the grooving might be torn out of
Perhaps the most striking illustration
of the minute care exercised in projec
tile making is that every shell is weigh
ed over and over again. If you produce
an eisahteen pounder high explosive
shell it must be only a few drains over
or under its normal weight;. otherwise
it is rejected.. -
In this connection It may be of Inter
est to note that an explosive shell that
weighs only about seventy pounds will
break into a shower of some 1,200
pieces. A single one of the monster
proectiles fired from a fifteen Inch na
val gun will weigh 1,950 pounds. It
takes twelve seconds for the 'projectile
of a twelve inch naval gun to reach Its
point of impact when firing at a range
of five miles. To fire a' battleship
broadside costs about $20,000.- Ex
"Pop. tell me some conundrums."
"Conundrums? Why, I don't know
any conundrums, my son."
"Oh. yes. you do! I heard mother
tell Aunt Mary the other day that you
keep her guessing most of the time."
Been Through Them.
Mr. Bacon-Do you know, dear, I
have only two suits of clothes to my
Mrs. Bacon-Yes. John; I have no
ticed that you have very little change
in your clothing.-St. Louis Post Dis
Fretful thought has more to do with
discontent than all the troubles that
can assail us.
IBridal Customs In Spain.
In Spa in a i: ide ha:s no girl attend
an;: to. sinod at the altar with her, but
Neither doe's she~ have a wecdding cake
nor any ,etive going away after the
ceemonuiy. The wedding pair depar1
quety to their new home, where they
reaiin until the following day, when
they start on their honeymoon. Before
departing they pay a formal visit .tc
CARBON A PUZZLE
The Mystery That Links a Dia i
mond to a Lump of Graphite.
A SECRET OF THE MOLECULES
Why Exactly the Same Elements Form
Such Different Substances Is the Rid
die-Changing a Mass of Charcoal
Into a Minute but Pure Gem.
Carbon, one of the seventy' or eighty
primary elements out of which alitmat
ter is- formed. occurs, pure, in two en
tirely different and contrasted forms. f
These are, firs:. aZ"" :':d, secon:.
graphite or plumbago 9-e... il lead). =f
each of these- substai: .es was aeon '
pound or mixture of :'erent elemiep'ts
comprising in both cafes carbon as-the ;
principal constituent there would 'bene
cause for mystification. But they a
absolutely the same unmixed
though in appearance and In pro
they are totally' unlike'
The molecules of each are the same
they are molecules of carbon, and'noth
Ing else-but In one bie molecules e -
so arranged that they form (ansper
ent, excessively hard, solid crystal en
dowed with marvelous powers of re
fracting light which igke it
dazzling of all gems, and. In the otbr.
the same molecules are so arranged
that. they form a dull.; soft:blackata
gray substance that leaves a t
streak when rubbed upon paper Z
The secret lies within th It i -in
the internal play of- th lecula
forces, but what makes those fces,
act so differently when tiey have p
cisely the same material to wor
Burn a diamond and it turns fo =pb ;$
Charcoal is'a third form of cli 4l
ordinarily produced by the chari of =';"
wood. whereby ill the other el men
contained in. the wood are re
leaving the carbon n. the forurota'
soft, black substance which, in. som
ways. resembles graphite. ;^
Charcoal and a few= almilar
stances are called amorphous;
"shapeless'- carbon, because thyyare.
never crystallized, as diamond ilw
and graphite sometimes. Is. Ye- =
coal, too,'has the royal diamondflos2-'
That blood sometimes sits on e t"
throne and sometimes slaves r
mine: but, despite thd turn of
below. it is always itself.
Charcoal can turn to diamond:-ate
the things thatmake it turn
heat combined ,with great
Here. In -outline. Is the proe ;as t:
has been performed in laboratee
pecially by the French chemist.Mo'
san: . Into a mass of' molten o
quantity of pure cearcoal
the liquid iron, which,
charcoal very much as
sugar, is placed in an electric
and heated In a tempera
5,000 degrees F. - Imnmediately :it 3
plunged into cold waterhin order o
cause a quick cooling. -
The result of the sudden coohlngi 1
the formation of a solidified shell on. :
the surface -of the Iron whpcWeI
fully compresses the interiorn an
when it .in tarn'cools and trtest - t
pand. The resultof this, compr~Is
is to force the'Imprisoned carbon (da
coal) to crystallize intO, d1'amond. 'f~
the. molten, Iron Is allowed: to eco . t
ordinary pressure ther-charcoaloniry
turns to graphite. So wesee tha thse
ma'gic wand whose touch. mak dia.
m rot d of what would oSerwise.-e -
meae dull pencil- lead Is the wand/o
It Is believed< that'this is subsfah
tially the way in which nature heeff
makes diamonds. -In the great' di
mond mines of ,South -Africa -there.11
evidence that the gems 'wer ie e
in the bowels of ancient and lo n e
extinct volcanoes, where, of cou~e
both intense heat .and enormous res
sure were available In unlimited quan
tities. But nature in her huge volcante
laboratories' works on a scale' which
we cannot imitate, so that there ls -no
cause. for surprise In the fact that,
while she can make diamonds- as- big
as walnuts when she chooses, we can --
make none even as big as a pin's -hed.
The largest artificial diamond is Ias
than a millimeter in diameter. ' But It
is genuine diamond, and with that fact
to start with, who can say what may
be done some day?
There are a number of meteors which
have fallen upon the earth from outer
space that contain microscopic di
monds resembling the artificial ones.
Nond of them is large eugough to be- of
any importance except as scientific
curiosities, but as such they fill the
mind with wonder. Where and how
were they created-In what world or
The principal metals found In me
teors are Iron and nickel with occa
sional traces of cobalt, copper. alumi
num, tin and magnesium.--Garrett P.
Serviss In New York Journal.
"Gadspur Is a man who prides him
self on doing things."
"True. But I bad to disappoint him
the other day."
"He wanted to do me."-Birming
Manager-I say, Hamfat, old man.,
why don't you join a moving picture
company? Crushed Tragedian-Why
should I so degrade my art. sIr?; Man
ager-Because then, you see, you can
become a reel actor.-Baltimore Amer
Our life-a little gleam of time be
tween two eternities.-Carlyle.