TULSA. OKLA.. STAP
TRACES WAR TO A CLASH OF TONGUES
Professor Dorsey of Chicago Field Museum Finds Austria's Atti
tude a Sequel to Pan-German Versus Pan-Slav Con
test, He Says, Not Economic but Psychologic.
Nations Are Now, as Ever in the Past, Divided by Language
Source of Trouble Is That Political Boundaries Aro
Not Coterminous With Linguistic Groups.
((leorico A. Dorii-y, Curator of Etlinoloify.
Flelil Muieum. In tho Chicago Herald )
An orphan mongrel cur having for
tlio first tlmo In 600 yoara got enough
spunk up to take his tall from between
hU logs, begins to wag It nnd feel
growing pums. Along comes a great
big dog and Bays:
"Iut that tall down and gimme
Wo soe this sort of thing nearly er
Onco upon a time little old Servla
was an emptro and very nearly over
came the Dyzantlno empire, which
probably would have changed the
whole of European history. Thoro
might havo been no TurlToy In Europe.
That was In tho fourteenth century,
under the mighty Dushan.
Explains Austria's Action.
Servla Is now a poor, wretchod little
peasant kingdom not halt aB big as
Illinois In size, with lens peoplo than
the city of Now York.
And now tho house of Hapsburg
would wipe little Sorvla off tho map!
Even though tho process Involve
more lives and money than any war
of any tlmo!
That Is tho llfo. You or I In tho
house of Hapsburg's shoes would do
the samo thing. It Is tho law of exist
ence. Naturo works today as In the
tono ago or when saber-toothod tlgor
fought with mastodon.
Why docs Austria-Hungary, tho Dual
Monarchy, want poor peasant Servla?
Hasn't the Dual Monarchy, with Its In
ternal babel of confusion, enough
Why Other Are Interested.
Suppose tho Dual Monarchy does
want Servla, what 1b It to Russia?
Supposo Russia does object, what Is
It to Germany? Suppose Germany ob
ject's to Hussla's objecting, what busi
ness Is It ot Franco or of England?
Balance ot power.
I propose to analyze this wholo situ
ation. And right horo let us clearly
tecognlze tho fact two facts:
The contest Is not economic but psy
chological In Its fundamental naturo;
iwychologlc lawB aro not ecomonlc
To put It another way, tho desires
which lead to nctlun lu eastorn Eu
rope are not based on Christian eth
ics or rational procodure, but on cer
Things aro what wo think they aro;
and thinking depends on tho point of
Illustrating the Point.
I'an-Clcrnmnlam vs. Pnn-Shivlsm. If
we understand this, wo havo traveled
far First, let mu glvo an Illuminat
lu Prague, an Important city of Aub
tlii. 1 was warned that I would get
along much better In shops and other
wise If I emplojod English first. Ot
courso English Is not generally under
stood In that city, but German Is. We
naturally think ot German ub the lan
guage of AuBtrta, and proud as tho
ancient capital of Bohemia was once,
to all Intents and purposos a German
city, xho now tries to forgot, and won't
talk German If she can possibly help It.
Pan means united, nil; tho term pan
Germanism stands for a movement
which seeks tho common welfnro of
the Gcrmanlo peoples of Europe at tho
expense ot pan-Slavism or common
weal of Slavs,
Becomes Question of Tongues.
Ilcforu we can understand the sig
nificance of theso two movements we
mu at consider tho quostlon of the "Na
tionals," or tho "llaccs," as It la some
In fact, this Is not a question either
of nations or of races, but ot tongues.
The clnbHtflcatlon of mankind by
tniKties In undent and fundamontal.
SOLDIERS OF THE SERVIAN ARMY
Before flags and religions men knew
friend from foo by tho languago test.
More than half of all tho ware of Eu
ropo havo been fought by parties mu
Broadly speaking, all European lan
guages belong to tho Aryan group,
Tho most Important exception Is tho
Magyar, a dialect of the same lan
guage spoken by Turks and Finns.
How Divided by Language.
Of tho Aryan tongues theroaro threo
great general divisions In Europo Ro
manco, Teutonic, Slavic. Wo are in
terested only In the latter two. And
of the Teutonic German is spoken by
80,000,000. of which 10,000,000 aro In
Austria and 2,000,000 in Hungary.
There are 140.000,000 Slavs In Eu
ropo. From this It appears that the pres
ent political boundaries are not coter
minous with linguistic groups.
Klght hero in this fact wo havo tho
soeds of present and future troublo
and a cluo to the causes of most of
tho wars In eastern Europe through
8lav Situation In Europe.
To got beforo us tho full signifi
cance of the fact suggested by the
map let us consider the linguistic com
plexion of these countries.
Itussla Is a veritable hodgopodgo of
tongues, but of her Slav population
alone wo hnve at least two distinct
olements today bitterly opposed to
each other with .the possibility, If not
the probability, of a third, which will
As against Russians propor thero
aro over 10.000,000 Polos, and of tho
remaining Slavs there are 8,000,000
Huthenlans, or "jUIo or White Ru
elans, aB they we somctlmos called.
Of tho general Polish situation I shall
In Germany thero aro over 3,000,000
Slavs, chiefly Polish.
Of Austria's 30,000,000 population
only about a third Is German, tho re
mainder bolng Slav, ot which there aro
over 6,000,000 CzechB or Bohemians,
6,000,000 Poles, 3,600,000 Ruthenlans,
and a million and a quarter Slovoncs.
Many Tongues In Hungary.
Hungary Is oven moro diversified
In tonguo. Tho Magyar element
(10,000,000) Is equaled by tho non
Magyar mado up roughly ot 2,000,000
Gormans, 2,000,000 SlovnkB, ono-halt
a Million Iluthenes, 3,000,000 Serbo
Croatos, nil ot tho Slavonic tongue,
and about 3,000,000 Roumanians who
do not speak Slav at all, hut a Ro
Wo need not horo consider the lln-guUtlo-nfunttlcs
of the Balkan states.
It Is enough to Bay that Servla Is pure
ly Servian and Slav, Bulgaria Is Bui
gar and Slav (though tho basis of
blood of Uulgars 1b,' Ilka that ot tho
Tho population of Montenegro, about
half a million, aro Slavs of the Ser
vian branch. Roumanians aro ot
mixed origin, but the Roumanian
tonguo Is spoken by 12,000,000 people,
of which llvo nnd a half million aro
In Roumanla (92 per cent ot Its total
population), tho remaining millions
aro found In tho Dual Monarchy, Ser
vla, Bulgaria and Russia.
People Develop Languages.
Millions ot peoplo today speak Pol
ish whoso ancestors a few generations
ago weren't conscious ot tho fact that
thoy spoko any language at nil. To
day thero Is n Slavonlp literature;
60 yoara ago no ono oven thought of
such a thing. The millions of Doho
mlans had becomo almost ontlroly Ger
mans, nnd never beforo havo they
been so thoroughly Slavonic as today.
Bohemian hostility to Germany has
boon called a passion. It was not so
very long ago that the language ot
the Hungarian parliament waB Latin;
Magyar was held fit only tor peasant
talk. .Today the bltternoss between
Magyar and Slav Is as Btrong as be
tween German and Pole.
A few years ago there was no con.
sclousnesa in Gallcla ot linguistic dis
tinction between Poles and Ruthe
nlans; Ruthenlan peasants were con
tent to remain serfs ot Polish nobility.
Thero was no Ruthenlan literature;
Ruthenlan was not a polite language.
Today there aro distinguished scholars
who seek to found a Ruthenlan univer
sity. Rouses National Spirit.
And this brings us to a strange and
interesting phenomenon that has
swept across Europe, now oven around
the world, In tho last halt century;
the rl8o of a linguistic consciousness,
which In so many instances has sought
expression in statehood.
Primitive man knew tils oncmy as
one of strange tongue, and languago
was tho basis of social organization.
That was the condition In Europo
till Greoce, and later Romo, began tho
gamo of conquest.
The holy Roman empire gathered
theso diverse savage hordes under a
Blnglo government, but never into a
Tho modern omplres of Oermany,
Russia, Austria have continued the
old game. And tho tendency to central
ize and build up even larger empires
grows apace on the one hand, with
the other tendency equally strong tor
tho dtvorso eloments of theso modern
states to resolve themselves iuto an
cient tribal eloments, based on lin
Trouble In Barring Language.
And tho wholo trouble Is duo to
the,fact that European statesmen were
not far-sightod enough to know that
often tho easiest way to get some
thing Is by pretending you don't want
Tho Polish tonguo was never so
doar to the Poles ot tho kingdom as
when Russia forbade Its use In pub
lic places and for public purposes.
The sympathies ot tho Roumanians
of Hungary are not so much with the
flag of their country, or their loyalty
bo much for tho omperor of the Dual
Monarchy as for the flag and the king
Tho caso ot Poland Is probably fa
miliar to nil. It Is enough here to re
call that by a process of dlsmembor
ment, which took placo about 100
years ago, tho ancient and honorable
kingdom of Poland, which bad had a
long and Illustrious career, ceased to
Lion's Share to Russia.
The greater part of tho kingdom fell
to tho lot ot Russia, with tho an
cient PollBh city ot Warsaw as Its
A smaller portion fell Into the hands
ot Austria, nnd today forms tho prov
ince of Gallcla, with Us two important
cltlos, Lcmburg and Cracow.
A Btlll smaller portion, with Posen
as Its center, passed Into German
Russian Poland was permitted to
havo a constitution of Its own from
1816 to 1813, and Its own government
till 1864, at which tlmo It quite lost Its
administrative) Independence. Four
years lator Its government wbb abso
lutely Incorporated with that ot Rus
sia, and tho Polish language was de
nied a legal existence.
Coercion Causes Discontent.
PosBlbly Russia governs Poland bet
ter than tho Polos could have gov
erned It thomsolvos. It Is conceivable
that in tho substitution ot the Russian
for tho Polish languago (and tho tw
aro closely allied) tho Poles would
havo llttlo, It anything to loso.
It Is qulto within the bounds ot im
agination to bellovo that Poland as a
part ot Russia could participate In
a much largor world than could have
boon possible to her had she remained
But It Is contrary to human naturo
to bo coerced; It Is contrary to hu
man naturo to bo compelled to give
up that to which wq, havo become
Tho Polos of Russia naturally hare
beon discontented. Thoy havo not
been satisfied with their representa
tion in tho Russian duma; they are
dissatisfied with Russia's treatment ot
tho Jewish question In the kingdom.
Russia's efforts at repression not
only double but rodouble Polish ef
fort to gain recognition, to win free
dom. Thore are millions ot Poles who
dream ot and hope for a reunited, tree,
and independent kingdom ot Poland.
GRAND OPERA SOLOISTS WITH
THAI'S BAUD AT STATE FI
Soloists ot International fumo will
accompany Thaviu's Great Russian
Band to tho eighth annual Oklahoma
State Fair and Exposition, Oklahoma
City, Sept. 22 to Oct. 3, 131- They
aro singers in tho prime ot Ihelr famo
and ability, among them bolng Ernesto
Gcaccone, a celebrated tenor soloist,
who was ono of the leading singers
with tho San Carlos Opera Company,
appearing at ono tlmo with Nordlca
and Constantino. Ho has slnco been
singing at the Boston Grand Opera
House, "tinder the direction of Henry
Russell. Ills volco Is ono ot raro
beauty and power, and ho Is an ex
Slgnora Emilia Leovalll would need
no Introduction in tho hlg music cen
ters. She Is possessed ot a pleasing
lyric soprano volcn nnd great delicacy
and flro ot dramatic interpretation.
She was ono of the leading sopranos
with the Lambardl Opera Company
on tho Pacific Coast In 1012.
For popular, up-to-date ragtlmo and
ballads, Thavlu has with him one ot
tho host popular Cabaret Trios in tho
country. Thero is also a tango team
that wilt amuse and entertain tho peo
plo at Oklahoma's hlg Stato Fair and
Exposition this fall.
As a program maker, Thavlu is
without a peer or a rival. Ho seems
Instinctively to know what tho peoplo
want and ho can vary his programs to
suit any gathering, from tho frivolous
crowds at summer parks who seek
nothing but the gayer and lighter mel-
By CECELIA HAMBURG.
Tho members of the Commuters'
Crochet club were seated in their
facing seats on the 7:55 and tho lure
ot tho luncheon doily was strong upon
thorn. Mabel had started out with
tho Intention of making only ono
which should servo as an Isolated
tablo-mat for a distant cousin, but
so great was the fascination ot the
work that sho had kept on, and was
now putting tho plcot edgo on tho
fifth. Sadlo alono was not engrossed
in work, but sat very still In her cor
ner by the window, absorbed In a
bright colored circular. Oth njr cir
culars like it were strown over her
lap and peeped from her handbag.
"What's that you'ro reading?" asked
Mary, looking up from her work.
"It's a pamphlet on Bermuda," said
"Aro thoy all about Bermuda?"
"Oh, no,'.' said Sadlo. "There's ono
on Newfoundland and one on Nova
Scotia and one on the Thousand Is
lands nnd ono on the Adlrondacks and
another on a trip through the Cana
dian Rockies and a tour through Yel
lowstone Park and "
"My, what a lot of places to choose
from," said Mabel. "I think It takes
a great deal of energy to get a trip
like ono of those all planned out and
know Just when your trains leave or
your boat starts and got all your con
nections worked out and know what
clothes you aro going to take."
Sadies began to .trace with a hot llt
tlo flngor an intricate routo on an
orango map. It evidently led ovor hill
and dale and Included a glimpse at
most of tho rronders ot tbe earth.
"Leaving Now YorV at 4:33 on Fri
day, I would roach Hlllsbtirg at 7:43
on Saturday morning; making a quick
connection, I would get to Plalnsvllle
Junction at 1:18, and from thero "
"Morcy, how complicated," said Ma
Rare Book Changes Owners.
A copy ot a very rare book the
"Speculum Christian!," printed by Wil
liam do Machllnla In 1483, was sold at
Mossrs. Hodgson's rooms In Chancery
tana for $690, a few days ago. Mach
llnla and Lettou, his partner, were the
first prlntors in London, -and the for
mer had his press in Holborn. '
Means of Approach.
Though I am not a smoker, I like to
carry matches In my pocket. One U
always liable to to be accosted bn the
strcot by some ono In need ot a light.
To bo ablo to glvo a match Is a great
luxury It forms tho basis for a mo
mentary friendship. S. SI. Crotbcrs,
In tho Atlantic.
Really Is No Waste Matter.
Scientists nnd buslnoss men are
both beginning to undcrstani ihnt In
reality thero Is no such thing, as
wasto matter. Tho oxlstonce of what
wo call waste or rcfuso Is due mere
ly to our failure to find a proper
method of turning It Into dollars and
odles, to tho moro sedate and serlom
gatherings nt chautauquas and fairs
who demand music ot a higher grado
and stylo. In fuct Thavlu will furnish
music for nil classes at tho State Fair,
BHbBHBBbK&T &Kf BBBBBH
iBBtWVU' j iH
Lyric Soprano with Thaviu's Band
at the Oklahoma State Fair and Expo
sition, Sept. 22 to Oct. 3, 1914.
Versatility is really ono of tho great
features of thlB organization of forty
"Yes, that would bo," assented Sa
die. "I think pcrTiaps I would prcor
the sea trip to Bermuda. They say
that you can havo a wonderful timo
there it you go to one ot tho houses
In tho country whero they take visit
ors and then hlro a bicycle and sco
tho Island for yourself.
"However, I've always wanted to
seo Nova Scotia, and that gives you a
flno voyage, too. If I do go by sea,
"Would you tako just u suit case, or
would you tako a steamer trunk
along? I think one dark suit and a
big coat and two dark waists and one
dresBy waist and "
"How long is your vncatlon?" asked
Mabel, in her practical way.
"Two weeks," said Sadie.
"How much money aro you going
to spend on your trip?"
"Not moro than twenty-five dollars,
anyway," said Sadie.
"Well, I don't bellovo you can go
to Bermuda dr Nova Scotia or New
foundland or "
"Of courso, I can't," nald Sadie. "I
am only planning my vacation. I al
ways plan .It every year, and then I
go spend two weeks with my grand
mother who lives on a farm in Mlllls,
Mass. But at least I have tho tun ot
making believe I'm going somewhere
With this vncatlon confession, the
train stopped, "and tbe girl rolled up
tholr work and left the train. Sadi
marched on ahoad and, as the ferry- S;"
boat swung out ot its dock, she looked V
longingly down tho harbor and pre
tended she had decided on Nova Sco
tia. Freak of Minnesota Storm,
After a Minnesota storm a man ap
peared on tho highway attlrod in a
chicken coop. Tho coop had beon
blown over his head In such a way
that his arms woro pinioned to his
sides and he was unablo to removo
College, Heads Variously Named,
Heads of colleges In British uni
versities are variously known as war
dens, masters, principals, rectors, pro
vosts, presidents, deans and consors.
Fro mtho office window of tho Eve
ning Holler, in tho gay and brilliant
metropolis, the staff funny man
scowlod with vexation. "Oh, dear,
what can tho matter be?" ho sighed.
"1 had my grist sot up Jn 17 different
styles and sizes of typo today, nnd
still It Isn't humorous."
Old Sliver Coins Found.
Old silver coins bolonglng to tho
rolgns of Elizabeth, Jamcti I. and
Charlos I. havo been found burled In
tho garden of Slanor Farm, Itchen Ah
bas, Hampshire. It Is thought that
they wore placed there by a Royalist
who fought for Charles I. at Chorlton
(1644) and was killed in tho rout.
Pray and You Will Receive.
As tho family was about to leave
tho dinnor tnblo llttlo Elslo wub ob
served with her head bowed and nor
hands slasped. "Why, Elsie," laid
her mother, "don't you know that
dinner Is over?" "Don't interrupt me,
please." replied Elsie. "I'm praying
for another dish of that puddln'."
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