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title: 'The climax. (Richmond, Madison County, Ky.) 1887-1897, March 25, 1896, Image 1',
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YOLUME IX. RICHMOND, MADISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 25, L896. P r,rtShoW5t, )c?f NTJMBEE 42. fa
THE PEARL OF
Sketch of Cuba, Its People
and Its Resources.
EOW IT HAS BEEN OPPRESSED
No Other Land So Rich in Natural
It Hm IVrTfleped la Spite of All Drawbacks
and In the Face cf Fire nnd War.
A RTl cultural and Mineral Wealth That
la PracUcatlr Inexhaustible Cuba's Mag
Export Trade Wouderfnl
or This Land of Terpetnal
ji'opyriBht, 1895, by the Author. j
Cnba! Iris a name that now is
n I ar to every household in all the
earth. The suffering of its people.
Ec dy ng groans of its tortured patriots,
Uve formed the minor key of sorrow in
"ie world's grand song of progress. And
vet in spite of the fact that it has long
Lt Id the interest and sympathy of fair
tiiiiided people, no land is so little known
and so greatly underestimated. The
tae!er who glimpses for the first time
t r marvelous shores is overcome with
r nibhment at the panorama of
possibility that lies
c ro him. for even now, hor richest
v - omenta shredded, her body bleeding
c t . too loleot hands of an unnatural
i C una remain the indestructible
. f v Antilles, with such wealth
L r soil bud under it ad no earthly
i au take away.
- vrrybody knows, the development
ntiu had been from its earliest
un v retarded and at times
. j ii 'pid by the rule of ipain. Soon I
u 1 1 the foot of Coloiubas .touched her
,.iu mjiI the dark cloud oppression
bi -n to hover over Iter, aud it was only
t tne she r force of her innate worth.
c i plid with the necessities of Iter
that htx glorious products
even to a limited exteut, avail-a
Wiien in 1511 Columbus sent his son
D.opn. with a n amber of colonists, to
uba, tlie big ibland was speedily
i il and measurements of its
iih were made by a party of official
ardineiisoree (surveyors), and tbeo
ui asurements were of such accuracy
u.at rfiuam as standards today
i uc length of the island was found to
if in round numbers 000 miles; its
u !ii at its narrowest point, 21 miles,
.1 i i at its widest point. 111 miles. This
(.iv.s totbe long, sharksbuped island an
an j of approximately 43,000 square
h. or nearly the siae of the state of
iu view of the necessity of the extensive
exploration which was incident to
tr.ts comprehensive survey, it 6eems
I aiuR strange that no more of Cuba'6
rn hne wa6 discovered and utilized for
tbe development of the strength and
value nf the new colonv. This
T.m, however, Mas probably not the i
fault of the really vigorous and pro- '
gnsMve adherents of the son of the
grrat discoverer. Indeed, from a careful
htudy of history, though ex..ct dates are
nr to be obtained, it would mpih that
it was mkhi after its colon isu'io.i 1hat
the greed of tlio mother coulh.j began
GEXERAL VAS1MO GOMEZ.
Leader of the rerulaimfets.l I
to cripple the enterprise and mar tbe
.rM ny of the new government that was
forming on this new soil.
Cuba's Great Grievance.
The grievance of Cuba, which has
lasted all tbee years, dates from this
earlv period It was, in its nature and
uprranon, the parallel of the one which
brought about the bloody but glorious
birth f our own independence that .j
t tar taxation without
there was a vast difference in the
of tbaCubans. While our Revolutionist
wore vastly inferior
to the enemy in point of numbers, thtir
proportion to tb" whole number of fighting
Englishmen -ho could lv landed on
our shores was r.ot of such sma,.uess as
to preclude all hope, whereas the mere
handful of Cubans were so overwhelmingly
overmatched by the armed force
that Spain could muster as to be prac
tically in her power after the first demonstration.
And so there have been insurrection
after insurrection and defeat after de
feat, and tbe consequent horrible butcheries
of retribution, until Cuba, the
the Ticb, the wonderful, has
been little more than a bloody abattoir
wherein the lies and hopes of a weak
but marvelously courageous people have
been periodically sacrificed
But the immortal longing for liberty
could not be crushed out of the breast of
the sous of these patriots, and they, in
turn, iavemade the same struggle. Bnt
the results of these heroic efforts became
In time of more nnd mire importance to
the people of Cuba and less and less
latisfactory to the administration at
Madrid, and thus, frran years of weakness,
strength grew, solhatinsurrection
same to mean revolution, and there
dawned upiin the sight of the stririug
patriot the splendid vision of a Wood
bought but free republic
But people know more of the struggles
of Cuba than they do of Cuba itFeJf. Every
civilized inhabitant of tbe globd has
followed with feelings of indignation
Mid pity the story of Cuba's suffering.
All tbe "insurrections," tie "Separatist
wars" and the other vain but valiant
efforts of the Cubans to throw off tbe
Spanish yoke have appealed tail's
and wrung his heart with grief and
rsge ; but, as a rnlo, he is as ignorant v.f
tbe scene of these straggles as if they
had occurred in the viewless air. And
ret, in the comparatively small compass
of its -watery boundaries, there are concentrated
a greater variety of natural
than are to be found in any other
island, ctate, province or country
the sun. J
mis may sound extravagant, bnt the
rtatement is -verified 'by all reliable statistics
and unprejudiced witnesses. And
when those who cavil como to reckon up
Its advantages its millions of acres of
soil, richer than any in the United
States, that will grow anything from a
- OF MEXICO
MAP OF CENTRAL CUBA.
potato to a pineapple; its abundant
yields of sugar and tobacco; its tremendous
forests of mahogany and other
precious woods; its uplands, upon which
are grown eery product of the temperate
zone, and its fertile valleys, from
which luxuriantly spring tbe most luscious
fruits of the tropics; its mines of
iron and copper and manganese; its hundreds
of beautiful and excellpnt harbors,
and the soft, healthful atmosphere of
perpetual summer that forms the setting
for t' is peerless "Pearl" their
donbts will bo swallowed up in conviction.
A Complex Study.
A study of this wondeiful island is
complex from any standpoint. The
geographer, with tho btet map in his
will find new inlets, tbe naturalist
will add to his collection, and
the miueralogiit will revel m novelties, '
and even the blase cosmopolitan will
recover in I uba the zest which had gone
out of his life. And all this is merely
to say that t great deal of tho accepted
data with reference to Cuba is either in- '
exact or wh lly faulty This, of course,
like everything elee that works injury '
to the island as to its relation to the
rest of the world, is dne to tho auto- I
cratic and luuorant methods of tho ,
Spanish authorities, the tendency of
"discipline" is toward handicapping
every public spirited enterprise
and retarding everything that is lie
done directly in the interest nf the honor
and glory and revenue of the ipr
acioss the for whom this pooi,
downcast people have been working out
what has heretofore appeared to be a
Notwithstanding all tfiese difficulties,
tho enterprise) of Americans and
others fonrgu to the soil has led native
industry m the right direction, and its
commerce has grown in the teeth of riot
and insurrection. The normal
tj0Di if7oo,000, composed of something
near 1,000,000 persons of Spanish de
scent. 10,000 foreign whites, 43,000
Chmeeand 600,000 negroes and colored
people, is not a busy throng. The loitering
Cuban of today can hardly be recognized
as the descendant of those
sturdy pioneers of tbe sixteenth century
who fashioned tho gigantic bastions of
El Castillo de la Fnerza the Cattle of
Strength but fet ill he can be brought to
bestir himself if a sufficient financial
inducement is offered. To be entirely
ust, it should be haid that enterprise is
not wholly wanting, even among the
laboring classes. And so capital, which
was at firs largely American, was put
to work, aid as a result cities have
sprung up, largo jdautations bave been
put under cultivation, mines have been
openpd up, and sugar, tobacco and th"
hundreds of other valuable products ol
tho island bave been made to enrich it.
As is well known, a large and usnriona
part of the annual revenues of planters,
miners and manufacturers has been
taken for taxes, and at length it has
found its way into the ever depleted
coffers of t''e home government at Madrid.
And still traffic increased until
the beginning of the revolution in 1891,
when then commenced the devastation
which has cost Cnba so dearly.
The chief products of the island are
sugar and tobacco, and tho amount annually
realised from theso products dur
iug the years just preceding the last uprising
has been, on the average, 85,000,-000
pesos (dollars), and tho revenue from
mineral ssonrces has been grossly osti
mated at 3,500,000 pesos. The amounts
derived from other sources (including
cotton of which a good deal is pro- '
duced) were considerable, but Uipfo
were the most important And just here,
as an instance of tho slumbrous apathy
that has resulted from years of hopeless
fcubjuc&ttno and practical serfdom, the
opening up of the iron mines in tbe province
of Santiago de Cnba, at the eastern
end of the island, may profitably be cited.
Those valuable mines, though discovered
nearly a century ago, never felt
tho blow of a pick until 1883, when a
party of New York capitalists determined
to make an. effort to purchaso and develop
them Negotiations with the Spanish
government were at once commenced,
and in 1885, after two years ol persua
sion, concession's were obtained and work
was commenced. Stock-companies were
organized in New York and Philadelphia,
and bonds were floated. Those companies
were the Jnragua, the Spanish-American,
tbe Signe and ohers. From
thee mines the annual exportation grew
to Inrmoro than 500,000 tons of iron ore
and 40,000 tons of manganese", amounting
to $3,000,000 in Talue at the lowest
Mlnluc Is Eiy.
Mining was nominal, as the ore could
be readily broken np by surface blasting.
In order to carry ore to the United
States a large fleet of steamers was necessary.
On the return trip from the
United States these steamers nt first
went empty or with ballast only, hut it
finally dawned upon the owners of the
vessels that loads might as well be carried,
and the steamers began to take coal
to tho West Indies. And thus it came
about that tbu shipment of iron ore to
the United States facilitated the exportation
of Pennsylvania coal to the West
Tho development of this industry was
one of mar- enterprises that Lave bm n
successfully pursued in this vondjerful
land, despst the tin; unfavorable
condition that hae existed. CrfO,
orcatet'wEaUli must always coire fro.n
the vegetable products of the earth. -Her
eoii lrf wciitorfnl. It is not only ferti.
but intxVaustiblo. Tareo- crops of ca :6
grow lrom r.nS planting. Iofertiliji
are used. TehoOin places has tne
depth cf '27 feet 'obaccojieeds
uo to niiiko acron and not nearly ec
much labor aa is required In cultivation
elsewhere. Anything that grows un-der
the tropical sun can be grown in Cuba,
although during recent years tb
soil has been given up to the production
of sugar and tobacco.
Before the devastating torch of war
had laid waste the canefields and de-
btioytd factories and mills the "busy
hum of fruitful labor stirred all the air.
The cost cf making sugar was gradually
reduced by the introduction of labor
saving machinery, and tbe business settled
down to a paying basis, and by the
increased power of production the demand
for csae grew, planters were encouraged,
and the fruitful island began
to wear a prosperous air. The tobacco
planters and manufacturers also
their methods, aud this rival
product kept even pace with its saccharine
competitor. The annual sugar crop
was worth 45,000,000, the tobacco crop
?G,000,000. Then came the revolution.
Somehow, when ono writes of Cuba,
everything comes back to that point and I
strikes it as against a dead wall after
clearing the cruel hurdles of Spanish
But let us revert to the first branch
of tbe subject the island proper in its
entirety. Tho coast contour of Cuba is
broken with hundreds of inlets, all of
them harbors in greater or less degree,
each having its small fortifications, i's
villages and its special industries. The
proble of the island, to quote the language
of the railroad engineer, is varied
and picturesque, hero a high pea
tli ore a valley, there a plain. Beginning
at Santiago de Cuba, the most easterly
of the six provinces, and proceeding -I
westward through Puerto Pnncipt
Santa Clara, Matanzas Habana and to
the land's end of Pinar del Rio, the
tourist traverses magnificent stretches
of sz.il "rosses innumerable val
leys, skirts 1 igh mountains and follows
deep and p'cturcsque gorges, but tbe
mountains become lulls, and these aio
gradually shaded down until in the extreme
west a surface, generally level, is
reached, although in the vicinity of the
Queen City, Havana, small bat rugged
peaks, with precipitous sides, may bo
Eeen in many directions along tbe shore
The Wrecks of War.
But it is not with the beauties that na
ture has shed broadcast that the traveler's
thoughts are occupied while Lj
threads his way among the wrecks tht
war has made. His mind is charged
with melancholy as be views tbe bnri
ed out canefields, tbe neglected tobacco
plantations, the ruins of stately rest
deuces that lift up thair blackened arnif
in mute but penetrating outcry against
tho barbarities of conflict and the curt,
of tyranny. There is no need, howevei.
to dwell upon this somber picture, for
wo know what time can do in this land
of endless and indestructible resource
and there are pleusanter topics to command
our attention, the greatest being
Havana, the capital and tho very heart
of Cuba. To say that it is picturesque
and beautiful is but to give vent to the
first superficial expression that comes to
your lips. Spain itself cannot show a
more curious or interesting city. Study
it as you approach it from the sea, with
mighty Moro set high upon the headland,
time dyed in mottled splotches of
yellow, gray and black, and the red and
yellow flags above, with La Junta acrofs
the narrow channel, prim and white,
save where the ugly dahlgien guns flash
at yon like venomous black eyes, and
tbe city is as interesting and impressive
a sight as human eye eer beheld.
As the capital, .metropolis and chief
seaport of Cnba, it is one of the best
known cities in the American
splendid harbor, its commercial
importance, its climate and the
tinge of romance that ever attaches to
its people havo made its fame worldwide.
Havana has about 260,000
itauts. It was founded but 23 years after
tho discovery by Columbus und has.
always been tho commercial emporium
of tbe Antilles.
Few cities bave such beautiful parks
and driveways as Havana. The great
Plaza de Armas is the chief. It comprises
four parks, in 'the center of which
is a statue of Ferdinand VIL Then there
are tbe Alameda de Paula, bordering on
the bay, aud the Campo de Marte, used
as a drill ground for the military. This
is an enormous park. It has four hand-
eome gates, named respectively Colon,
Cortez," Pizarro and Tacon, The Paseo
do Tacon is a magnificent drive with
double rows of trees. It has. numerous
columns and statues, among the
of Charles III, among the
finest works of art in America.
The commerce of Havana is only surpassed
in the new world by that of Now
York. Two-thirds of the products of
Cuba find outlet through Havana. Tbe
exports of sugar alone are annually
about 120.COO.000 pounds.
Havana was first called San Cristobal
de la H ibana, in honor of Columbus,
but gradually the prefix was dropped.
Havr 'a baa "been frequently at
tacked from the sea. Drake tried to ta'
it in 1585. but failed. In 17G2 a British
fleet junder Admiral Pocock bombarded
the oity and compelled it to capitulate, ,
bnt it was restored to the Spaniards the
next year by the treaty of Paris.
Not a Hot Country.
We are accustomed to think of Cuba
as a hot country, situated as it is under
the tropics, and the common impression
is correct to the extent that the mean
.-. .- -,
er than in countries farther north, bnt
the climate is mora equable. There, are
not those sudden variations that in
many parts of the United States are fo
severe on the human constitution. In
Havana, for example, the average
pcrattireof the hottest month is 8i de.
JreB, of the coldest, 72. fo Santiago t'e
&nban cltr often mentioned in the war
dispatches tbe average of tbq year is
80; of the hottest month, 84; of thu
coolest, 73. These are high figures, but
not very h.h lor an island Jyrng in
jjqrMtwiiil regions and surrounded b.
water; hit -s warm to the land lltb
vear Tq a .Etrgor from a xlrv
ut. a aafar .swarjL o)bictioafelc
than the steady heat is the tremendous
rainfall. The, geographical and topographical
situation, of Cuba provides
two seasons only, fTie. wet and tbe dry.
During the latter rains are not frequent,
being atoned for, however, by the
abundance cf the dew, but in the rainy
season Jupiter Pluviua seems to turn
himsolf louse to excel all previous efforts,
and fiom 125 to 140 inches of rain
are not uncommon, there being about
102 days vben the rain comes down
not in drops, but in sheets, in masbrs,
in tubfuls at a time, as though the
windows of the heavens were opened
and the floods of the great aerial derj.
had broken loose. So abundant is t jo
rainfall, in fact, that, as a recent traveler
remarks, the wonder is that any island
remains; that the'whole is not (Is-solved
aud carried off into the sea. But
in Cuba no iue minds the rain.
Notwithstanding the peculiarities of
its coast line, Cuba has more than 200
excellent ports. The principal of
Havana, Bahia Hondo, Puerto de
Cabanas, Mntanzas, Cardenas, Sagua la
Grande, I Gnanaja, Nnevitas,
Manati, Fuertd del Padre,
de Cub i, Manzanillo, Canto, Santa
Cm., v iuiiiticuo, vouiiuius HUil La liroa.
Tli rivers of Cuba, are not Jarge, but
numerous, tfiere being no less than 2(!i
of them, all told, and that is Bxclushe
of small creeks and dry beds of torients,
called arroyos. Thn Canto, the only really
n vigable stream, rNes in the Herra
del Cobre and has its outlet on the .outh
roast near Mannnilla. There are a few
other streams which are navigable for
small boats for a distant ot from 8 to
20 miles. Next in importance are tie
streams Guinesand Ay. At one time it
was tbe intention to cut a canal through
the land intervening and bisect tbe isthmus
hut the idea was finally abandoned
Cuba, contains many mineral rpiings
which are ffmpdfor their valuable healing
properties, principal among them
being those known as the baths of San
The temperature of the water is 83
degrees F., and it is very strongly impregnated
with oxygen, carbonic acid
gases "hinWde of .sodium, sulphate of
lime, nitrate or lime, iron, magnesia,
and chloride of calcium. Four glasses
of it a day and two baths are the regulation
cure for almost every disease
known to materia medica, but it is probable
that the warm, pure air, simple
diet and faith have much to do with it I
At any rate, a great many surprising
rnvaa hnra Viaati ofTiffttrt Tinriinn lfir IV .
i. ..-..i j i;f..
in ........... i ii if -i i i. a .iiiii n iiniiiiiun iiui .- iiiuiui?
People have been brought here from the
Bteamer on litters, apparently just ready
to die, who in a week's time, have been
riding over the hills en horseback and
in a month have gone homo as "good as
new" and well as anybody. If these
springs were in the United States, with
the same air to accompany them, or if
managed where they are by some
awake Anglo-Saxon, they would
become tbe sanitarium of the world, beside
which Saratoga, Carlbbad, Las Vegas
and White Sulphur would hide their
All Kinds of Minerals.
Nearly all metals and minerals that
are useful in any sort of industry are
found in Cnba gold, silver, iron, copper,
quicksilver, lead, asphaltum in all
its forms, antimony, arsenic, manganese,
copperas, red load, etc. In the
and several other rivers gold
has been found, though not in paying
quantities. Silver of a certain grade
abounds in Pinar del Bio, &u Fernando
and Yumuri. Almoss all the
rocks contain copper, and these are
scattered all over tbe island. It is usually
found in the form of pyrites and
In the eastern part of Cuba, about 12
miles from Santiago, the rich copper
mines of El Cobre were worked for a
good many years by an English company.
They were abandoned during the
last revolution. There are other mines
not yet open and some not yet exhausted.
The city of Santiago, by the way, is
worth more than mere passing mention,
it being tho chief city of the eastern department.
It lies COO miles southeast
of the present capital and ranks thiH
in commercial importance Havana
first and Matanzas second. It is the
archtishop's residence, and to it people
flock from all parts of the island during
certain yearly religious festivals, which
are celebrated with remarkable pomp
and ceremony. It is also the terminus
of two railway lines, one of which is
the outlet of Lomas de Cobre, the famous
copper mines, nnd tho other, pass
ing through thu richest sugar district,
affords transportation for that great
staple. The exports of the port reach
the handsome annual aggregate of $8,-000,000,
three-fourths of which is in
sugar, the rest cocoa, rum, tobacco,
honey and mahogany.
Of the fertility of Cuba's soil too
mnch cannr t be said. In the weiitern
part the celebrated Vuelta Abajo tobac
co is raised. It has no equal in the
world. Iu tho eastern part, near Santiago,
there are some tracts of land whit i
yield excellent tobacco, almost as fine as
that of Vuelta Abajo.
' JSvcn Coffee Thrive.
The sugar cane grows till through tbe
island nnd yields the largest percentage
known of saccnarino matter. In some
parts of tbe island tbe coffee tree thrives
very well, and the quality of the hean
is equal to the bust ilaracaibo or Central
Amerian. The banana and tbe
plantain ai.o flourish. Largo quantities
of tbe latter are raised and consumed
in tho country. It is an exceedingly
nourishing food. jOf the former, in the
eastern part there aro great plantations
and. several million dollars' worth are
f exported ev'ryyear to tho United States,
.. , . .
.... . ,
, The oram e and the. pineapple abound
in, the island, and about J 2 other species
of most delicious fruits,, as tho guava,
the mango, the inamej, the anona, etc.
As has been Eajd, tho forests of the is
land contain a great number of valuable
Z- 7 Z
Jlard ad cabinet woode among thea
e and tbp codar of wb1Ch
there are very large quantities
There aro kutatiotjsjpf th aoceanut
iidfj and m'llions of he nuts are e-
' ported yearly The coooatree al$o grows
very well, and lhe benn ib of m vejy Hf"
perior qualny. v ,
The. cedar furniihes Ihe tesaterral of
the cigar boxes. The fruits of the island
comprise nearly all those found in the
tropics. The pineapple is indigenous to
the soil. There were, at the time of the
discovery of the island, six varieties o'
the sweet potato cultivated by the na
tive Indians, as well as the yucca or ca
vassa and Indian corn. Although tl
forests are dense, very nearly impime
trable, they are inhabited by no wild
animals larger than the wild dogs, which
are, in fact, small wolves. These arr
pests to planters, as they destroy quanti
ties of poultry and young cattle. Thr
jutia, a small animal lesembling a musk
"rat, living in trees aud having the habits
of the raccoon, is the only other animal of
importance that is found. Birds in great
cumber and variety here make rbeir
homes, and many migratory fowls use
tbe island for a breedina place.
Tho political situation of Cuba js so
complex as to be totally indescribable.
The air is prophecies and contradictions,
and for the solution of the
great and everpressing question, "What
next?" theie is nothing to do hut wait.
If you make a pilgrimage into the
heart of tbe island, the first thing that
siiij.ua you torcibly is the extreme prevalence
of tho soldiery. The railroad
trains are all guarded, much as they
were in the western states during the
strike. Every town seems to have its
resident garrison, and in exposed places
Mttlo forts made of heavy timber enable
half a dozen men to guard a community.
The lightest of artillery would
knock most of these into match wood,
CAPTAIK GESEKAL WETLER.
In command of Spain's fbrces.1
but they are a perfect protection against
the insurgents' rifles. Then there are
traveling forts cars like . . an ... ordinary
...I. ..nw ..- l...l tlfttll hni la. ".
iLCJKUti j;u. UUk HUCU n.u. jv.jci .wu
and supplied with slits, through which
the soldiers can shoot while their
niiee' bullets can never reach them.
There are soldiers everywhere. Yon
meet the officers in every first class
coach, and every station platform has its
quota of civil guardsmen, regulars or
volunteers." But, after all, this is not
surprising iu a land so prolific of plot
and .counterplot and sudden and disastrous
uprisings of the people. And yet
perhaps the most amazing thing that
the traveler has always found in Cuba,
whether she were quiet or in eruption,
is the mild semblance of peace that
seems to pervade the air.
Spirit of the People.
For tha spirit of the people is light
and gay. Tbe Latin mind is volatile
nnd not givn to mourning. Grief here,
like hatred, is violent while it lasts, but
smiles and laughter follow swiftly.
The race characteristics are distinctly
Latin. The Cuban lady is charming. She
moves with simple olegance, invariaoly
having that great desideratum of most
American women an unaffected and
graceful carriage. Bonnets and hats are
things which, for the most part, she
happily knows not at all, but she wears
across her glancing shoulders or lightly
thrown over her head a shawl of white
or black lace. The highest examples of
her are almost matchless as types of glorious,
dark, feminine beauty, with their
slight, well figures, their wealth
of billowy, blue black hair and the
finely chiseled features of their sweet
oval faces, which seem, after all, but the
fit setting of glorious eyes, dark as
night, soft as velvet, yet bright as winter
stars. That tbe Cuban lady is not
lacking in mentality, in native wit,
cleverness and understanding she bos
often proved when transplanted to more
stimulating climates. She has bora a
leader in tbe brilliant intellectual salons
of Paris, and if at home she is seldom
distinguished by high intellectual
it may charitably be
supposed to be chargeable to a climate
which renders protracted mental effort
a real pain even to trained minds.
Under the favorable conditions of
peace, when homes have not been .marred
and polluted by the rough and degrading
touch of theJrooper, the Cuban
girl of quality is reared in the strictest
refinement, and oven the poor are more
regardful of the proprieties than they
are under tho demoralizing influenco of
war. But the education or Unban children
has been sadly neglected. As late
as 1855 not a primary school could, bo
found in towns boasting 2,600 or. 3,000
inhabitants. In 1851, when Cnba vas
compelled to contribute $9;000,000 in
support of the army of Spain, the
amount appropriated for public instruc
tion iu tbe island was less than ?30,000.
A few years ago Baracoa, with ),865
children, had no more than two puplic
schools, w"h accommodation for !13S
children, and costing for teachers'
rent of building and other expenses
the yearly sum of $780.
with 3,079 children, hadjfour
public schools, with an attendance xf
183,ltiBir full capacity, atn yearly'. -pen-
of $3,680for salaries, rent of
buildings, school material, etc. Las Tunas,
with 1,297 children,, had wo
schools, vith' 156 children, at an ja
of $1, ISO. Tho children
of the well to do families were either
educated at liomo or at private schools
at tr cost entirely beyond the meanicf
tho lower clawes of the population. l(j
The gentleman of Cuba is well kBujvn.
His hot blooded impetuoeitr, bis open
band! gKosity and bis occasitnal
treacheryire cbaraet eristics with wliich
.all the world is stcoaainted
And now, when hte visit fs at an thdt
and m completed, tot
Me dwells iu TtlottODtU retrospect a lOti
the JUtnittfeK xfebtrasssf Ui sing ar
lrtitarsHtid(, j&twf&El&ii 9
Highest of all in Leavening Power. Latest U.S. Goi't Report
to admit that, with all her wealth of
resource, Cuba must be accepted, as it
has been classed by Cubans, as the
country of mpnana (tomorrow), for,
though partially developed, her resources'
are to a large extent lost to all
good purposes, and it is to the morrow
of liberty, the advancement of education
and th concurrent emancipation of
thought and action that Cubans must
look for the their loved
isle and hei 'cquirementof thatplaie in
the grand -larch of nations to which
her innate wealth and worth entitle her.
Walter J. Davs.
A Nicholasville telegram cf last veek
tells how Rev. Culpepper is Btirrirjrup
the Nicholasville people:
"Evangelist Culpepper, who has been
holding a series of meetings in Nicholasville
for several days, is stirring up the
town A meeting for 'men only' was
held yesterday afternoon and fully four
hundred responded to the call, the
largest gathering of men ever seen in
this place at a religious meeting. Dr.
Culpepper, in his talk, dwelt upon the
depravity of young and old and brought
out some startling facts. It was the
most wonderful portrayal of the sins
pi act iced by men and children of both
sexes ever heard in Nicholasville. Dr
Culpepper is a fearless man. not teing
afraid to speak his convictions. Among
the strong things he said yesterday after
noon was that the races were becoming
so mixed "that it is a very common
thing for a white man to see a
edition of himself walking along the
streets in coon skin binding."
AS TO '-DISCARDING SILVER.
Senator Teller ended his fulmination
against the sound-money Republ cans
with a demand that tliev shall not 'Mis
Who is proposing to discard silver?
Did not the Goverraent buy for coinage j
291,202,019 fine ounces of the fine white
metal under the act of 1883 ? Did it not
buy, o store away in useless bars,
ounces under the Sherman .ict of
1890 paying an average price of above
92 cents per ounce, while it is now
worth about 68? With what other product
has the Government dealt so
As to money, if Senator Teller will
look oer the contents of his pocket-book
he will find, if he is not more fortunate ,
than the mass of people that it is co -
posed almost exclusively of silver
tificates -and Treasury notes of 18S0 is-
sued in purchase of silver. In the ofii
ciai statement, oi me general bioik. ot
monev coined or is-sued on October 1
last, KId coin and certificates amounted
to $606,000,000, while of silver coin, certificates
aud notes issued in pur
chase of silver there was $930,000,0(10.
Does this look like ''discarding sil er?"
It is not in tact quite as near an approach
to the low money standard of China.
Japan, Mexico and tbe South American
Republics as tht3 great nation can iifloid
to go? N. Y. World
CONGRESS AND THE REVENUES
It is the duty of Congress to pr jvide
laws for the raising of adequate revenues.
Whatever difference of opinion '.hero
may be on q'ther subjects there caa be
none about this. The Government')! business
uiUBt be carried. Its debts must be
paid at maturity. Its credit mnut be
kept good. The public defense muiit be
adequately provided for. Otherwise
the Government must come to an end
and chaos reign. For Congress to neglect
or refuse to make necessary provision
for the Government's expenses ould
be revolution by abdication of functions.
Yet the present Congress is doing- precisely
this. The revenues are less than
the expenditures. Congress appropriates
more money than it provide. It
orders payments for which it furnishes
no money 1
Moreover Congress, bv almost
mous action of both houses, has cnatrir
a condition and instigated a policy that
render large expenditures for the piblic
defense imperatively and immediately
necessary rs a measure of ordinary prudence.
Obviously Congress is bound to
devise means without delay for raising
the money for these purposes.
The.task is nt.t a difficult one. Theieare
seeral bources of RcMiune easily within
leach. It is the business of Congreia to
choose among them and enact tlie necessary
Congress refuses to do this, and
it offers a childish quibble. The
Hsuse has passed one tax bill which tho
Senate refuses to sanction. The House
therefore washes its hands of the wbole
matterand leaves theconntry unprovided
with means and
it has itself invited.
Itsattituda is in the fast degree,
Worse still, itscourse involves; seri
ous dangers which no political cxig;jncy
can u ictise Congress for bringing. ipon
TheFoiadoctrinaire theories. of taxation
wbch it is legitimate enough for
statesmen and parties to consider
these afford no excusr for
neglect for the public delense
aud the general welfare in an emergency,
and a practical people will not a(cept
them even -as a palliation' if Congress
ional neglect results iu calamity ofjjany
"kind, as it easily may. JL Y. "Wurli .
KeHHiaB IMtrtl Confederate Yrtrraaa,
KicBHtsfHJ. Vs., Reduced
viT SttthrrM j
For the occasion of the 6th A nasal
Reunion of the United Confederate H et
emus. vliu'li occurs at iucl!metJ
June 30, July 2, 389(5, Southern Mai v
will sell tick eta to RichraeHiU va.jhHa
return, at very kw rates. The kief
Mile aud limrtafriU l aBBrmhWufcc.
GUI stay Seetkwo Btt1wf atpM
WHY JTKLN'LEY WILL BE
Here are some of the reasons why it is
safe to predict that William McKinley
will be nominated for President by the
Republican Convention at St- Louis:
1. Because he is the only national can
didate, the only candidate representing np
ing a national idea and a national issue
He stands for the aggressive radical sentiment
of the Republican party. His
name is linked with a single idea and no
matter how mediocre or talentless he
may really be, the popular imagination
sees in him the champion of a great
the father of protection.
2. Because no one else mentioned for
the candidacy is linked in the popular
mind with a national policy, a national J.
idea, a national sentiment or a national
3. Because he is a Western candidate
and has behind him the enormous sectional
pressure of Western sentiment,
without the aid of which no Republican
has ever been elected President. In fact,
the Republicans have never chosen any
but Western men for their candidate,
except in the case of Blaine, and ho was
beaten. Fremont in 1856, Lincoln in
1800 and 1864, Grant in 1868 and 1872,
Hayes in 1876, Garfield lu 1880 and Harrison
in 1888 were all Western candi
4. Because the opposing candidates
have none of them any strength outside
of their own State or section. Morton
has only New York. Allison has noth
ing but Iowa. Reed has only New England.
All combined are impotent
against a united West and South.
5. Because last, but not least, the very
fact that Mr. McKinley is opposed by tbe
two most powerful bosses in the East,
Piatt and Quay, and the two most odi
otis, despotic political machines, is bound
to create a reaction in his faor; bound
to give him the sympathy of the masses,
who hate bosses; bound to help him in
We predict that William McKinley, of
Ohio, will be nominated. New York
IMPORTANT RAILROAD NEWS.
Col. Albert E Boone, of Knoxville,
President of the "Black Diamond Railroad,"
wites to the Advocate under date
ot jcsteiday, thaK he is preparing to
start a wirm of surveyors to work in
Kelltuckv. They will first , a Une
tllroln,h the State from Je,lic0f TeaB
Uee, to Carrollton, at the mouth of the'
Kentucky riveri 011 the 0hio, sixtv miles
abow LonjBV1iJe. It is proposed to
touch along the route in Kentucky such
places as Cumberland Falls, Stanford,
Danville, Harrodsburg, Frankfort, and
Giber towns Col. Boone has an abiding
faitfi ill this gigantic enterprise, which is
to connecfGlycago w ith the sea at At
lanta, and he is evijlently receiving the
earnest support of meuof means, for
numerous survevs have alrestlv been
made If this road is built Danville
wants to be on the line, without failure
or mistake, and it might be well for leading
citizens to correspond with Col.
Boone. He will probably make a visit
through Kentucky at an early day. The
Knoxville Tribune of Sunday devotes a
column and a half to Col. Boone's trip
to aud reception in Augusta, Ga. Dati-ville
The Advocate is informed that Captain
Sam Boone, "the old Pioneer," was converted
to Methodism and the
doctrine during the recent revival
conducted at botuerset by Evangelist
Henry Morrison, and that he is seriously
contemplating an entrance into the
evangelistic field. The Somerset Reporter
said that he left Somerset with Mr.
Morrison at the close of the meeting.
The Captain is a ready and fluent talker
and should he enter this field of labor
would no doubt be most successful.
CapL Boone is well known in Rich-mood,
at least to those who date a few
years back. He came to Richmond in
w"e the three-story bnck build-
f aK. now occupied by the Climax, was in
progress. A coal pit, the entire width
of the pavement, and eight feet deep,
now covered by ponderous flagstones,
was dug out and left with a slight railing
around it. Boone fell into this hole and
was bddly hurt. The building belonged
to the.; late Silas T. Green. Boone sued
thaTown Trustees and they filed a
over against Green. A considerable
judgemeut was recovered, but, if
we recall the case correctly, a compromise
of about 31,600 was effected.
About ten years ago, Boone applied for
a peusion, and the late F. M. Gteen, editor
of the Register, wrote a two-line editorial,
barely a dozeu words, intimating
that Boone'e Injuries were of a more re
cent date than the war. Boone discovered
a copy of the Register in Boyle
connty and under the peculiar law which
allowed such a thing sued Editor Green
for libel in the Danville Circuit Court.
It was the first time he had ever beenj
sued, and it annoyed him no little. Maj.
Burnam was retained and sent to Dan
ville. The case never came to trial.
CapL Booue is a descendant of the old
pioneer family, and has followed manv
calling, having been a soldier, merchant,
lawyer, politician, editor and "Lord
Grand High Everything Else."
The Central Methodist, Catlettsburjr,
Kentucky, will enter upon its Thirtieth;
Year with the first issue in April. la all;
these twenty-nine years there has no!!
been a single change in either the bus!
neset or editorial management of theps'
Though it is a. sixteen page paper!
ty swats, sngxtabgdg
twenty seventy-Ive s" ft Jr
rw MB CHtHS H. il
papere in the Ub
aeght tob in.&iy
J m lt k m 0"e 1 ?
PROFESSIONAL . COLUMN.
M. B. HOGG,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Richmono, - . Kentucky.
Office No. 13 Fint street, up stairs. 31-30
GRANT E. LILLY,
A TLA ',
Richmond, - . Kentucky.
Office S.W corner Main and Seconl streets
stain. Will practice in all the courts of
Madison and adjoining counties ami Court of
W. B. SMITH",
ATTORNEY AT LAW
Richmond, - . Kentucky.
Offic in Cotliai Building-. 31-30
C. & D. M. CHENADLT,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Richmond, - - Kentucky.
O&ce on Second street, over Chenuih's
ctry. , 3MC
W. R. SHACKELFORD,
ATTORNEY AT LAW.
Richmond, ... Kentucky.
Will practice in all the Coorts Office over Rich
mood National Bank, sain e as Col. Capertoc's.
STEPHEN D. PARRISH,
A TTORNEY AT LA W,
Richmond, - . - Kentucky.
Patents, Caveats, Trade Marks, Designs, Etc
Report as to patentability of invention Free of
Charge. Unsurpassed facilities. Moderate terms.
Before applying for a patent, write me. 46-
DR. H. R. GIBSON,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
Richmond. - . . Kentucky.
Office in the Joe Collins building, 18 and m Second
Street, over White's new drugstore. 37.
Graduate Ontario Veterinary College.
VettrtBljY - jji StI'Uity a Stwciaky.
Office U3 Stairs Over Neur Yorlc Stnrr , mrn.r '
w . - . . .. . -
iin ana nrst streets, Kicnmona. 6- I
MY BREEDERS WERE! SELECTED FROM THE BEST HERDS ot this famous
h"tedof swineinseveraldifTerent -states. A splendid lot of pigs of different ages,
" saie. urea sows a. specialty. Satisfaction guaranteed. Correspondence solicited.
R. H. BRONKUGH,
Proprietor, Crab Orchard, Ky.
tcj w nu i hi rii i m raj i n mj aa m i d ni i K- rat i m ni i sai i u
WE NEVER HA YE
LET anybody Bell lower than WE do. OUR entire stock of Dry Goods, Clothing
Shoes, Hats and Cloaks at lower prices than any other house in the State. Overcoats
and Cloaks at any price to, get them out of the way. Ladies and Mens
Shoes at 75 cts. up. Children shoes at 20 cts. up. Pins, Needles, hairpins
6 papers for 5 cts. Ladies handkerchiefs worth 10 cts. each, 3 for
10 cts. Ladies, Childrens and Mens hose 4 cts. a pair. Extra
Urge towels 5 cts. each. Calico zM cts. a ysrd. Cotton 4
cts. a yard, Ginghams 4 cts.. Buttermilk soap 10 cts.
a box, 3 cakes in a box. Corsets 25 cents a
pair. Boys pants at 15 cts. . pair. Mens Linen
Collars,, worth 30 cents 5 cents each.
Everything in the House Goes regardless
Don't buy elsewhere until you get our
prices. It will be
Madison Mftoeltilrt!g?itiiif j
m a jasp , m.d.
Medicine and Surgery.
Office Collins Buildintr, MainStreet,
RicnMOND, ----- Kextbcey.
DR. H. H. ROBERTS--.
Paris - Kextcxl
Office: Corner Duncan Avenui nd
Pleasant Street, Paris, Ky.
Z-Office Hours: 8 to 10 a. m., 1 to 4 p.
m., 7 to S p. ni.
Eve, Ear, Nose, Throat axd Stomach
DR. A. K. STEWART,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
Richmond, - - - Kentucky-
Orricz 115 Slain street, over Covin ton A
Mitchell's clothiaj store. Rcudeac 6i Nortk
DR. O. A. KENNEDY,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
- - Kntucx7.
Office in Smith Building, No. Mm Street,
sum. Office hoars 11 to 1 lr.i 4 to j o'clock.
DR. JOHN AI. FOSTER,
Richmond. - Kentucky
Telephone at office and residence.
G. W. EVANS, AL D.,
Richmond, .... Kentucky.
Having retired frcn the practice of median
several years ago, for rtu bet known to my
self, I again otfr t.v professional services to th
people of Richmond ana .My Persons deur
ing my services wul Dud sr orace nrst ucor ncrca
of the residence of N. B. Deatherage on Second
DR. T. J. TAYLOR,
Practitioner in Medicine and Surgery,
Richmond, ... Kentucky.
Offlce and residence on Third Street.
DR. A. WILKES SMITH,
Richmond, - . . Kentucky
OrFicc Smith buildinj, Min Street. Offic
hours. o:co to n M ; i oo to 4 P M.
Prictiee limited to dentistry.
J C MOHGAN.
MORGAN & YATES,
Orrtc Main Street, over Madison Nitioaal
J. L. HARRIS, M. D., D. D. S.
Richmond, - - Kentucky
Crown and bndje wort a specialty. Office
over Wallace A Rice, Main street. Office hoars 3
a. m ta is a., s to 4 p. m. vii
WELBY AV. BURGLN,
or Chenaalt's grocery. No. 16 Second
Tbe BlueSrajs ffcrd
THOROUGHBRED RED HOGS.
money to you. mt
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