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THE Bl'Tl'KK CITIZKN,
BCTLBR, KARNS CITY AND PARKER RAILROAD
Train* leave Butler for St. Joe, Milleretown,
Ksrtia City, Pctrolis, Parker, etc., at and
9_V) a. to., and 2.06 and 7.15 p. lu. [See lie
low for connections with A. V K. K.|
Trilns arrive at Butler from the above named
points at 9.45 a. m.. and 1.55, 5.15 ami 9.85
p. in. The 1.55 train connects with train ou
the West Penn road ihrouth to Pittsbunrh.
Sunday trains arrive at 1055 a. in. and 3.55
p. in., and leave at 11.10 a. m. and 4.10 p. ra.
SHEVAKSO AND AU-EOHrNT RA!!.HOAI>.
Trains leave HilllardV Mill, Butler county,
for HnrrisvJlle, Greenville, etc., at 7.40 a. m. ]
and 12.20 and 2.20 p. ra. I 1
Stages lc.v e Petrol in at 5.30 a. m. for 7.40 ;
train, and at 10.00 a. m. for 12.20 train.
Ketiirn stages leave Milliard on arrival of
tn 1 !Mi nt 10.27 a. ni. and 1.50 p. m.
buiae leaves Maniusburg at a.30 for 12.30
p. s. c., 4 1.. E. n. n.
Tlio morning train leaves Zalienoplo at C 11
Harmony 1.16 and Evans bur* at 6.3.'. arriving
at F.ina'Station at H. 20. and Allegheny at 9.01.
T'ui afternoon train leaves Zelienop'o at 1.28.
Harmony 1.31, Evansbnrg 1.53, arriving at
Etna Station at 411 ami Allegheny at 4.46.
Trains connecting at Ktua Station with this
road leave Allegheny at 7.11 a. m. and 3.51 p. m.
1 By Kt itli,g oil at Sharpabure station anJ
crossing the bridge to the A. V. K. It., passen
ger* on the morning train can reach the Union
depot at 9 o'clock.
Train* leave Butler (liutler or Pittsburgh Time.)
Market nt 5.11 a. 111., goe« through to Alle
gheny, arriving at 9.01 a. ra. This train con
nects at Freeport with Freeport Accommoda
tion, which arrives at Allegheny at 8.20 a. in.,
Exjtrett at 7.21 a. m„ connecting at Butler
Junction, without change of car*, at 8.2fl with
Express west, arriving In Alleglienv at 9-.VI
a. m., and Express east arriving at Blairsville
at 11 <lO a. in. railroad time. ]
Mail at 2.36 p. m., connecting at Butler June- .
tionwithout charge ol cars, with Express west, J
arriving in Allegheny at 591 p. in., and Ex- I
press cast arriving at Blairsville Intersection ]
at H.lO p. m. railroad time, which connects w'th
Philadelphia Express east, when on time. ;
Sunday Exprttl at 4.ott p. ra., goes through
to Allegheny, arriving at fi.o6 p. m.
The 7.21 a.m. train connects at Blairsville
at 11.05 a. tn. with the Mail east, and the 2.3H ■"
p.m. train at G. 59 with the Philadelphia Ex
Trains arrive at Butler on West Penn K. H. at
9.51 a. m., 5.00 and 7.11 p. in., Butler time. The
9,51 and 5.00 trains connect with trains on
the Butler & Parker R. R. Suu ay train arrive*
at Butler at 11.11 a. m., connecting with train
for Parker. *
Through trains leave Pittsburgh for the Ear l
at 2.50 and 8.20 a. lu. und 12 51, 4.21 and H.o*i p.
m., arrivinif at Philadelphia at 3.4<l and 7.20
p. in. and 3.00, 7.0> and 7.40 a. m.; at Baltimore
stiout the same time, at New York three hours
later, and at Washington about one and a hall
AIA . ftinnn I in Wall St. stocks ]
JIU 10 Mil frZIZ '
plaining everything. Acldreas
J3AXTEK CO., Rankers. |
oct9 17 Wall sfraet N. Y. l
JOHN E BYEKS, 1
PHYSICIAN AND SUIIGRON, j
tny2l-ly] BUTLER, L'A. ,
AllculicJiy Collegiate Institute J
FOR YOUNG LADIES.
ALLEGHENY CITY. 30 ittocktoa A*«. |
Rev. THOS. C. STRONG, D. D.. President. '
Will open on MONDAY, SEPTEMBER Bth.
School hours Irom 9a.v. to 1.30 p. v It* con- .
vraient distauce Irom the depots will permit
pupil* living outside the city to teturu home
each day, thus saving expense (or hoard.
For circulars address promptly a* above.
Pennsylvania Female College.
EAST END, PITTSBURGH.
A flr*t clas* College for women. Educational
standard high. Advantage* complete. Most
delightful situation in the whole country.—
Terras quite moderate Opeua September
Mirs lIELEN E. PELLETREAU,
Jly!so-2m Aetinif President.
Thorongli preparation for college ; good Eng
linli and businciis education. Modorate expenses,
not neoeseai ilv exceeding *l'- or tSO por terui.
Good chemical and philosophical apparatus,
laige library. Good moral and social surrouiid
ing». French and German taught. Next term
commences September 16, IH7U.
])yS3-2m] Rev. \VM. EWINO, Prin.
The Fall Term will begin on
Monday, Hept. 1,1H70,
uud continue twelve weeks.
P. S. BANCROFT, A. M., Principal.
J. C. TINSTMAN, Professor of Maihematics
O. P. COCHRAN. Teacher of Penmanship
Miss EMMA K. LINN, Teacher of Music
C3"For circulars containing full particulars,
address P. 8. BANCROFT,
jlylQ-tit Butler, Pa.
Evangelical Lutheran Church.
10th Collkoiate Yf.ae Bkoins Sept. 11th, 1879.
Board, j'2.00 per week. Address. Preßt. H.
W. Roth or Rev. D. McKee, A. M., Principal of
tho Acad. Department.
GREENVILLE, MERCER CO., PA.
0 1# WALDRON, Graduate ol the Phll-
K adelphia Dental Collegers prepared
• ll •to do an) tiling iu the line of bis
professlop la a satisfactory manner.
OQlce on Main street, Butler, Union Block,
up stairs, apll
Dr. Quincy A. Scott,
llas Removed to SIX Fine OFFICES, at
IVo. 30 Fifth Avenue,
Half way between Market and Wood Streets,
Nt f I — #1; 4ift^i[iMt
OSS S 'iSifi i '9 ;1> if >/*' $g iy* i S!n H --#• 3$ * I
2s fllfivw ■ le^lllJE<*
JUDGE KELLEY Ah ROAD.
SOME Til I SOS HE XoTED IN' GERMANY
THE LACK OF AGRICULTURAL MA
CHINERY—WOMEN AS FARM LABOR
ERS—THE NATURALIZATION TREAT
IES BETWEEN GERMANY AND THE
UNITED STATES HOW THEY OPER
[Correspondent Philadelphia Times.] ]
MUNICH, August 2.
After a delightful excursion through
part of Austria I am again in <Jer
mjnv. Munich is the capital of South
as Berlin is of North, Germany, and
its monuments are Bavarian, as those
of Berlin are Prussian. Notable
among them is the bronze statue of
Bavaria, the harmonious proportions of
which are so colossal that six men
may stand together in its head and
enjoy a view of the city and suburbs, j
while to encircle its middle finger re- j
quires a cord longer than did the ;
waist of a lady who stood by as I |
scanned a plaster cast of it in the
Coming abroad as I did, in pursuit
of health. I have not underestimated
the value of sleep to a convalescent, or
the danger of violent or protracted
physical effort, and, avoiding ni-rht
travel, have rested long at Dresden,
Prague, Vienna, Linz and Salzburg to
take a leisurely, though necessarily
superficial, view of each of these cities.
I have thus seen all the country
through which I have traveled and
been able to observe the extent of the
holdings and the apparent methods,
age and sex of agricultural laborers.
THE USE OF OLD-FASHIONED TOOLS.
I forget the date at which Living
ston came as our Minister to France.
It was, however, before the adoption
ol the Constitution, or as the represen
tative of Washington's administration.
But the precise date is not important,
as I refer to him as an illustration of a
general truth which social reformers
should ever bear in mind. Before ar
riving in Paris he had been painfully
impressed by the fact that most of the
agricultural laborers were bowed and
exhibited other signs of premature old
age. He observed, also, that iheir
chief implements were hoes, with
hnndles but three feet long, and sickles
which required them to stoop even
lower while reaping than they had
done while cultivating their crop.
He was a philanthropist, and in the
hope of remedying a national evil he
not only brought to the attention of
many Frenchmen of influence the fact
that American farmers used imple
ments which enabled them to stand
erect, but went further and imported a
large number of long-handled hoes for
gratuitous distribution. Their use
would, he hoped, demonstrate their
vital superiority and cause their gen
eral adoption. In this he was mis
taken. They were soon discarded and
Livingston's papers thenceforward
abounded in dissertations on the diffi
culty of inducing a people to change
their practical methods. Here, too, he
was in error. In the choice of tools
the j»cople whose condition he sought
to improve were not free agents, but
were—as the masses of mankind al
ways are—subject to social and phys
ical conditions. Had Livingston first
asked why the use of longer hoe han
dles had not occurred to the French
paysans, his labors in their behalf
would probable have taken a more
practical turn. He has, however,
many successors among American
travelers, who vex one's ears with the
questions, why do these people not
use our labor-saving agricultural ma
chinery? though they see unmistaka
ble proofs—such as the diversity in
kind and age of the crop—that the
holdings of lands in the rural parts of
Belgium, France aud Switzerland are
not, on the average, so large as build
ing lots in the twenty-second, twenty
fourth and twenty-seventh wards of
Philadelphia. Those who own or rent
these patches of land live in villages
and labor in workshop or in factory.
Old men and women—generally more
of the latter—attend to the crops,
which, even when of grain, are care
fully weeded. The ground may be
prepared by the spade, though the
old-fashioned, short-handled hoe is
still frequently used in breaking it up,
but much of the work is evidently done
with trowels. It is evident that
Burns had not the cultivators of these
petty farms in mind when he descril>ed
the farmer walking in glory behind
The prevailing appearance of pre
mature old age which aroused Livings
ton's sympathies is attributable to
this inevitable method of manual farm
ing and to the habit which the women
have of carrying strapped on their
backs huge baskets, often heavily
WOMEN AS FARM LABORERS.
But it is not only the small holdings
of land which impose this character of
work upon women, for in Germany
and Austria, where the holdings are
generally larger and much of the farm
ing is carried on upon a considerable
scale, women seem to do most of the
work, and often the heaviest part of it.
They pitch the hay upon the wagon,
while the man—if there bo one of the
party—receives and stores it. I have
seen many of them plowing, and
others with scythe or sickle, holding
their lino with men. To sweep the
streets of great cities, to trundle over
burdened wheelbarrows or handcarts
through streets crowded with swift
going droschkics, to split, saw or pile
firewood, to serve as unskilled laborers
in glass and iron works, foundries and
machine shops, to carry stone, bricks,
sand and mortar to masons and brick
layers working on the upper stories of
' the highest buildings, will not seem
to the average American woman
strictly feminine occupations. Yet, so
r long as the flower of masculine youth
and the vigor of European manhood
are to bo dedicated, as they now are,
' to barracks and camps, such must
continue to bo the occupations of the
mothers of many future American citi
In Germany the plow has generally
supplemented the spade and the
scythe the sickle, but not until I had
reached Central Austria did 1 see a
cradle; and even there its use ap
■ peared exceptional. Here all our ag
ricultural machinery might be brought
i into use. The luml i.-* level a» the
; jirairies of Illinois, und the extent of
I the wheat Gelds reminded me of the
irr.'at ones of Minnesota. Yet here I
saw lint one piece of machinery. That
was turning hay which had been sul>
jected to a protracted rain.
Berlin, Dresden, Vienna and Mu
nich are beautiful cities, My stay in
no one of them was lonvr enough,
however, to justify me in attempting i
to describe it, or, indeed, to indicate j
the leading points of attraction, since j
each of them is especially rich in his- j
toric monuments and matters of inter- |
est to lovers of architecture, painting, j
sculpture and music. There are two .
facts concerning each of them, how-1
ever, that I must record, since they
seem to me to illustrate a law who-r
inflexibility and force financiers and
statesmen should comprehend. They
are among the oldest of modern cities.
The period of most rapid and costly
growth of each has been since 1850,
and the progress of each was checked
between 1873 and 1875, and is still
SOME FEATURES OF PRAFLUE.
Prague is not accounted a great city,
and many American tourists pass by
it as they would by a wayside station ;
yet no continental city lias- impressed
me more. Its situation is most pic
turesque, and, having been from the
dawu of the fourteenth century the
theatre of memorable events, it
abounds in historic monuments. It
has the tower from which Tycho
Brahe and his imperial patron, Ru
dolph 11., watched the course of the
stars in the closing year of the six
teenth century. Here, too, Huss and
Jerome were born, and by their devo
tion to liberty of conscience and their .
pious labors earned the martyrdom
which overtook both in 1415, when
their ashes were thrown into the
Rhine. The new city—lining the
banks of the Moldau with its gardens
and recent buildings—though beauti
ful, is commonplace. What interested
me was the old buildings, which one
seelf as he ascends the well-paved
slopes which lead to the Haadschin.
Here is the Cathedral, begun in 1314 and
finished in 1385, and now being re
stored, having been damaged not only
bv the lire of 1541, which reduced the
height of its tower from live hundred
and twenty to three hundred and
twenty-three feet, but by the artillery
brought to bear upon it during the
Seven and the Thirty Years' wars.
The Imperial palace, close at hand, is
said t«> contain more than seven hun
dred rooms, of which the recently
refurnished Spanish and German sa
loons are the most elegant. But the
most curious is, in my judgment, the
vaulted chamber, in which were Ifeld
the tournaments, the great hall of
Ladislau—approached from within by
successive flights of stairs, from with
out by ascending avenues paved with
brick. Not having recognized the
fact that tournaments were in-door
sports and might have been conducted
in an attic, I concluded that this was
an exceptional instance, but on visit
ing the Bavarian Mint, at Munich, 1
found in its oltl courtyard an example
of a tourney hall, no larger than the
hall at Prague. The building had
once been a palace and this old Court,
surrounded by low, but heavy and
imposing columns, and arched stalls
for guests, hail been its central point
of attraction. But, to return front a
digression, a few steps bring one from
Ladislau's Hall to the old council
chamber, from a small Imlconv of
which one obtains a fine view of the
city, the Moldau and the venerable
bridges which span it, in themselves
quaint and instructive historical mon
uments as well as noble highways.
Rarely have such momentous associa
tions clustered about so contracted a
space as this little balcony, to which,
tempted by the charming view it of
fers, so inanv pleasure-seeking tourists
climb. It was from this balcony that
Count Thurn caused the imperial coun
selors, Martinitz and Slawata, to bo
hurfed. Their full-length portraits
hang upon the wall of the gloomy
chamber but a few feet from the place
of their execution, and an obelisk
bearing their names marks the spot
below upon which they fell. This
outrage was the proximate cause, rf
not really the first act, of the Thirty
Years' War, which, after the then
average life of a generation, was ter
minated in 11520 on the White Hill.
Though it had ravaged Kurope, it was
terminated by a desperate struggle
on a tield less than a mile from and in
sight of the little balcony from which
Martinitz and Slawata were thrown.
The religious monuments of Prague
are also interesting. The Cathedral
to which 1 have alluded is in itself a
collection of such monuments, sonic of
which arc very instructive as to the
spirit of several periods during the last
five centuries ami a half. .Almost under
its shadow, but nearer the river, is the
old church of the Hussites, which was
erected by German merchants before
the expiration of tho century in which
lluss and Jerome had been burned.
And at but a short distance from this
church, upon the river bank, is the
Jew's Quarter, or Joseph stadt, with
its synagogues. The oldest of these,
erected in the thirteenth century, is an
architectural curiosity. Though quite
small, it bears traces of both Byzantine
and Gothic schools, and is, perhaps,
the only synagogue in the construction
of which the Gothic cross was ever
adopted. The worshipers in this ven
erable temple seem to have lived har
moniously with their Christian com
patriots. The flag presented to them
■ by Ferdinand 111., in 1 *>4B, in rccogni
, tion of the bravery displayed by the
, Jews during the siege of the city, still
, hangs in the midst of the synagogue.
, For an admirable description of the
I overcrowded Jewish cemetery I refdt
your readers to Bayard Taylor's "Views
[ Afoot," contenting myself with the
, remark that, although it is a century
since an interment was permitted
within its limits, it has not yet been
r divided into and sold as building lots,
3 as so many American cemeteries have
t OUR NATURALIZATION TREATIES.
But to turn to a more practical mat
■- ter, the naturalization treaties between
t Germany and the United States of
BUTLER, PA., WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1579.
America are, I find, attracting mu h
attention in diplomatic and consular
circles. The subject was several times
brought to my notice while nt Berlin,
as it has again been in this city, and
always with expressions of surprise
that Americans should demand their
revision, or consent to it if it can Ih>
avoided. These treaties are regarded
as the crowning work of Mr. Bancroft's
diplomatic career, and are referred to
as such by the resident Ministers who
were here when they were negotiated.
Alluding to this subject, one who had
been here during Bayard Taylor's brief
service declared his belief that Mr.
Taylor's illness was aggravated by
anxiety concerning several cases that
were pending under the treaties and
bv the seven- animadversions of Ameri
can papers on the very judicious advice
lit; hail given to some of our natural
ized citizens who were about to firing
themselves under the debatenble pro
visions of the treaties.
Another gentleman, referring to the
subject saitl: "There is probably no
diplomatic position in Europe so la
borious or so harrassing as that at
Berlin, and ou this very account. There
is a perpetual struggle to secure the
rights or to investigate the supposed
rights of naturalized American citixens
who have returned to their native
country. Much criticism was passed
in certain quarters against Mr. Bayard
Taylor for advice given by him to
returning naturalized American citi
zens. Never was criticisnunore unjust.
The fact is, that among the causes of
Mr. Taylor's premature death were his
anxiety and labor on these very cases.
Early aud late he toiled over them,
and the result was that the great ma
jority of the persons concerned were
released from German service."
I am free to confess that I had not
understood the importance of these
treaties ami of the service .Mr. Ban
croft had rendered his countrymen of
Germau birth in negotiating them, and
I feel that 1 cannot better appropriate
a portion of my space in the Tunes
than by stating some of their cardinal
stipulations and the questions that have
arisen under them.
THE HISTORY OF THEIR NEGOTIATION.
The treaties were negotiated ia
1808 with the German States as they
then existed. Bavaria appended to
hers a protocol which she volun
tarily agreed, should questions arise
shown hy experience to be doubtful,
to adopt that construction most favora
ble to the rights of American citizens.
The case is different with the Prus
sian treaty, the provisions of which
are subject to the strict laws of diplo
matic construction. The general term#
of the treaties are these: That any
native citizen of Germany who leaves
the country before being able to serve
in the army, who becomes, after a five
year's residence there, a naturalized
citizen of the United States, and who
then returns to Germany, shall l>e
regarded as an American citizen. As
such he shall be free for the space of
two years from all claims of the Gov
ernment to military service. If such
person remain longer than that time,
the Government may presume that he
has resumed his German citizenship
and may call upon him to do his mili
tary duty. It will be readily seen—if
many naturalized citizens return and
stay over the stipulated time—that
that word may will give rise to deli
cate questions. Events have shown
that it is impossible for the German
Government to overlook violations of
this stipulation or to grant the appeal
of our Minister in every case of which
he is obliged to take cognizance.
It is conceded, however, that in a
vast majority of cases returned natur
alized citizens have no trouble, and th<>
faet is pointed <>ut that while more than
10,000 such citizens are now residing
in Germany, yet the number seized
each year for unfulfilled military ser
vice averages less than thirty, and that
very few of these arrested are perma
lIOW THEY ARE ENFORCED.
It is also said, and with unqualified
truth—according to the statements of
representatives of Governments
residing here—that where there is good
faith in the action of the returned
American every possible concession is
made, and no disposition is shown to
apply the law strictly. On behalf of
the German Government it is urged
that there are many cases of this sort.
Young men leave Germany just in
time to escape the call to serve in the
army. They learn the English lan
guage, acquire American ideas of trade,
become naturalized and embark for
Germany often within the month in
which tliey acquire American citizen
ship. Such cases the Government is
compelled to scrutinize closely. The
neighbors of such young men—often
their former associates—justly com
plain that while they themselves are
discharging their duties to the Empire,
these young men who grew up with
them and until a few years ago lived
beside them, arc now free, under the
pretense of a:i American citizenship
which they do not exercise or intend
to exert-ise. It is this class of cases
which has given rise to most of the
difficulties under the treaty. The Ger
! man Government contends that these
men have not become naturalized
American citizens in spirit and intent,
but have assumed a pretended Ameri
can citizenship, by which they hope to
evade their duties both to Germany
and the United States. It is freely
admitted that mistakes have been
made by its subordinate officials who I
have claimed military service from
naturalized American citizens before
the expiration of the two years allowed
by the treaties, but it is asserted that
in every such case instant concessions
have been made on proof of the facts.
To those who insist that the United
States ought to maintain at all costs
the right of expatriation the Germans
reply that we have this right in all
bona fide cases; that the only excep
tions are where frauds upon both Gov
ernments are attempted as above de
I have alluded to this subject because
the ten years have expired in which,
by these terms, the treaty sliouhl not
fie subject to revision, and either party
eau now terminate them by giving one
year's notice. The attitude of the
German Government on the question ,
is this ; that while it does not propose j
to demand the termination of these J
treaties it has no objections to oiler
should the United States make the
demand. It is, however, not believed
in diplomatic circles that as favorable
terms would be granted by any future
treaty as those we now enjoy. The
general belief appears to be that,
should our Government net in the pre
mises, we should simply resume the
position we occupied prior to 1868,
when young naturalized Americans
returning to Germany were promptly
arrested aud harrassed in many ways,
if n>>t absolutely held i'w" military
service. They then had no treaty
rights, and their chance of esc.i|>e de
pended only upon the good will of the
Minister of Foreign Affairs. It appears
to me to state this case is to argue it.
Those who demand for jnTsonal or
party ends a termination of these
treaties, and propose that our Govern
ment should propound and attempt to
enforce the doctrine of the unlimited
right of expatriation, and that other
doctrine, incompatible therewith, that
he who is once a citizen is always a
citizen, would do well to ask themselves
whether we are masters of the situa
tion. To enforce these doctrines would
require an army of not less than 1,000.-
000 of men, whose battlefields would
lie on German soil, and an expenditure
of money and life such as practical
people would not incur for the sake of
enabling a few men to escape duties
due to the Government whose protec
tion they demand. W. I). K.
WHO WROTE THE DECLARA
TION OF INDEPENDENCE?
The following appeared a few days
ago in an eastern paper:
Mr. Editor: Slit—Like nearly all
the rest of mankind, you assume with
out question that Thomas Jefferson
wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Isut how weak is the evidence of his
claim. If his life had been shortened
only three years there would have
been no proof whatever that he was
the author of that unequalled pro
duction ; for not till he had passed his
eightieth year did he venture to say,
"I drew it."
In the early days of the republic
there were many who believed that
he did not write it; but for rea
sons which will presently appear, the
real author was unknown.
Six months before independence was
declared an anonymous pamphlet was
published, entitled "Common Sense."
Its success was unprecedented. The
copyright was assigned to the colonies
by the author, and not until several
editions were issued was it accredited
to Thomas Paine. In a literary point
of view it was one of the finest pro
ductions in the English language. But
the author was not an aspirant for lit
erary fame; his sole aim was the
achievement of American independence.
Paine was the bosom friend of
Franklin. They were both very se
cretive men, and Franklin, who had
induced Paine to come to America,
knew that he could trust him. Frank
lin was a member of the committee to
draft a declaration. The task was
assigned to Jefferson, and in a very
few days it was completed.
Now this is the way I conceive it
was done : Franklin handed to Jeffer
son a draft already prepared by Paine,
and assured him that he could trust
the writer never to lay claim to its
authorship. What could Jefferson do
but use it? It was far superior in
style to anything he could produce.
So with a few verbal changes he re
ported it, and it was adopted by the
Congress, after striking out several
passages more eloquent than any that
remain, as for instance, one about the
The adoption of this declaration
placed Jefferson in an embarrassing
position. Not daring to say outright
that he was the author, he studiously
evaded that point whenever it became
necessary to allude to the subject. Hut
at last, when Franklin had been dead
thirty-three years, Jefferson ventured
to claim what no man then disputed.
It would never have done for him to
name the real author, and who could
be harmed, he doubtless thought, by
taking the credit to himself? But the
science of criticism, like the spectrum
analysis which reveals the composition
of the stars, points unerringly to
Thomas Paine as the only man who
could indite that greatest of all literary
masterpieces, the Declaration of Ameri
can independence. W. H. B.
Washington, July 0.
John Wesley, the eminent theolo
gian, once was troubled in regard to
the disposition of the various sects and
the chances of each in reference to
future happiness or punishment. A
dream one night transported him in its
uncertain wanderings to the gates of
"Are there any Roman Catholics
here ?" asked thoughtful Wesley.
"Yes," was the reply.
"Yes," was again the answer.
"Any Congregationalists ?"
"Any Methodists?" by way of a
clincher, asked the pious Wesley.
"Yes," was the answer, to his great
In the mystic way of dreams a sud
den transition, ami ho stood at the
gates of heaven. Improving tho op
portunity he again inquired:
"Are there any Roman Catholics
"No," was the reply.
"Any Congregationalists ?"
"Well, then," he asked, lost in won
der, "who are they inside?"
"Christians!" 1 was the jubilant an
THE editor who credits a Bible quo
■ tation to "Unknown Exchange" tells
! the truth as far as he is concerned.
• —[Another Unknown Exchange.
"EMMISSARIES AMONG THE
The cry of "land agents" and "emis
saries"' among the colored people, seek
ing to entic.- them to Kansas and other
northern States, has been kept up
with persistency by the southern press.
The following vouched for statements
from Yazoo, Miss., illustrate who these
agents and emissaries are :
Yazoo county, Miss., is an over
whelmingly Republican county. But
the shotgun policy of the Democracy
made it go largely Democratic in late
elections. As the time approaches
for the fall election fof members of the
Legislature and county offices, b >th
parties are ral'ying their forces. This
time it is the Democratic party against
what is called the Independent party.
The latter is composed of the old Re
publican party and conservative Dem
ocrats who are willing to co-oi>erato
with the Republicans, colored and
white, to secure victory.
Ou the 25th of July Captain H. M.
Dixon, independent candidate for cherilf
iu Yazoo county, was waited on by a
committee representing a mob ol some
four hundred bulldozers, who had
gathered in the town of Yazoo, and
informed that he must either leave the
couuty or "take the consequences."
After some parleying the representa
tives of the bulldozers agreed to mod
ify the demand, so as to allow him to
remain iu the county if he withdrew
from the canvass. Importuned by his
wife and children not to put his life
in jeopardy, Captain Dixon finally
consented to give up his candidacy
and signed a card to that effect. Sub
sequently he was prevailed upon by
his white supporters to repudiate an
agreement signed under duress and to
announce that he was still a candidate
Ou the 19th of August Capt. Dixon
was shot down iu the streets of Yazoo
by a brutal bulldozer named Barksdale,
ami died on the same day. The shot
gun did its work quickly anil effect
ively. When the bulldozing commit
tee told Capt. Dixon that he must
withdraw from the canvass or "take
the consequences," he knew exactly
what was meant by "the conse
quences." He had been an active and
enterprising bulldozer himself, and was
perfectly familiar with the import of
the phrase. The bulldozers now say
that in the bloody campaign of
he instigated the killing of several
Republicans, while they credit him
with one murder committed with his
own hands. There is nothing to re
gret in the death of such a man, ex
cept that if iiis life had been spared
he might have done something toward
breaking down the cruel political des
potism which he helped to build up.
When the chief bulldozer of 1575
turned against his fellow-murderers
and conspirators there was hope that
his courage and his familiarity with
the shotgun tactics might be put to
good account in securing a fair election
in Yazoo county; but this expectation
has been cut short by his assassina
We can recall a dozen of murders
committed by .Mississippi bulldozers
during the campaign of l<S7f> which
were far more atrocious than the kill
ing of Capt. Dixon, but the Southern
agents of the Associated Press, by
constant, willful and persistent lying,
kept lip an impression that these homi
cides resulted from "personal difficul
ties" and "family feuds." It was dif
ficult for the Northern people to be
lieve that in every county in .Missis
sippi there was a body of armed con
spirators, whose business it was to kill
every Republican who refused to leave
the State after being warned to go "or
take the consequences," but such was
the fact. The murder of Senator Cald
well bv a mob was a far more cruel
and cowardly crime than the assassi
nation of Capt. Dixon, and yet if any
one will take the trouble to turn back
to the account of this affair, which
was telegraphed over the couutry and
published in all the daily newspapers,
lie will see Caldwell represented as a
most bloodthirsty and vicious man,
whom the good people of his county
were obliged to kill in self-defense.
It was during this period (lf<7. r >)
that the coarse and brutal phrase,
"bloodv shirt," was invented; and
while the Mississippi ruffians were
busily engaged in hunting down all
the Republican politicians with shot
guns, sympathizing Northern editors
kept up a lively fusilade of ridiculous
epithets, aimed at those who com
plained of this method of conducting
a political campaign. Capt. Dixon
rendered such conspicuous service to
the Democratic party with his shot
gun that, after the campaign was over
and the so-called "victory" had been
won, his admiring fellow-citizens pre
sented him with a silver pitcher, on
which was engraved the inscription :
The Bravest of the Brave,
Captain Henry M. Dixon.
Presented I" him by !;it< Democratic fellow
citizeni of Yazoo county, an an humble testi
monial of their high appreciation of his bril
liant service* in the redemption of the county
from Radical rule in 1870.
It is one of the peculiar characteris
tics of the average Southerner that he
is totally destitute of the sense of
humor. The agents of the Associated
Press in Mississippi, Louisiana, Ala
bama and South Carolina have certain
haekueyed phrases which they always
use when reporting an atrocious mur
der or massacre in which the victims
are Republicans. If the circumstances
will not permit a direct misrepresenta
tion, so as to give the crime the color
of a meritorious act, then the dispatch
invariably winds up with the comfort
ing assurance that "the best citizens
deplore the occurrence." Where only
a few people are engaged in the assas
sination of a political opponent, then
the homicide proceeds from a "personal
difficulty and had no connection with
polities." These stereotyped phrases
provoke a smile of derision throughout
the whole North whenever they ap
pear in the newspapers, but the men
who write these dispatches are utterly
unconscious <>f their absurdity. Ibe
dispatch from Jackson announcing the
killing of Captain Dixon concluded
thus: "The difficulty is represented as
or a personal nature by liarksdalc s
friends." No mention whatever was
nuule of the fact that Dixon was the
independent candidate for sheriff, who
had refused to retire from the canvass
at the demand of a mob of bulldozers
and took "the consequences."
Concerning this outrageous pro
ceeding the South irr.<lern Gh rulian
Advocate of New Orleans remarks
that it has only two things to say:
1. Politically, it shows the temper
and spirit of the Bourbon White
Ijeague politicians of the South, and
what little hope of protection the col
ored people and their fricndp>>4»jvc
from that source, whenever it fair eke -
tion would elect a colored nrUPpr otic
of his friends.
2. Here is a positive case of "Kan
sas land agents and emissaries among
the colored people of Mississippi."
Our own paper, Bro. Haygood's paper
of Georgia, and all the Southern re
ligious press, following the wake of
the Bourbon political secular press,
have IK'CII saying that the exodus was
being helped on by "land agents,"
"emissaries," etc. We have thought
they w. rf- mistaken—and are yet sure
that the kiud of emissaries they have
IHHMI talklnc about are a myth—but
now we surrender. Here are "agents"
and "emissaries" sure enough. Just
such as these are the real authors of
the cry "to Kansas," that now threat
ens financial ruination to large sections
of the South by sending its labor
TOMATOES AS FOOD.
Tomatoes contain neither cancers
nor cancer-producillg matter. Cancers
are composed of animal matter, not
vegetable, and therefore cannot lie di
rectly derived from tho vegetable king
dom. Tomatoes are not without some
defects as nn article of food. They
arc not, like milk, a perfect diet of
themselves, and, besides like most
other articles of food, they contain
some obnoxious qualities. But they
need not be thrown aside on that ac
count. Nature has provided us with
sufficient excretory organs, that ob
noxious matter in our food, it in inod
< rate amount, is readily cast out and
the body is protected against any ma
terial injury; were it not so we should
be obliged to throw out of our dietary
many kinds of food now eaten not
only with impunity but advantage.
Thus red cabbage, cherries and peaches
contain I'russic acid, which is a deadly
poison when taken in sufficient quan
tity. The very small amount of the
poisoning acid these vegetables contain
is cast out of the system without any
material injury to the person using
them. A positive good may actually
lie derived from the use of food con
taining some such foreign matter by
way of increased activity and strength
to the excretory organs from their ex
ercise in casting such foreign matter
from our bodies, provided the quantity
is not so great as to overburden them.
Since we are all the time liable to take
in our food substances, the tendency of
which is harmful, a development of
efficiency in our excretory organs is
necessary to protect us against the
pernicious effect which might other
wise occur. Almost every kind of
grain and fruit in use contains more or
less of things, which, if in larger i
amounts, would prove hurtful. Unless !
we closely study our food, we are
taking tlieni in when we little suspect
it. A Frenchman, not many years
ago, discovered a substance in wheat
bran which, under the high heat used
in baking, dissolved out and spread
over the crumbs of bread, of which
bran forms a part, and discolored it,
and hence the brown stain peculiar to
Graham bread. But from this discov
ery such bread lias not been rejected,
but continues to be accounted among
the most wholesome kinds of food.
Bye is seldom used without containing
more or less ergot, but rye bread is
also reckoned among the most healthful.
Tea contains tannic acid, apples con
tain malic acid, lemons and oranges
citric acid, neither of which is used
either in nutrition or respiration, but
they only become objectionable when
Tomatoes, in common with most
other fruits, contain sonic poisonous
matter. They ami the -egg-pant,
Jerusalem cherry, bitter-sweet, deadly
night shade, and the common potato
plant, all belong to the same genus—
Kolanum—the fruit of every species of
which is more or less poisonous, but
none of them very much so. The
fruit of the deadly night shade and of
the potato (potato balls) are probably
the most poisonous. But even these
are not very hurtful. The smaller
amount contained in tomatoes allows
of their being classed with the esculent
fruits, but there is nevertheless enough
to give them a peculiar flavor not apt
to lie relished by unaccustomed palates,
but which use soon renders agreeable.
Used very largely, tomatoes would
doubtless develop specific results pecu
liar to the fruit of the genus to which
they belong, especially with feeble
persons and those who, from their
peculiar constitution are susceptible to
such influences. But when moderately
used by persons in fair health, there is
no more reason for rejecting them than
there would be in rejecting lettuce for
the opium it contains.
Pie plant stands in similar relations.
Its prominent characteristic and flavor
are the result of oxalic acid, which is
a powerful poison. For persons not
having sufficient vigor to dispose of
such a strong acid, and for those in
whose systems there is already an
excess of acid, such highly acid food
would bo objectionable. But its mod
erate use by people in common health
is no more objectionable than any
other acids in daily use, and regarded
as healthful. _
Tins idea of the biggest head know
ing the most is all nonsense. The
mastodon had the biggest head of his
time, and yet he didn't know enough
to go into the ark out of the rain and
lie saved. The mosquito, with scarcely
any head at all, was wiser.— Xorri.f
AMONG the novel applications of
glass is the invention of Hamilton L.
Bucknill, of England, who has re
cently patented in this country a rail
way sleekier made of cast glass.
Ono r«]ntrf, otto i«ert!«>u. f 1 . earh -«ul*-e
--qn-nf ii*'« :tt« ti.so cent* Yctrly %.I\rrtue :m-|£gt-
ciio-foouh of a column. $5 p« r hielk.
' i't.. uio "%x*r«k Joal !• tMct;
where weekly or monthly rlitucw are
aad'» I/ieil a lvcrti»~« ment# 10 ori»r« per I.na
for fir>t insertion, am! 5 cent.* |x r bin* for each
\>i hLonal mrertion. and deaths i»«L
--!;-!.»ti free f c:. *.*>;«». Obilunrj uctico* charge*!
xn advert «4>taei:tn, vidt4} a ftb!o when 1 a: Mod In
Vad:iot>'>. »•. e*. ft; i.xecutoni' and Atlmziiis
rratorV Nt* $3 each; E*tray. C-uttiou ai.<4
Duwjolation Notices, not g IS
From the fart that the "
•' '<f ■diiil) (a llf 'iiV
iican county > it mu-t f- * tflrife|pmi*«t«i
lAi-u that it i« tl:e tne«limu th« HwMm u«e m
a*i\ertu*tii£ their huoini ~
■ ■* ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ mw—o—Bnata—M
THE "DARK HORSE."
MARK TWAIN AS ♦«U MI NO CANDI
DATE EoU TILL VFCSSIDENCY.
I have pretty much made up iny
mind to run fur President. , What the
(M-opli w:iiit is a man who cannot Imi
injured by investigation ot his post
history, so that enemies of the party
will not lie able to rakd #j> jyj.iinst
lii.ii things that nobody ovo"r M«rd of
before. If you know the worst about
a candidate, to begin with, every at
tempt to spring things on him will bo
checkmated. Now 1 am point? to
enter upon the field with an open rec
ord. 1 am going to own up in ad
vance to nil the wickedness I have
done, and if any Congressional Com
mittee is disposed to prowl around mv
biography, in the hope of finding any
dariug and deadly deed which I have
secreted, why let it prowl.
In the first place 1 admit that I did
freeze a rheumatic grandfather of
mine in the winter of 1855). He was
old and inexpert at climbing trees.
Hut with a hear'less brutality that is
characteristic of me, I ran him out of
the front door in his night shirt at the
point of a shot pun, and caused him to
bowl up a maple tree, where he re
mained a!l night, while I emptied shot
in his legs. I did this because he
snored. 1 will do it again if I have
another grandfather. I am as inhu
man as I was in '59. No rheumatic
jtcrson shall snore in my house.
I candidly acknowledge that I ran
away at the battle of Gettysburg.
My. friends have tri«d to smooth
this fact by the assertion that I
merely got behind a tree, that I did
so for the purpose of imitating Wash
ington, who went into the woods at
at Valley Forge to say his prayers.
It was a miserable subterfuge. I
struck out in a straight lino for the
Tropic of Cancer simply because I was
scared! I wanted my country saved,
but 1 wanted some one else to savo
her. I entertain that idea yet. If the
bubble of reputation can be obtained
only at the cannon's mouth, I am
willing to go there for it, provided
the cannon is empty. If it is loaded,
my immortal and inflexible purpose is
to get over the fence and go home.
My invariable purpose in the war has
been to bring two-thirds more men
out than I took in. This seems to
me to lie Napoleonic in its grandeur.
My financial views are of the most
decided character, but they are not
likely, perhaps, to increase my popu
larity with advocates of inflation or
contraction. 1 do not insist upon
special supremacy of or rag money. The
great fundamental principle of my life
is to take any kind I can get.
The rumor that I buried a dead aunt
! under a grapevine is founded upon
fact. The vine needed fertilizing, my
aunt had to be liuried and I dedicated
her to that purpose. Hoes that unfit
mc for the Presidency ? The Con
stitution of our country does not say
so. No other citizen was considered
unworthy of office because he enriched
his grapevine with his relations.
Why should 1 be selected as the first
victim of an absurd prejudice?
1 admit, also, that I am not the
friend of the poor man. I regard the
poor man, in his present condition, as
so much wasted raw material. Cut
up and properly canned, he might lie
made useful to fatten the natives of
the Cannibal Islands, and improve our
exports in that region. I shall rec
ommend legislation upon the subject
in my first message. My campaign
cry will be to dessicate the poor work
woman. Stuff him into sausages!
Those are about the worst parts of
my record. On them I come liefore
the country. If my country don't
want me, / will go back again. Hut
/ commend myself as a safe man—a
man who starts from the basis of social
depravity, and proposes to be fiendish
to the last.
ALL small boys have been duly in
formed by their fond parents that
George Washington was a good child.
Benedict Arnold, on the other hand,
the Mr noir of the American Revolu
tion, began his badness at an early
age. Robbing birds' nests, maiming
and mangling young birds to draw
forth cries from the old ones, vexing
children and calling them hard names
and even beating them were, as his
tory gravely tells us, the frequent, if
not daily, pastimes of his youth, 110
beat the British out of $20,5(14.G0, for
which sum he undertook to sell his
country, I>ut could not deliver tho
goods. In these centennial times it is
well to revive these reminiscences for
the benefit of the rising generation.
SOME one has said, evidently with
out weighing the words, that "it takes
a man with a strong imagination to
fall in love with a homely woman."
There are men (and their good senso
is commendable) who look for beauty
of soul rather than beauty of feature
when searching for a life partner.
Many men—alas! too many—havo
bartered the happiness of a lifetime
for a pretty face or a fine figure, only
to find the prize they coveted turn to
a thorn in their bosom. That must bo
a diseased mind which can entertain a
sentiment like that contained in tho
sentence quoted above. To such wo
commend Shakspeare's story of Portia
and the three caskets.
THEY had an amateur band at a fu
neral a while ago, and when they had
squelched out the "Sweet By-aud-By"
at the grave side, tho minister in his
address said that "the deceased was in
one respect most fortunate in being
called thus early." That was all ho
said, but the mourners grinned, and
the amateurs think that "blamed sar
casm was infernally cut of place at a
funeral you know."
"WHAT killed Cleopatra ?" asked
the professor. "Tho bite of a hasp,"
said the boy from Liverpool. "Land!"
exclaimed another boy, "what if sho
had sot down on the staple?"
I'RKFINO and blowing are often con
sidered synonymous terms. You will
discover a difference, however, if in
stead of pulling a man up you should
blow hint up.