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? LTHOUGH 1898 will take its]
/ \ place among the memorable
/ \ years of this qra by reason of
<* ^ tho important occurrences the
Vrorld over, the interest of
American readers Is centered In the'
great drama of the Spanish war, which
spread Itself over the whole span of 1'-'
The closing events of 1897 In tho Span?
ish-American situation Rll indicated
tho pacification of Cuba and the re?
moval of the strain between tho United
Slates and Spain. The elevation of S.i
gusta to the otllcc of prime minister
was followed by the recall of Weylcr
ttnd the appointment of Blanco as cap?
tain and governor general of Cuba. The
reeling of the Spanish popukicc in Cuba
wns very hitter against the Americans!
on account of the tone of President Me- I
Kinley's messnge, which reflected se?
verely upon Weyler's administration
and took a favoruble view of Elanco's
Plans of reform.
In view of the demonstrations In Ha?
vana, the Atlantic squadron was placed
in readiness and early In January ren?
dezvoused off Key West. Captain Sign
bee of the Maine was in constant rom
munlcntiou with Consul General FUz
11 ugh Bee at Havana. On the night
of Jan. 21, in consequence of a commu?
nication received from General Lee,
Captain Slgsbee was ordered to proceed
ot one'e to Hnvann on a friendly visit,
lie reached the harbor of Havana on
'he 2!>ih and wns received with the cus?
tomary ceremonies of a vessel visiting
a foreign port.
??Ii the lust Sunday in January Cap?
tain Slgsbee, General Bee and other
United states ofllccru accompanied
s.c of ihc Spanish ofllclals to ;i bull?
fight outside thi city, and on their re?
turn the famous circular ending with
the frdhtlo uppeals, "Death to the
Americans!'' "Death in uutonomy!"
? Long live Spain!" "Dong live Wcyler!"
wn:< thrust lnt') Captain Sigsbec's hand.
He i- :ul it, hut attached no importance
to it hatevcr.
Early in February captain Slgsbee
made :i special effort to entertain the
Spanish people or, board the Maine, but
without success. The captain and his
olllcers visited the city frequently, and
to all appearances Hnvann was as or?
derly as nny city in the most peaceful
times. Tho political air, however, was
not ilear. On the 7th of February the
famous or lather Infamous Do Lome
letter was made public. In this letter
Sonor de Lome, the Spanish minister to
the United States, referred contemptu?
ously In President McKinley. Sonor de
Lome confessed that ho had written it
and resigned. On the nth of the month
Senor Polo y Bernabp took the portfolio
as Spanish minister in place of De
On the next night the battleship
Maine was blown up at her moorings
in the harbor of Havana, nnd 266 of
the ollieers and rrow lost their lives In
consequence. The conclusion was reach?
ed at once by Americans that the de?
struction of the Maine was due to Span?
Meanwhile the humanitarian aspect
of the situation in Cuba, which all
? along had kept alive the sympathies of
the American people with tho struggling
insurgents, had not been lost sight of.
On the 11th of Februnry the house and
senate both voted, without a dissenting
voice, resolutions calling upon the sec?
retary of state for full Information re?
garding the condition of the reconcen
trados in Cuba and the progress of au?
tonomy. It was well known that the
department of state wns in possession
of Information supplied by the United
States consuls In Cuba of the most har?
rowing description respecting the wide?
spread distress throughout the Island.
Two days later the house passed the
fortifications appropriation bill, 'and in
tho last week of the month passed a bill
providing for an increase of the regular
army by two additional regiments of
The De Dome Incident having been
wholly ignored by the Spanish govern?
ment and the destruction of the Maine
being held, diplomatically at leant, as
an accident, these two events did not
Bcrve to tighten the tension between
the government at Madrid and that at
Washington. Other occurrences, how?
ever, did add materially to the strain.
Early in March tho Spaniards object?
ed to the transport of supplies for the
starving reconcentrados in government
warships and at the same time asked
that General Dec be replaced as consul
general to Cuba.
Spain's great warship, the Vizcaya,
which left New York the latter part
of Februnry, lay at Havana, and it was
known that other warships were on
their way from Spain to that port,
while the Spanish fleet of torpedo boats
v/ps being prepared to be transferred to
Cuban waters. The United States gov?
ernment frankly Informed Spain thnt
General Dec would not no recalled, but
agreed to send relief supplies to Cuba
In other vessels than armed warships.
Spain's activity In buying warships 1^
European shipyards was an Important
Item of news confirmed In the early
part of the month. On the 10th tho
house unanimously voted to place $50,
000,000 at the unqualified disposal of
President McKinley as an emergency
fund for national ;derenso. The very
ao/.f day the senate unammouuly puss
ed the measure. On the 16th ot the
month the mystery surrounding the
sufferings of the native inhabitants of
Cuba in consequence of the reconccn
tratlon orders was effectually cleared
up by the evidence of Senator Proctor
of Vermont before the senate committee
on foreign affairs. Senator Proctor had
visited Cuba on Iiis own responsibility,
and the trend of his testimony was to
the effect that the worst had not be-, n
told even in the highly embellished ac?
counts that had appeared from time to
time in various publications. His story
made a profound impression in Wash?
ington nml upon the country lit large
and seemed to give America full Jus?
tification for Interference to stop the
war in Cuba as a measure of humanity.
The month closed with the feeling al?
most universal throughout the country
that war was Inevitable and could not
lie long delayed irrespective of the De
Dome incident and tho explosion of the
Maine, whether accidental or otherwise.
On the 2Sth the verdict of the Maine
CC?rt of inquiry to tho effect that tho
Maine's destruction wns due to an out?
side explosion was communicated' to
the Spanish government by President
McKinley and three days later made
Almost every day in April had its de?
velopments in the matter of the war
with Spain. On tho 2d of tho month
President McKinley held a council with
the secretary of the treasury and ways
and means committee on war revenue
measures. On the 4th the navy depart?
ment ordered 1 lie purchase of ten aux?
iliary cruisers, and next day Consul
General Lee was ordered to return from
Havana, which ho did four days later
in company with all the American con?
suls in Cuba. On the 7th of April Sonor
Gullon, Spanish foreign minister, noti?
fied the powers that Spain had reached
the "limit of International policy In the
direction of conceding the demands and
allowing the pretensions of the I'nited
Staies." Tho tame day the represent?
atives in Washington of Great Britain,
Prance, Germany, Itussla and Italy
presented a joint note to the president
expressing the hope that peace with
Spain might bo preserved. In reply to
tho note the president emphatically
Htated thnt the war in Cuba' must cease.
On the 12th of April Consul General
Lee declared before tho senate commit?
tee on foreign relations that Spanish
officials in Havana knew of the plot to
blow up the Maine. This statement of
General Lee's added to the public ex?
citement. Orders were. Issued on tho
15th to concentrate all the regular^rmy
of the .United SUtc6.AL.riv-. ctiif corta
I and In Chickamauga park; The same'
' day the government chartered the j
I Amerlcnn line steamers St. I.ouis, St.:
! Paul and New York for auxiliary!
; ltesolutlons and dlscusr-ions In con?
gress culminated on the 19th In a set of
j resolutions directing the president to in- !
terfere In Cuba. These resolutions'wote
I signed by the president on the 12th, and
I an ultimatum T\ ns sent to Spain demand- ?
1 ing that her land and naval forces with- '
I draw from Cuba and requiring an an- !
j swer before noon on April 23. As r-oon '
as the Spanish minister learned that j
j the president had signed the resolutions '
he requested and received his .passport.'
The same day the queen regent read a
warlike speech from the throne. On
the 21st Spain virtually declared war
by notifying United sts/es Minister
Woodford that diploiiu Jtic relations
with the United States w^re at an end.
This was before General "Woodford
could deliver the president's ultimatum,
whleh had been cabled ib him In Ens
Hsh and communicated Jo the Spanish
government in advance, /President Mc?
Kinley promptly declarer! a blockade at
Havana and- ordered F/prtPBon's fleet to
sail from Key West '
war had been liofrun i
overt act of Spain, rg
sustained by Knglunjf
tlon of neutrality. \
I the president cullot
; toor troopn. The f ?jt
: was the capture of <jJ
; Buena Ventura o.T&j
? cd State? Kunboni?^1
days !atc-rr /Admlijg
jtttnzw*. if tan-.v
I declared that
h the 21st by the
d th::t view was
In her prootama
the Utti of Aprd
for l^.OOO volun
t' of the wor
fj Spanish steamer
ia by the Unlt
forta at Ma?
active, having- called out SO.000 reserves
on April 21, and on the 28th Oervera's
squadron sailed from Cape Verde pre?
sumably for American waters.
On May 1 tho Interest In the war was ,
transferred from our very doors to the
other side of the globe, where Commo?
dore Dewey, with the Asiatic squadron,
destroyed the Spunish naval force
guarding the Philippines by a brilliant
action in the harbor of Manila. On the
American side six men were slightly
wounded and none killed. The Spanish
loss reported was two commanders and
.'00 to 600 men killed or wounded. The ;
Spanish fought with bravery, i>ut lack?
ed coolness and skill. Immediately aft?
er the battle Commodore Dewey cut th?
cable, and It was many days before ofil
< iul reiiorts of the engagement were re- .
celved at Washington.
Nearly the whole of May had pas ' 1
before any definite steps were taken to
re-enforce Dewey. First 6.000. than ltf.000,
then 15.000 and finally SO.OuO nun were
assigned to nn expedition linder the
command of General Wesley Merrltt.
On the 22 d several thousand of these
troops embarked for Manila. Spain
also'm.ule an attempt to recover ground
In the Philippines, and there were
strong Intimations that European pow?
ers might take an active hand in the
affair. It wsia at this lime that the much
talked about Anglo-American alliance
sprung into being. If being it actually
had. U is now generally accepted that
England threw h-r Influence in the
scale. In favcr of America and the pro
ejected Interference by European powers
bombardment of Sah Juan, Porto P,tco. j
j by Sampson's warships, the affair at
.Cardenas, Cuba, whcty the Hist Uhlt
cd States officer in the war felt?Kn
sign Uagley of the torpedo bout Wins
low?and the arrival of Cervera's
squadron at Martinique. This last wns
considered by naval strategists a brll-l
Hani move In itself, btit one likely to.
end in disaster because of the lack of
coal and other naval supplies for Span
ish vessels On this side of the water, the
I Spanish ports in the Caribbean sea be- (
, lue; blockaded by American ships. Cor
vera's licet was discovered tit Santiago,
'harbor on the 19th of May, and on the
31st Commodore Schley engaged th*
forts at the entrance of the channel In
a duel. On the 2f>th of the month the
president mnde the second call for vol?
unteers, asking for TC.i'OO additional
In June the land and naval foices
combined carried the war Into Cul>a.
T.he month opened with the brilliant ex?
ploit of Lieutenant Richmond l-'oarson
Hobson, who sank the collier Merrlmac
In the main channel of Santiago harbor
for the**pt;ipQft? of bottling lip t'eryera's
lleet. The navy in strong force was off
the sobtli co.ist of the island an''; block?
aded the principal ports. Six hundred
marines, in command of Colonel Hunt?
ington, landed at ttuantanamo bay.
east of Santiago, and hoisted the stars
and stripes on Cuban soil. This lund?
in:r was made on the 10th, and r.n th?>
ltth the Spanish mad*} an attack on
Colone! HuntliiRtoti's farce. killing thrtji
marliKH and also Jojia Jllnlr (ilofcs,
tanamo bay the first formidable ex?
pedition to Cuba called from Tampa for
Santiago. The force consisted of about
16,000 troops, comprising the Fifth army
corps, under Major General William ft.
Sbnfter. Sampson had Informed the ad?
ministration that a land force of about
10,000 men could enslly capture Santia?
go and force Cervera to come cut and
light or destroy his ships. Shafter's in?
structions were to lund within a speci?
fied distance of Santiago and in co?
operation with the navy get into a po?
sition on the heights around Santiago,
capture the place and assist in destroy?
ing Cervera's llo<.-t. The first landing of
the expedition was made at Daiquiri on
the 22d of June. By the 25th the troops
of the corps were all on shore. On the
fc-ltb the first action between the land
forces and the Spaniards took place at
l-.is Guaslmas. The American troops
engaged consisted of General Young's
brigade of dismounted cavalry, lnclud
Ing .'.bout 600 Hough Riders under com-,
mand of Colonel Wood. This much talk?
ed of affair was simply ft skirmish, but
1! had important results In bringing the
van guards of the corps into position at
Sevilla. The troops were concentrated
there and on the 23th started forward
for tho attack on Santiago.
Desperate fighting began early on the
morning of the 1st of July, Shafter di?
recting his corps in tifco columns for a
combined attack upon the Spanish po
i sitions at El Cuney and San Juan ridge.
i The attack at El Cnney was delivered
first but failed In its immediate object.
I The divisions of Uencr'ola Kent and
' Wheeler, In front of San Juan ridge,
after crossing the San Juan river under
a heavy and disastrous tire,, carried the
: iidge. getting a position overlooking tho
j city of Santiago. Subsequently El Ca
ney was captured by Lawtott's division,
? and the entire corps on July 2 concen?
trated on and behind San Juan ridge.
i from which, a counter assault by tbo
Spaniards failed to. drive it.
i Early cn the morning of tho 3d Gen
eral shafter demanded tho surrender of
Santiago. Before! the negotiations had
culminated Cervera's fleet had left
the harbor and had been destroyed by
Sampson's war vessels under tho im?
mediate command of Commodore
! General Linares, tho commander of
I the Spanish forces at Santiago, having
j been wounded during thi attack of July
'2. had been succeeded by General Tonil.
I Who agreod to consider tha proposition
J to surrender, ond.a truce was declared
. from O.'.y to day u.ml tho 10th. On. that
wa'.iM, ti-,^',?i>uVj.rda botng ?aeining7<?.
I bent uport delay, Gen rM Shatter or
! dered a bombardment, wnlch ttsa Con
! eluded on the Jltli. A wet* was spent
In further negotiation!, GVtaral Hiles,
commanding the Unit id States army,
being present part of he tlaw, and on
the 171U the surrende? Was completed
and the American flag hclsted over the
governor's palace at Santiago. On Jury
25 General Miles landed with tat armed
expedition In Porto Rjco, and the sam?
day General Merritt, commander ot the
expedition to tho Philippines, reached
Manila. On the 31st of July the Span
i lards were repulsed In an attack upon
the- American lluOS at MQaie, and the
month closed with atrctg Indications
that the victories scored *y th* Ameri?
cans thus far would result In peace.
In August the problein of peace was
virtually settled by agteement between
the belligerents, brougit about through
the friendly offices of France. Peace
proposals were already/ made on July
26 by Spain through, tlfr French mlnts
-ttrn-M7-Cambon; On- ?ie-38th the-preer= -
ident gave Minister (jtmbon a state?
ment of his views on'.;lhe question ot
peace, citing terms stiiatantially those
contained in the lu^vxtf of August.
On the 2d of^iitfJst'tte terms com?
municated to !, linir.W .Cambon were
publicly announced? an| ?a the 7th they
wero accepted &$'&aand. On the 9th
Sptitn's reply v\fiJkWsk*& 1?' Minister
Cambon and tlf/jBrolijol drafted and
signed by that/ollJsistba the pnr^, of
Spain and Secretary Drtjjjfor the United
States. Th:s p/otoccl required Spain to
relinquish all *>verelsat} over Cuba, to
cede Porto TtlfO anci ottjr Spanish Is?
lands in tho Yfest Iadfti as well as one
of tho Ladro?cs to tltf Jcited States;
that Cuba, I'Jrto ruoo jud other Span?
ish Islands inltho We?t A dies be imme?
diately evacuated bySpC i and that the
United State* hold ande cupy the city,
bay and harbor of Mahifi pending the
conclusion of resty.pf peace. Tho
TuTT-f ih(" \i^m^\Ts'iWrr^f*?rt^r?^?"
to tholUnited StatiP forced after a bom?
bardment, followed by an ariny attack!
upon ttt? trenches.^ .1_u_
During September the military com?
missions to arrange for the Immediate
evacuation of the islands to the "West
Indies were appointed by both govern?
ments, ns were also the commissioners
to meet in Paris to treat for peace. The
protocol called fcr five commissioners
from each country to meet In Pari? not
later than Oct. 1. The American com?
mission was completed on the 9th of
September, and it consisted of Senators
Gray of Delaware, Frye of Maine and
Davis of Minnesota, ex-Secretary ot
Stnto W. R. Dajr and "Waltclaw Reld.
They sailed for Paris on the 17th ot tha
Several separate sessions of the Amer?
ican and Spanish peace commissioners
wore held at .Paris during the closing
days of September and on the 1st of Oc?
tober tho first joint conference was
held._ v _?
On tho 18th of^the month the military?
occupation of Porto Rico by the Ameri?
can forces wasffcompleted by the rais?
ins over the public buildings of San
Junn of the American flag. On the 21th
of tho month iho evacuation by the
Spanish was completed, the last Span?
ish troops sailing that day for home.
The mont'x opened with the loss of the
Spanish cruIae? Infanta Maria Teresa,
which was abandoned at sea while en
route to the TJhfteJ States Nov. 1 and
which was later abandoned on Cat is?
land, where slv> had gone ashore.
During November the military occu?
pation of Cuba: outside of the conquer?
ed province of Santiago, was begun, and
the peace negotiations progressed fa?
vorably to the} Onlted States. On tho
2lst of the month the American peace
commissioners announced to the Span?
ish that the United States would de?
mand a treaty of cession of the entlra
Philippine archipelago upon tho pay?
ment to Spain of SlO.OOO.OOi). To this de?
maud the commissioners on the 23th of
the month assented, not, however, with*
out considerable parley and a protest. ,
Tho first American troops landed In [
Havana on the ?5tb, and on the
Marshal Blanco, having laid down h?T'
office of captain and governor general, *
sailed tor Spain,
December is memorable as the montH
In which the Bpanlsh-Aiaerlcan treaty
was actually concluded,-? On the 10th
of the month the treaty was signed at
Paris, giving to the United State?, with
slight variations, all that hed been de?
manded In the protocol signed In Au?
gust. A dramatic Interest was given to
-the concluding Incidents of the war by
the first parade on the ICth of tho
month of the United States trcopa In
the streets of Havana ThiJ they did
with bands] playing and colors flying,
and on the t ay following General Cnlix
, to Garcia, die of the foremost so'.Uiar*
! of tho Cuban insurgent army and a
I statesman weft, died In the- city o?
Washington, Wliera lie was a.t honored
guest and also tne official commissioner
of Um Cab?n trembly to negotiate -n
tho Amerlcin capital the affairs of his
people. Dtr. 13 Major Oeueral RrocJc*
was nmde feovernor of Cub*, an4 or,
tho 16th Ulneral 1-ce returned to Ha.
vnna a?;i*ofernor i>f Havana >> ?vinc?.
t r>flf? .i.KKNNETH Gi'.MS?L k,