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By GRAF ERNST REVENTLOW.
German Navtl Expert.
A.- ioiniur.il witu .Japan, there .an be no doubt
that a- far as i miuenicl America's weakness
tactual standpoint, one can
i. at sea. From a
safelv the standard of the American navy doe
At rate, the education of
not attain a liiflh jwint. any
uniform, thoroughgoing plan
ofli.vr., on a systematic,
is lacking absolutely while of 'tradition' there can, of
COUr', HOI oe Hie suxiurst uuuu.i.
A Mwml unfortunate feature is the personnel
question. It 1ms come up In-fore, hut only in the recent
vears tho new era hn. it demanded adepiate attention.
At present there is a lack of both otlicers and
men. The olHcer famine is so that last year it
. t .,. .. w . : r.. i.., ;.
arv to convert cadets into waun oinccrs. u i.- hum m
this reanwt relief can onlv be secured in the course of years. Kven then.
If, as at the number of cadets at Annapolis is aunually
raiseil. and their term of education shortened, the effect in the rank
jf inciter ollaers can only make itself felt in the course of time. Finally,
relief cannot be secured simply by turning out oilieers faster. The
service e.vperieuce must also have been attained. As has boon said.
America waited too long to resort to energetic nud radical remedial measures.
For the present and the immediate future we cannot get away from
be fact that the American otlicer corps, as regards its tactical military
training, without doubt is inferior to the .Japanese; that it is also numerically
inferior would under other circumstances not be of special importance,
espet ia!ly as in war a large number of naval oilieers remain ashore,
while the commanding officers among them usually go to the front. A
further element of weakness in the American tltvt. however, is the very
hieh aee amonc the lusher commanding Among rear admirals we
find an average of nearly 01 vears. among captains of nearly 55 years, and
.i i i.. -, mm. -a. :- - :- u
amonjj mo navv oi neanv oi. umi is a apt- mun .
beyond what the deman'ds of initiative and elasticity made upon naval
officers absolutely require, and thi beeomes the more serious in
light of the now prevailing promotion whereby, also for higher
officers, the question of efficiency is not tho deusive one.
Uut a Iream
By MRS. JOHN SHERWIN CROSBY.
Prcjiiient Women's Democratic Club.
By ROV. GEORGE LLOYD.
A Husband's Hour a?
the political enfranchisement
of woman by a
proxy vote, secured by
the same blandishments
with which a vomnu ensures
the price of a new
lonnet, is one of those
dreams of conquest which
woman ui variably puts
forward from the other :dc oi the matrimonial fence. Even in the cao
of the bonnet the husband will prolu'tly want to U satisfied that it ia becoming
3!iss Clarke's idea of a husband hour aeom to me an injustice both
to the husband and wife were it carried through succeaafully, and, a
well a debating of the individual right. To go to the heart of the
husband dearly love to teach, but not to learn, especially in their
political opinions, and the largely abstract knowledge that the usual
woman acquires in her study of the situation at her club can hardly he
opposed to his daily experience of the condition to be remedied or the
men to achieve the desired betterment. The companion of their information
is bound to result in a better understanding for both. But tlte implication
of at superior mental attitude on her part would be fatal to the
dearest wish of her heart, political or other.
Miss Clarke's suggestion is nothing more nor less than the establishment
of a school of husbands, in which their senses are to be lulM
first with good food and good manners before hubbv. !i;.,TeJ and eiih
iojied more drugs is cstechised and Icwmod
of which woman is mistrese into a promise to n
jndgment and act as the catpaw for th.
woman who hides behind him.
Longfellow's Children's Hour was th.
happy time of the day the one hour without
restraints. Miss Clarke's Husband's Hour
wonld bo the hour of struggle, of dioconten'
It might even be interpreted by the unjust
into what is commonly called nagging. In
fact the process of administering such .i
sugar-coated pill to even the best of hushi.n U
would have n doubtful effect upon the h. i- -hold
might wrest a vote from an unwilling - .
but in the majoriU of envj the L-; .1
man would be worse than his In -n r
he wou' 1 ruh to o'K
and cajol.il by cwrv art
linir!i 1. - uwn w ill :ind
u FT fi .
.v v x '
The amiability and
Dinplaceucy of the
church is its weakness
to-day. It is content to
lie eminently respectable
and to stand aloof too
Time was when tho
church was the greatest
fighting force in the
world and it won glorious victories. The church militant ought to remain
true to its numc, and it ought neer to give up the idea that it is here for
the conquest of all that is opposed to Jesus Christ. It should not think
that its mission is done when it has won a certain rufineinoin. Our refinement
may be our ruin. The amiability and complacency of the church is
its weakness to-day. It should go into the enemy's country, and not run
away from it, nor sit idly by, while tho enemy takes our territory.
The enemy has been charging all along the line of our theology, and
as a result our lines are broken, and our ranks are confused. A bloated
materialism menaces Borne of the strongholds which we thought invincible.
To arms, Christian men and women. Everyone should light, or throw up
If you are going to serve the devil all the week, you should keep from
church on Sunday.
Tiic FARMER PAYS
Our Tax System Has Increased
Figures That Show Farm Property
Pays More Than Its Fair Pro-
portion of Stato Revenue.
When the last constitutional contention
in Kentucky drew up the present
orsanlc law of the state, It found
existing throughout the state a general
feeling of dissatisfaction, because
through the faulty administration of
tho old revenue law one exemption
after another hnd crept In until the
old system was full of Inequalities.
The convention desired to perfect n
tax system which, it believed, would
secure absolute uniformity iu the burden
of taxes It, therefore, inserted
In the constitution section 171. whi"h
says that taxes shall' bu uniform upon
all classes of property within the territorial
limits of the authority levying
the tax This was done in tho belief
that uniformity of method would pr
duce u uniformity of result and of burden.
It was urged in behalf of this purposed
section that it was demun.i"I
In justice to the farmer, in order that
since his prccverty was of a inliil
and tangible nature and ouuld not
assessment, all other proirty
should be put In the same boat
No one over disputed that this oucht
to be done The only dispute wmt .is
to whether or not It could be dn'
by this method It was content i
that certain clusaes of property, which
were of a kind that could be cm
coaled, would escape assessment aud
taxation if the burden of taxation v t
upon them was too heavy, and inn'
the result would be that the real e-,
tate and such visible personal pri
erty as tho farmer's live stock nud
the merchant's goods nud tho hou"
holder's furniture would bear an undue
proortion of the burden of raiding
the public revenue.
Hut the general property tax wi
Imbedded In our constitution, and
have been trying it harder thau uver
for the sixteen years that have
elnpned since the constitution n
adopted, and it has proved nnythlim
but uniform and has not served to
distribute the burden of taxation
equally. Under this system, a great
deal of property in our cities escnp
taxation. In spite of the activity f
auditor's agents, much of it Is nt
brought to light The consequent
of this Is that an unfair burden '
Uiu support of the state falls npn
those who own property that can n
he hidden away, and these people ar
chiefly the fanners.
The farmer pays more tax on
property in proportion to real
estate than does the city man under
the present system In the
In the stato which contain i'.. the
cities of the first and second
Jefferson, Kenton, Cample '.' Fayette
and McCracken, the aa. .- d personality
Is 20 per cent of the t.'al assessment
In the rest of the state it
Is 21 per cent of the total
The Bre counties named, which may
bo called urban counties, contain
16.02 per cent of all the realty in the
state and assess only 31 per c nt of
all the personalty.
The amount of money, bon is. accounts
and similar personal assessed
by these counties. Is than
7 jer cent of their total asm oment.
In tii" rest of the state tho amount of
such property nssaessed Is nearly 11
r cont of the total. Manifestly, It
is 'rue that the man In the cnintry
d not 11 iid it so easy to conceal his
personal property, and he has not tho
mctntivu furnished by a high tax rato
o ci nceal It.
In tie county of Jofforson,
t'ir city of Loulsvlllo, personalty
Is .J i per cent of tho total assess-mc
nt In Kenton county, containing
the r,ty of Covington, personalty is
11 2 per cnt of tho total; in Camp-In
i With the city of Nowport, It is
1C 'm r c nt Fayette county, with
Uxt. nn do s letter, Its personalty
I.. :i 1 per c. nt of the total, but it
li ! ' iiown that the rural portions
of T ,i . count-, contain an amount
nf walfli unusual Iu any agricultural
On thf other hand, take the
counties which are distinctly-agricultural,
and note how much
larger the percentage of !ernonnlty
than iu the strictly urban counties:
Carrard county 25 per cent
Allen county 2G percent
Marlon county 30.5 percent
Adair county 31 per cent
Knott county 33.C per cont
Monroe county 3G per cont
Through tho entire Btato tho rule
gonerally holds and whoro the contrast
Is not io rrarlcod, tho oxceptlons
will generally lie found duo to unusually
high valuation of farm lands.
Who Pays the Frelght7
Thero is still another way of ascertaining
thnt tho prosent system does
not make things easlor for tho farmer.
For tho year 190C tho assessment of
the stato divides Itself as follows:
Farm lands 43
Farmer's personalty (live stock,
Implements, otc.) 7,1
Monoys, etc., assessed to farmers 2.0
Total for farmers fi2.7
Town lota 32.5
Town personalty 14.8
Total town property 47.3
In arriving nt tho percontago of
moneys, etc., sot down as given in by
farmers for taxation, only that given
a by counties having no town larger
than the sixth clnss is included, and
small percentage of this character
of personalty given in by counties
having larger towns and yet distinctly
agricultural The figures probably
are under, rather than over the mark.
Farm property, therefore, by a
estimate pays neatly 53 per
cent of the stnte tares exclusive of
franchise tuxes, while town property
pays only about 47 per cent. Of the
state revenue collected by the sheriffs
of the state from assessor's lists, 43
per cent Is paid by farm lands, 31 per
cent by town lots, about 9Vj per cent
by money and securities, about 7-i
per cent by live stock and farmer's
Implements, etc., and C per cent by
other personalty. It Is time the Ken
tucky farmer realized that the preseut
bears heavily upon him
Equivalent to 10 Per Cent Income Tax
The tax commlslson of the state of
California has this to say about the
operation of the, general property tax
ou farmers in that state:
"Tho taxes paid by farmers In California
are equivalent to an Income tax
of 10 per cent This Is In contrast
to many other Industries, for example,
the taxes paid by manufacturers,
which amount only to 2 per cent on
Income Te persons engaged in
agriculture, with an average yearly
Income of ntout $500. pay $S0 per
capita per annum Iu taxes Tho persons
engaged In manufactures, with
an average annual Income of IS70.
pay 117.50 per capita por annum"
The California system here denounced
la thp sumo that we have In Ken
tucky. and from which the legislature
ran afford us no relief without n"
change of the constitution
J FARMERS IN MANY STATES
J WANT RELIEF FROM UN-
Constitutional amendments are be
ItiK given thorough attention by farmers
of the country In Ohio. Hon F
A Derhlck n.nster of the State
Grunge. In discussing a proposition to
permit of classltlcatiou of the uroc
of tax revenue said
"There is a common ground npon
which we can all stand We must
have in increasing amount of revenue,
and that means a more Just return of
j tho property in the state Wher? is
the Injustice of laying 11 reasonable
tax on the dejmaits reported by the
banks of the ntate. the same to b
charged to depositors True, not all
depositors are residents of Ohio, but
they enjoy the protvctlon of our laws
and In large measure draw their Interest
from our people
"This could, at least, be done with
resident depositors and they would
bo relieved from the temptation to
com ml t the crime of perjury '
The Kentucky Grange.
The Kentucky S'at Orange had thl
same subct t lore It at the meetm
held In FVinkr..it o. u.bvr l'l to 21.
1907 Mr F P Wolcott. Master of
the State the que
tion Iu a very int. lehtitig manner
"Th.- order ha been most active
In behalf of the just regulation of
taxation, recogmtlng that the farmer
Is losing more from our present sy
tern and han more to gain from the
establishment f a just and equitable
system of taxation than has any oth
ar cIuhs of citizens The order In rep
rosonting the agricultural class, always
endeavors to be fair and honorable
with all other Interests, and
has the fight to demand tike treatment
in return In nearly every state
In the Union the cry una been loud
against unjust revenuo laws, and
steps are being taken to rtnnvdy the
"Various State Oranges have, by
their nctlon, deelnrod it wrong to leg-(slate
Into the organic laws of a state
any provision which shall exempt
from taxation property aggregating
vast sums, in the possesion of the
wealthy, and often kept by them In
visible, thus leaving the small holdings
of the musses of ptmplo of mod
orate means to hour tho burden of
"The present constitution of Kentucky
binds us to the general property
tnx that Is. to tho system of
lovying the same tax upon nil classes
of propertj for all purposes. Thero
should be an amendment to our constitution
which will allow the legislature
to sepnrate the sources of
that Is, to raise tho stnte
from certain classes of property,
leaving other classes of property to
bo taxed for local purposes only.
"It lias been argued by homo that
this would throw too much power Into
tho hands of the legislature. Should
such an amendment prevail, then
would It dovolvo upon the voters of
tho Btato to pay stricter attention to
the solectlon of tholr representatives
than lias obtained In tho past lu both
city and country.
"The Kentucky Stato Development
association and other organizations
havo honored the Grango by placing
upon its Joint commlttco on tnxatlnn,
n member of this ordor as representative
of the agricultural interests of
the stato, and It la Important that tho
vlows and demands of tho farmers ho
clearly dellned at this stato Besslon.
It ia recommended that thla body
promptly and emphatically tako action
In favor of Just and equitable
revenue laws, and for tho establishment
of an omclal tax commission, to
bo composed of tlvo
representing respectively th great
industries, ngriculturo, manufacturing,
mining and commerce, and a ilfth
member, noted for tho highest integrity
and for Buporlor legal ability.
GERMAN U THEORY
Public Utilities Operated by Cities
Must Pay Their Way.
They Don't Always Do Thii Howsvsr
Bscsum Not Enough Is Charged Off
to Depreciation and the Plants Don't
Have to Psy Tsxei "Undertakings"
Limited to Locshtiei Where the Patronage
Will Be Large.
In theory public utilities operated by
German cities must pa their own
Way This theory is not, however,
fully borne out iu practice, because tho
allowance for depreciation U frequently
Inadequate, and the plant aru not
required to make good the taxes formerly
paid by the companies they
Hut the effort to put these
service 011 a paylug basts has resulted
lu limiting the various undertakings to
districts uhurc they are sure to pay.
Ou the other hand, when these utilities
are oerated by companies the same
results are noticed, because
almoHt without exception the fruu
chlsvs nrc so weighted down with provisions
for payments to the city nud
ure tit the same time of such short
duration that the companies would not
btf warranted lu extending the service
1koikI the district lu which they are
Mire to pay at ouce.
1'rofewsor Hugo It Meyer in recent
articles in tho Electrical Itullway 1U
view and the Journal of Political
describes the result of this
policy ou street railways ami
electric lighting, and the following
facta are taken from hU articles.
The cities that weut into the Direct
railway business adopted a uniform
fare of 2 0 cents, but with two excep
tloiiN abandoned this arter ohort trial-
The experience of two typical Herman
tlllert will prove of interest as showing
what high rates are charged when'
cities attempt to oporntc utilities ou a J
When the city of Cologne took over
the street railways the fares charged '
wer 2.3 cent for dUUances up to IK
miles and 3 75 ceuLs for the maximum
distance. ttP ml leu After oporutlug
them awhile tho rlty authorlUe raised
the fare materially while extending
xllghtly th minimum stage. The pres
eut charges are 2.5 cents for 1 P tulles.
8.75 cents for 3 75 trlltw. 5 cents for
5.tCt miles ami A.2fi coubs for dLstuncrs
ever r.SS ille
The city of PueMorf. which acquired
Its street railways In 1UCO. attempted
to operate them at the uni
form fare of U.5 cati, which had been
charged toy the street railway com
pany, but soon found that It wsjs o4ng j
money ami limited the 2.5 cent fare to j
2. ( t mile, charging 3 75 cents for distance
between that and 1.25 mile
After tacrraslrur the track, mileage the 1
city again raised the fare considerably, j
reducing the minimum stage
now are U." cent for
1.50 mile. ?. 7." t'vuta for 3 W mile. 5
ceota for 4 tulle. nj cants for 77, !
miles, Ti cents for &3 mile. S7"
for 7.1l mile ,tnl to rent f.r
It should In- In mind that then.- j
prtre sre rvall err umrh higher
than rinvinliiig r.iten ,uld te in
this country. euse wages in Jer
many are much lower than In the t'ult 1
ed States The exortdtame of thene
charges to shown by the fact that In
Minneapolis, a city of the same sU.
as IKisimldorf. s passenger can rWIe
thirteen miles for 5 cents, while In
IJulTalo. which has a (opu'.atlon about
equal to that of Cologne, the passen (
ger gets fourteen miles for a nickel
The desire of the cities to make all ;
possible profits out of franchisee nnd
to limit them to alwrt terms has resulted
In greatly delaying tlm development
of public electric lighting, although
the people were anxious to
have the new lights Installed This Is
shown by tlw fact that In 1SJI 05
thero were In operation In factories,
stores, otc . more llian -1.770 private
electric light plants, although two
years Inter there were only i little
more than 300 central oleetrie lighting
stations in tho whole of Germany As
the private or isolated plant, as it Is
called In this country, is far less
than the cenrral station, this
restrictive action of tho German cities
hns thrown 11 great burden of cost on
Its progressive cltiiens The situation
Is the more remarkable because sr the
time of the Introduction of electricity
for lighting and traction purposes Germany
wna far better oo,ulpied to perfect
nnd develop these systems than
was the United Stntes. yet it has been
completely outstripped by our own
country, chiefly If not solely Iwcause
here private enterprlso has been given
a comparatively free hand.
In closing one of hLs nrtlcles Professor
"Tho unwillingness of tho cities to
suffer ilnnnclnl losses on behnlf of the
congested city populations after thoso
cities hnd denied those congested populations
relief nt the hands of profit
seeking companies Is In Instructive
contrast to the eloquence with which
the ndvocates of purebnso by tho cities
bad denounced the dividend seeking
Purchased Current More Economical.
All electric light plant was installed
nt .Santa Clara, Cat., in 1S00 at a cost
of $15,000. The generating plnnt hns
been shut down, as, according to the
president of the board of trustees, It
was found to bo more economical Io
purchase the current
v - . -' .
. . .r.. ia. . - i 1 r
t i it r '. Vh.- - .
Tipton's Unprofitable Plant
Tho municipal lighting plant of Tin-ton,
In., proved unsuccessful. When
It burned down, causing n heavy loss,
It was not rebuilt, and a contract was
mndo with a private company.
ELGIN'S LOSS $100,000.
This Was In the Six Years the Town
Owned its Eleetrlo Light Plant.
A municipal electric light plant wn
Installed' lu 1SSS and leased to a pri
vnte company In Wol. It Is estiinat
ed that the loss during this period win
at least $100,000 as compared Wiu,
what It would havo cost to light th.
streets by contract. A city oillr
quoted In "The Ilusluess of Muulclpa
Hies nnd Private Corporations Com
pared," gives $100.73 as a moderate
estimate of the annual cost per ire
'The electrician's report shows tint
the city has Ihmmi selling light for from
25 per cent to 50 per cent less than
the cost of manufacture. Members of
the electric light department admitted
they could not run economically for
lest than $35,000 per year, but they
wanted $-15,000. Under our contrat t
with the private company wo light tlm
same number of lampc and more hour
per year for $15,054. a saving of $20
000 ier year, figuring operating n
peases only Information from anoth
er source makes thoso figures $ 12,0m
and $11,320 respectively Statements
from the light department show that
If proper nttentlon had been given 1 1
repairs of lamps at least $2,000 In cosi
would have lieen saved. Hardly
Joint In our whole forty live mile cir
cult Is soldered or wrapped; they ar-simply
twisted together There Is ni
estimate of the enormous loss of cur
rent over such Jimmc Joints, nnd yet it
lint been so for sixteen years."
Tho following story shows how tin
plant wtis made to serve tho prlvati
ends of the politicians. A mayor win
was a candidate for ivclectlon attend
ed a dance given by 11 hvenl lodge. N
tlclug how brilliantly the hall was
lighted with electric lamps, tho mayor
said. "How much do you Uiys jwy for
these lights? lie was told $85 per
month l will do It for $10." replied
CHANGE IN WILMINGTON, 0.
Municipal Lighting Plant Abandoned
After Ten Ditaitroue Year.
A responsibly citizen of Wilmington
sends the following luforrnatton
"In the year iil2 the vlllagw of Wll
miugton built an electric light plant at
the Cost of some $I0.m) The inuiih
Ipallty from yoar to year made chau
giM ami additions ami had accidents
from tmd man cement until In the
year ltKi2 it decided to sell the plant
It having cost on an averago over $10
000 per year to operate same, frequent
ly Udng entirely without light for from
one week to three months at a time
The nerriee very lnferlr. ami rur
rent was funitalied customers from I
to 5 o'clock In the evening until midnight
The number of street lamps
varied from SO to KO.
"The plant was old, together with
the -e fir light ami water, for
the sum of f li'.iift). the plant being
worth as Junk J7.ui. the other
$3,OtXi W'lttic f .r the tights nod prlvl
leges under ttie frn hlse The om
pany that bought it a now
plant and furnish.- an all nigl.t erv
I. e '
At ihe total oot t.. tie- vll
la go fur th- lighting of the ntrwts (12U
sr. s. rlty hall riti.l other putH
lugs, togvthrr n It I. Bre protis tion from
elgtit -"tie hjilrnt.ts snd water fi.r tbu
puldlc buildings Is hs than the cost
nf iilwniMtig the eledrK' light plant fur
sn average f ninety un.N r th-municipal
regime without tin ullow
ane for lost taxes and
the latter Item ilone amounting to
ja,:HM a year
Didn't Cven Need (taking.
Outing the dim uasion of the Med en
Mil fair gas In the Michigan
legislature ongris.maji I.egnro told
the following story of s "mjK he had
brought from home with htm She
was a fcolendld servant, but ste didn't
know anything about gas to cook with
so he weut to tho kitchen with iter to
explain about tho range. So that Mie
could see how it opomtod he lit each
of the mauy iHiniers. While still ex
plaining a inoasngc called him from
the kitehen. ami he left her, saying, "I
guess you will tlud It will work all
right now, Martha." He didn't see the
cook again for four or five days; .then
utMUi entering the kitchen he wild.
"Well, it a rt lis, how's Uvit range do
IngT" To hLs utter consternation she
replied: "'Deed, sir, that's the lswt
stove I evor did see That fire that
you kindled for me feur days ago Is
still and It ain't even lowered
once "- ProgretmiYo Age
Municipal Markets In Berlin.
Munlcliml owuersblp, or municipal
trading, ns It Is termed lu ISnglaiid.
has hnd several hard Jolts of lute. The
most recent blow was reported lust
week from Iterlln, Ciermany, tho
of which city declares thnt owing
to the lower prices at which tho depart
tnent Htores are now selling foodstuffs
thi. municipal market halls In Iterlln
are being operated at a loss. The question
of leasing to private concerns
these halls, of which there are fifteen
tu iterlln, Is being seriously cousld
tred. Dry Goods Kcouoinlst.
Never Operated by the City.
An electric light plant was installed
In Hudson, Wis., nineteen years ngo,
but, according to the mayor, has never
been operated by tho city, having been
leased successively to various parties.
Tho city also contra eta for the pumping
lu tho waterworks, which It owns.
A Good Rule For Corporations.
Show to the voters that you havo tho
interest of your section nt heart ns
much as they have; that you are Investing
largo sums of money in order
to serve them properly nnd lot your
service testify for itself. II. M. Mooro
In Progressive Ago.