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NASHVILLE GLOBE, FRIDAY DECEMBER 6, 1918.
READ PHOSPHA TE(g
Factory West Nashville
Foot 54th St.
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7 C - ,T
KICV. K. II. COOK. 1). I)..
Of Lit tin Uk Arl., Editor of the !e iple's Defender.
Unincorporated Convention on the Peace Commission.
DF.LK'.IATKS TO RKI'HKSUNT ALL
1'. S. DKPART.M L'NT OF LAI'.OU
There nppenrs to be n very wido
ppreuil mlseonreptlon of the functions
nf a jjeaoe nmniissionnr. Thoe so
lec'e'l to renresent the Unite 1 Sta'cs
at Versa'lle are not to go ax the
spokesmen of any faction, sections
or parties, lmt to act in the interest
of nil America and for Wie future of
civtli'ation. Only those wh; are bis
eno'iiKh to Brans the opportunity and
the resnonsibility that will be placed
noon them should be selected for one
of the most important duties that has
ever fallen to the 1 .t of American citi
Those wh i are be.-eechins the Presi
dent to name s mo one to' represent
them o rtheir views mistake the ipial
ily of ihe task that is before the com
missioners who will frame the peace
treaty. The f:irme-s through the head
qu irters of their national organiza
tion, have asked that a representative
of the ai'Kiculturnl interests be named
as a member of the c 'mmiss'on. Frank
.1. Haynes, president of the Cnited Mine
Workers of America, has requested
that a representative of lab ir be ap
pointed. The National Woman Suf
frage Association wants a woman on
the commission, an dthe colored peo
ple have asked that one of their race
The treaty that is to be prepared aa
the foundation of world peace Is not
to be drafted In tho interest of tha
be as great as it was ap to the sign
farmer, the laborer, the capitalist, thd
colored man or woman suffragist, but
for the benefit of all mankind. The
American deflates are going over to
speak for patriotic Americaans of every
trade, prafessl m, sect, kind and color.
The.-e should be no feeling either on
their part or at home that any one
among them represents anything bat
the greatest good to all in this coun
try and the world at large.
The negotiations at Versailles will
have far-reaehing influence throughout
all time. The future of all the world
is to be mapped out, and that should
bo done in the broadest spirit of tol
erance and understanding. We are
not about to settlea dispute between
two nations, hut are to determine the
course of civilization. The work of
the peace conference must be funda
menial and basic, something that will
be to intercourse anions all nations
' whatour constitution has been to the
development of our institutions. The
peace table will be no place for the
representative of any special Interests,
The above, taken from the Indian
apolis Star, should be read by every
Negro and every other group of people
In this country, for It states the facts
just as they are and ought to be.
Why should the Negro or any other
particular group of people ask for a
representative at. the peace table? He
is an American citizen, and is all the
time contending for such and against
segregation and the color line, but
right here he is asking for the very
thing he is always complaining about.
Will he ever see himself as others
see him, and quit this nonsense? He
is an American, went to the world war
as such, fought as other Americans
I fought, but lo and behold! he now
1 askes to be separate! and be given a
place at the great peace table as a
! Negro. When the great world peace
I e inference will be held for all the
j people of the world hence will be
! ever see himself as other.s see him,
and some day wake up.
VST HO mVf.MX OUfKTU
TASTKY Oil 1'JtLAklAsT IOOJ
CONTAIN IWO V11A.AX
COLORED SOLDIERS OVERSEAS "MAKING GOOD."
FRENCH AND AMERICAN COMMANDERS PRAISE THEIR COOLNESS AND
COURAGE UNDER SEVEREST "BAPTISMS OF FIRE." -
Snappy at Drilling an dExpert in Field Maneuvers "My Oldest Veterans Could
Do it No Better," Said a Noted French General.
From Office of Emmett J. Scott, Special Assistant to Secretary of War.
With The American Armies in Frances-Colored troops from America
already have established themselves in Europe as being cool and reliable
, fighters in the front line. Both American and French commands say so,
and if the Germans ever discovered who it was that held part of the line
through Argonne Forest when the boches failed to get through some time
ago, the German command has decidedly high respect for American col
Up and down the line, after the test of year's service, you hear no
doubts expressed regarding the colored infantry. The colored dough
boys have made good in the line, as well as behind. They have proven
themselves cool and brave soldiers in the trenches, and gentlemen when
back at rest in French towns. You are continually running into units of
these colored chaps as you travel up and down the line from Switzerland
Pull Off Some Snappy Drilling.
Down in a little town some miles back of Verdun the correspondent
encountered a large unit of these colored chaps, all from Chicago or there
abouts. They had just come back to rest, after a long period in the
Argonne Forest trenches. Like their predecessors, a Negro unit from
New York, they had made a great hit with the French officers in high com
mand of the sector. ' Unlike the New York Negroes, these Chicago boys
had encountered no big fighting, and they were disappointed at being taken
from the trenches before doing big fighting.
The French officers explained that good soldiers can be recognized
just as well when they are holding the line as when they are fighting, but
the colored doughbays were still disappointed. Finally the French gen
eral of the army came down to review the Negro outfit. Down by the
creek they went through some of the snappiest exercise even seen, and the
French general was delighted. When the review as it had been planned
' was finished the general turned to the American colonel.
"If I were an American general what would I do now?" asked the
"Most anything," replied the colonel. "These boys will do anything
"Well, suppose the Germans were across the creek," replied the gen
eral, "I'd like to have this nearest company attack them."
Difficult Field Maneuver Skillfully Executed.
The captain of the nearest company was given the order, and he
marched his men across the meadow, where they suddenly disappeared.
Pretty soon a whistle sounded and the company was up and running to
ward the creek. Only a minute, and then they dropped, waiting, then. 'run
ning, always skirmishing in tha latest approved French fashion.
When they dropped it was with two skirmish lines in advance and
two support lines leading off to the rear, with each man dropping over the
legs of the chap in front of him. Tin derbies and packs covered the up
v per portions of their bodies.
After a bit of a flank movement by a couple platoons, the supposed
German positions along the creek were stormed and taken. The French
general was delighted beyond words for a moment. Finally he said, "My
oldest veterans could do it no better, even if they were warned it was on
the program, and your boys did that extemporaneously." The general
remembered the review, and a few days later these colored chaps from
Chicago received a "fine letter from him, congratulating them on their
ispirit de corps and their work.
French Like Colored Americans.
It was interesting to see how. these colored boys mixed with the
French inhabitants of the village, with whom the Americans were billeted.
.i The French folk like the colored boys, and felt highly honored at the way
the latter learned French. The colored Americans are getting extremely
fluent, and it fits entirely with their scheme of things to use all French
forms of politeness.
Down the battle line a large unit of colored troops was encountered at
serious business. It was going into the line, taking over hilly and im
portant sector formerly held by French troops. It was the first taste of
the trenches, or of the front for the boys in this unit. These men were
mostly from the south. They had been trained in the middle west, and
some more in France, but never had been on duty under shell fire.
Yet on this dark night, while the Germans bombarded, these thousands
of colored doughboys, chiefly under direction of colored officers, though
some were white, took over a difficult and long sector without a mishap and
with less noise than usual, so the French officers said. They have held
that long sector for some time now, and there has been no slip, from the
farthest outpost to the rear supply truck.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. INFORMATION AND EDUCATION SERVICE
EDUCATIONAL DIVISION, WASHINGTON.
An outstanding result of the war is to emphasize the basic importance
of tools in present civilization. Tools are instruments by which the will
of man and the social group is expressed. By tools the forces of nature
are made to serve a determined human purpose. Tools are the products
of thought and efforts to achieve they are the material proof of develop
ment. In this war period, users of tools have become indispensable agen
cies for carrying out national purpose. They are the producing arm of
the government which must serve the military arm. The tool user who
makes the shell is as essential as the gunner who fires it.
It was appreciation of this fundamental principle that convinced the
Government that, in order to avoid confusion by multiplicity of orders and
standards, labor administration must be centralized. There resulted the
proclamation of President Wilson designating the Secretary of Labor as
War Labor Administrator. The Government has consistently maintained
that production would be furthered by maintaining standards in industry
which promoted the health, safety, and betterment of employees.
In order that there might be uniformity of standards for working
conditions in all industries, there was created in the Department of Labor
of the Working Conditions Service. The duties of the Service as briefly
enumerated by the Secretary of Labor, are as follows :
"To examine into working conditions in war industries; to determine
the standards as to conditions which should be maintained in those in
dustries; to adopt rules embodying such standards and explaining them;
to determine the best means for securing the adoption and maintenance
of these standards and to cooperate with State authorities for the above
Although the organic act creating the Department of Labor provides
that the function of the Department shall be, among other things, to im
prove the working conditions of the. wage earners of the United States, the
Departent had not undertaken specifically work of this character until the
urgent need demonstrated by war emergencies. It has become increas
ingly evident that working conditions have a direct cause and relationship
to labor turn-over. Moving many men from civil life to military service
made it necessary to exercise the greatest wisdom in utilizing our limited
human reserves. The extravagance of a high labor turn-over
has been emphasized by prevailing high wages, thus increasing the
costs chargeable to labor turn-over. Thus there has come a new in
terest in bettering working conditions and an appreciation that such bet
terment has an economic advantage and pays the employer in every sense
of the term.
Working conditions in widest sense comprise environment, relations
' between employer and employed all that makes up life within the in
dustry. For administrative purposes there are three divisions in the
Working Conditions Service Division of Industrial Hygiene and Medi
cine, Division of Labor Administration and Division of Safety Engineer
ing. Since there are in operation other agencies with the specialized
function of dealing with wages and hours as controversial questions be
tween employers and employed, they will not be dealt with as such by this
The proclamation of the President instructing all governmental de
partments dealing with public health questions to utilize the United States
Public Health Service for that work was a step toward unity of action and
purpose in health problems. Industrial health is closely related to com
munity health and the general scientific principles underlying public health
problems and industrial health problems are identical. However, organi
zation, methods of operation, special occupational problems in the in
dustrial health field are fundamentally labor problems, affecting directly
human relationships and human activity. The formulation of policies
for dealing with these phases of industrial health belongs properly to the
agencies entrusted , with labor administration. Cooperation between the
Department of Labor and the Public Health Service for dealing with in
dustrial health problems brings a unified national health policy and action,
and at the same time renders the policy and action practical and in accord
with needs and ideals of those most concerned. Accordingly, the Secretary
of Labor at the request of the Working Conditions Service requested the
Secretary of the Treasury to authorize the United States Public Health
Service to detail personnal to the Division of Industrial Hygiene and Med
icine of the Service. As a result of the agreement reached, Dr. A. J.
Lanza, Past Assistant Surgeon of the Public Health Service, was de
tailed to act as Chief, Division of Industrial Hygiene and Medicine,
Working Conditions Service. Dr. C. D. Selby, of Toledo, Ohio, will be at
the head of the Section of Industrial Medicine.
Various employers are appreciative of the fact that output in pro
duction is directly influenced by the physical well-being of employees.
Preventive methods and medical assistance materially assist in reducing
the labor turn-over and in keeping employees in physical condition to do
their best work. Accident dangers are comparatively obvious, but the
assistance of health experts, sanitarians, and industrial physicians is
necessary to discover health hazards. Physical breakdowns, diseases not
understood by the ordinary physician, are readily traceable to occupations
when occupational hazards are understood. It has become evident that
the profession of industrial medicine must be developed, that doctors in
plants can assist workers to protect their health by preventatives far more
effectually than by remedial methods.
The Division of Industrial Hygiene and Medicine will direct the form
ulation of sanitary and health codes for industries. The direct relation
between health and efficiency is not so apparent as the results of sudden
and complete disability from accidents. But the loss from decreased effi
ciency and energy among a number of workers extended over a long per
iod of time is far greater than the loss from accidents. Cooperation with
the United States Public Health Service will make possible extensive re
search work necessary to establish fundamental scientific principles as
the basis for proper working conditions.
In addition to the work which the United States Public Health Serv
ice will perform for the Working Conditions Service, it is also authorized
to do all inspections and investigations into matters pertaining to the san
itation of plants engaged in war work and into the health of workers in
such industries, and into the sanitation and housing conditions surround
ing the home of war workers. In addition, the Ordnance Department of
the War Department has delegated responsibility for mechanical safety
in ordnance plants. A field force of specialists in industrial hygiene, san
itation, safety and production engineering, technically trained and of broad
practical experience, has been organized which will be under the super
vision of Bernard J. Newman. This inspection force will necessarily de
velop data which will be execeedingly valuable to the Working Conditions
Service and to the Bureau of Standards in the formulation of codes, and
will not only give manufacturers expert service, in ways that will help to
increase production, but will safeguard the workers from dangerous health
hazards and occupational injuries.
The Division of Labor Administration will deal with attitude and
policies of the management toward the employed and the personal relations
between employers and employed. It is now generally conceded that the
management in production has a greater duty than supplying buildings,
materials, tools, and hiring and discharging workers. Once the principles
are established that there is a money value to the management in long
time service, in maintaining such relations with employees that'thjy are
willing to continue in service of a company, and that placing each worker
where he can do his best work, the management becomes interested in
industrial safety and sanitation and in the principles of labor administra
tion, or what is commonly known as employment management. There
have been approaches to the study of labor administration, known various
ly as time studies, scientific management, fatigue studies, motion studies,
industrial auditing, etc. It has been demonstrated that proper methods
of labor administration result in increased production and decreased cost.
Reducing the labor turn-over decreases cost of production. The Chief of
this Section will be Dr. William M. Leiserson, of Toledo, Ohio. There are
already other Federal agencies operating in this field. It is the purpose of
the Working Conditions Service to cooperate with these other agencies and
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