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Virginian-pilot. (Norfolk, Va.) 1898-1911, February 12, 1899, Image 9

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Some Facts About a Little Known but Important Island
of the Philippine Group and Its
Principal City.
(Copyright. 1899.)
Rudyard Kipling has said that the
East Is too old to sit at the feet of the
Anglo-Saxon.
It Is one of life's little Ironies that
the fortune of war should Hing at the
feet of the world's youngest republic
the very jewel of that mystical ISnst.
But while It took Dewcy's gun a very
short time to knock Kipling's epigram
in the he.nl our newly acquired pearl
of the Orient is not shaking off her old
world shackles without a struggle or
two. The activity of the ambitious
Aguinaldo's Filipinos anil the events
that have been taking place in and
about Hollo have reawakened interest
In the Philippines island.;. American
eyes are once more turned toward that
remote quarter of the globe, and Amer?
ican statesmen at e beginning to inquire
more closely into the character <>f the
new peoples that Columbia has been
forced to take under her wing.
It Is not generally known that the
Philippines were discovered by Fernan?
do Malliaens, or as he is usually call?
ed, .Magellan, just 20 years alter Co
Iambus lirsl set foot on the new world.
Magellan landed at Jomonjol. near
M?lhon, an inlet ?f the strait of Su'rl
gao. between Samar and Dlnagal, In
March, 1621. He christened th ? islands
tho St. Lazarus islands, and one month '
after landing was murdered l>y natives
on the island of Mactan, oft th ? c ?ast
of Zehn. But long before this, Arabian
seamen had established cotnnrini'\it.on
with the Islands, sailing H1...1 the shores
of India across the Bay of Bengal.
Hollo, which Is at present the cyno?
sure of all eyes, b< the capital Of the
Island of Panay, and until recently was
the political capital of the entire Phil?
ippine Islands. Panay Itself i.- th ?
fourth largest of this archipelago -;f
some 1,200 islands, being ab eai on. -half
the size of the State of New Jcnaey. It
lie** at the extreme limit of the la! ?
Spanish dominions. Next to Manila
Hollo is the most Important tap >rl Of
the archipelago. In fact, I: was a: one?
time a danger uts rival of Man ".a. it?
self, and though the latter put haa
forged greatly ahead of the Phnay town
Hollo is slowly but st.?add;, gr living in
commercial im port a nee.
Spanish administration, however, foi
years has net a very definite limit to
tho extent of its possible devel ipment.
There is a pr< verb in the Philippines
Which says the church lives bit the na?
tive* ai d the officers I've off the mer
cants. The Spanish collector of cus
tolr.0 at Manila, for instance, during
the year 1876 put down in his own
purse SS2.000 collected in petty lines and
The island of Panay, while perhaps
not so pleasant as Luzon, has an ex?
tremely rieh -oil and luxuriant veg?
etation. The island Is bisected by a rug?
ged mountain range, which gives the
country a wilder and ruder aspect than
that of Luzon. The Tanay mountain
slopes are covered with magnificent
forest growths, ami much of the island
still remains unexplored, indeed is Inac?
cessible to white travelers. The island
has a number of lakes and very many
small streams. The result is that
marshes and malaria are disagreeably
abundant. In fact, the city of Hollo it?
self is built upon the bed of an ancient
marsh near the southeastern end of the
Island, on a shallow arm of the s-m, and
is Consequently neither beautiful to be?
hold nor healthful to dwell in. It lies at
the mouth of a Blugglsh river, and al
! though the climate does not agree with
Americans or Europeans, there are
some forty foreigners engaged in busi?
ness at Hollo. Amen? the foreigners Is
a little English colony, representing
European business houses. As an K.ng
llshman always stli ks to his own deep
rooted prejudices and habits, there is a
very good little elubhouse in the city;
also a tennis club, a plentiful suonly
of Scotch whiskey ami enough social
life to make exist< nee endurabl ? in
such mi uncongenial locality and im
healthfu) climate.
The majority of these Englishmen
are transferred every few years, when
they become so run down that a change i
of cHamtc becomes necessary. They]
nil- mostly young men and are glad I
enough to go home and get a glimpse of i
real life once more. The great busi?
ness houses of the east, in order to
keep these young men in their places,
which are universally unhenlthful, add
a certain per c nt i > the salary of their
employes, according to the unhchlth
fulness of the place ami the man's
chances of life. I; is a significant tact
that all agents nt llollo are pakl a very
handsome extra stir-end.
There was u time when a great pro?
portion of the trade <>r Hollo was In the
hands 11r Americans. Hut one of the
salient characteristics in times past of
the American merchant in the east has
been the tendency to speculate. These
merchants were In the habit of ship?
ping great cargoes of hemp and sugar
front the Philippines unsold, and on
many of those cargoes they eventually
lost thousands and thousands of dol?
lars. The result has been that th
great volume ? f trade has (tope over to
the more const rvntive English houses.
It Is, ? f Course, only reasonable to as?
sume that under American control
Aim rienn merchants v. ill regain their
old time hollvity and prestige. 5>ut this
will be den,- only by following more
conservative lir.es than in the past.
I'anny, I ko Hie rest - f the i hlllppi es.
produces the best hemp and the worst
sugar in the world. It also does a large
business in tobaecoj sapan wood, cof?
fee ?nd mother of pearl.
The hemp grows wild and In one way
might he called the ctfrse of the island?
ers. Its production Involves very lit- I
tie labor and is a pregnant Instigation ;
to laslness among the natives. This |
world-famed product Is obtained fr >m |
a speeies of plant called abaca. This
grows from 15 to 20 feet in heigh:, and
its succulent stem attains a circum?
ference of front 20 to 40 Inches. A rude
Knife ilk \"' that '.c ev :???\ry to fjll s.n& '
strip the tree, very much like a tre?
mendous celery stalk in Its softness of
teture. The juice is pressed out and
the Hbre shredded and partially dried In
the sun. after which it is done up In
rude bales and shipped away. The
abaca grows nowhere else in the world
outside of the Philippines, and enor?
mous wealth aw?Jts for the enterpris?
ing company that will Introduce mod
i ern machinery and methods in the
preparation of the fibre.
The inferiority of Panay sugar is due
not to the poorness of the Island's soil,
but to the crude, fifteenth century
methods employed In its preparation.
Very little Philippine tobacco reaches
this country, but In the east, strange
to say. It Is held in the same esteem us
we hold the Havana leaf. Cigars are
ridiculously cheap, selling sometimes
for a few cents a dozen. Tin- native
women arc inveterate smokers and rot!
their own cigars, tying the loose leaves
tobethcr with a piece of hemp. Since
sugar producing has proved so unpro?
fitable more attention Is being paid to j
tobacco growing, and the product! m of
tin; weed is increasing annually in both
quantity and quality. Panay tobacco
is sent to Alanila. and there mixed with
the Luzon plant for the manufacture
of the lower (trades of Manila cigars.
Although there are other industries
on the island the obstructionist policy
of the Spanish officials has seeii to it
that none of them should assume dis?
turbing proportions. t-lnormous taxes!
and imposts, together with the rapacity!
Tfi l m.ieian and priest, have kept the ;
island In the proper state of Castlllan
medlaevallsm. Seldom has the life of I
the native been much better than that
of u dog. Although he has dwelt in a|
country where nature has been most
lavish his lat has been a unhappy
one. His house Is a tiny bamboo hut.
Ills food is rice and dry fish, doled out
sparingly to him by the planter for
whom he labors. His clothing is a
shred of white drilling, und that of his'
wife a rag of cheap calico. His favor- ;
Ite pastimes ere thieving and cock
fighting. At the end of his year's work
he is sometimes given a dollar or two
in money, but more often n is pointed
out to him that his board and keep have
placed him in his maste r's debt.
The real nationality of these natives
of Panay Is mostly Malayan or halt
caste descendants ?f Malayans, and
they are familiarly known by the name
of ritestlzcs. A great deal ??f .-?< ntlmen
tal misrepresentation has taken place
as to their charm and picturesque)
They work, when engaged In ?! dng
weaving or any other skilled hiin
work, if such primitive methods ns
theirs can !>?? called skilled, In the
shade of a tree or under o;> :?. sh i
They toil only when they h?yc I ?. T
carry on their so-called labors In a
sluggish, methodical and phllosophl tal
manner, using the crudest and Clum?
siest of implements. If their faces ex?
press anything. It Is only anlmal-liko
I watchfulness. There Is something in
i scrutable about them to the Amcrlc tn,
i who Audis them difficult of apprt ?>
and suspicions'beyond belief. As serv?
ants they arc subtle and usually un?
mitigated thicv. >. Another of their iit
tle trans Is that they arc likely to leave
their employer without a moment's no?
tice, particularly if they notice any
sickness developing In the house. They
are also arrantly superstitious, and one
of their strange beliefs Is that their
great chief. Agulnaldo, can be shot sev?
en times without even being injured.
The character of these strange na
tlves i< best shown by the fact that the
Katapunin secret society has been able,
to organize the mestizos under the very
nose of the vigilant Spanish admlnls*
tration. At a moment'.s notice the en.
tiie native population on the island can
be turned into an officered army, di?
vided Into regiments and tinned with
boles and r I lies. For years back the
native troops in the employ of the
Spanish government have been secretly
handing out firearms to unattached na?
tives, stealing their guns in such small
quantities that their loss has not been
especially noticed by the officials. The
mestizo as a warrior Is not large, but
he is endowed with all the mad feroci?
ty and fanaticism of those Sudanese
dervishes who Hung themselves reck?
lessly up oi the guns of Kitchener at
onulu rntan.
Hut oil" of the most important ques
Hons which the newly acquired posses- ]
slon ot these strange Islands has
brought before Americans is the suita?
bility of their climate for white men.
Many contradictory statements have
appeared of late as to the real natura
of this climate and Its actual effect
upon whites. There has been a tendon,
cy. on the whole, to idealize it. One
writer says It is delightful, another as?
sures us it is dangerous and fatal, and
still mother protests that It Is neither,
being merely disagreeable and mala?
rial. The truth of the matter is that
if tiie American visitor or settler is per*
mancntly situated in a good locality, of
which r.inay. like the other Islands,
has many, and lives where he can se?
cure suitable food and pure water for
drinking ho is likely to remain healthy
?that is to say. if he fulillls certain
other little conditions. These condi?
tions are that he shall be scrupulously
careful as to bdths, watch himself in all
matters of diet, keep out of the sun
during the middle of the day. refrain
from severe and long continued work or
exercise of any kind and avoid exces?
ses of all description. If he does all
tlies.. things, and. furthermore, if lie
is fortunate enough to escape malarial
infection, it may chance that he will
not fall 111.
Sin h being the case, the question nn:
urally presents itself. Then bow are
American explorers, officers, engineers
and nssnycrs to carry on that work
which now lies before them Without
such w ork- being accompanied by n de?
plorable loss of life? The question Is
even harder to answer when It Is ro
membcred that the traveler In Panay
cannol humor his digestive apparatus,
i in. his bill of fare is necessarily lim?
ited I I those BtrnngC foods the country
produces and the meager supply of
familiar goods he can carry along with
him as camp equipment. The result Is
often enough acute peritonitis, or at
the leas, a touch of fever. I
The traveler in Pfthny soon learns to
distinguish several distinct types of
fever, lie has a fever that recurs
? very third day, with a temperature of,
itbotil 108; a fever that attacks him
i V( ry second <lay ami another and quite
dlffi rent fever thai makes him a regu?
lar dally visit. With suitable drugs
anil proper rest ami nursing any or all
? f these fevers may he shaken off. pro
vlded they are taken promptly ami en?
ergetically in hand. Hut besides these
there is always the menace of the;
.! ndly calchtura perniciosa, a malig-1
I nant disease local in occurrence, ltj
runs Its course |n a few hours anil
usually terminates with black vomit
and death.
With white women and hildren the
climate is especially fatal and it is
doubtful if successive generations of
American or European children could
be reared In the Philippines. Much of
the malar a that exl its la due, of course,
to the. unsanitary condition f the set?
tlements themselves and to a hick of
proper drainage. Even the Spaniards
found that the filling In of low and
swampy places result .1 In .1 diminution
of malarial diseases and that drainage
was a good preventive of typhoid.
To whatever nation may fail the priv?
ilege of being the flrsl ? > exploit these
still almost unkonvvn islands the task
will be no easy one. but 1 > those per?
sons who have the courage to face the
dangers of life in our new possessions
there is bound to com.- a great deal of
wealth.
One jjf the seldom thought of sources
of revenue in the Philippines and es?
pecially In Panay Is the ' rests. These
islands produce a greater variety Of
valuable woods than do s any other
country in the world. Notwithstanding
this they still remain unlnvadod by the
adventurous agents of commerce. A
limited amount of dyewooda is now
taken from them. It is true, but the
more valuable woods in which they are
so wealthy are scarcely known beyond
the coast of China. Although there are
at least 50 valuable varieties, useful in
art ami sciences, the inaccessibility of
the Philippine forests lias kept their
presence practically unknown. These
BO odd varieties run the gamut of col?
or from the beautiful nil a black of the
ebony to the ivory shades of the white
cedar. Many of them are Inconceivably
hard and offer utmost the same resist?
ance as steel, some of them even with?
standing the teredo, so troublesome in
most Pacific c >ast waters.
The best known of the Philippine
woods Is a dark brow n w ood called mo
lave. Molavc has come lute general use
in the Islands themselves, and at Ma?
nila it may be seen used as railway
sleepers, as drawing room panels, as
the keel of a ship or carved as statuary
for the rtrrnration of lae?haLx e
churches. This wood possesses Wonder?
ful strength and enters very entensive
ly into all heavier building operations.
The interior .if the Jesuit Church at
Manila is tinlshcd In litis wood, and
nowhere could be found more beauti?
fully carved work, in fact, It seems
unfortunate that this valuable wood
should be used for mere budding pur?
poses, Just as it now sceiua deplorable
to us that our forefathi rs should have
made use of black walnut for their
barn rafters.
Another valuable wood found In this
j r< mote quarter of the world Is nntlpolo.
! Antlpolo being both light and strong. Is
specially adapted fi r building purposes
and by the time our pine forests are
exhausted may be found very accepta?
ble in our own country. Uatltihan is
another valuable wood that is both
strong and tough, bosld s being elastic.
It Is excellent material for furniture
making and closely resembles our own
American walnut, it is said to be su?
perior to the better known teakxvo.nl
and can be used for all the purposes to
which teak is put.
Kartete is still another valuable wood
and is especially prised on account of
being adapted to the manufacture of
musical instruments. It has a beauti?
ful texture and color and is suitable for
tine carving. Bansalaquc, or bullet
tree. Is also a very wonderful wood. It
is extremely hard and can be driven
like a nail. The natives now use it for
making tool handles and for tree nails
I In ship-building, but the uses t<> which
it could be put are practically unlim?
ited.
In fact. Hie hard wood forests of our
iirxv possessions abound in unrealised
timber wealth and offer an excellent
Held for future Investment.
The mineral wenllh of Panay, like
that <>f the other Philippine Islands. Is
still largely problematical. It is be?
lieved, however, by those most Capa?
ble of Judging that the actual richness
In mineral deposits of our new pos?
sessions in the orient has of late been
very much exaggerated, owing chiefly
to the reports of too enterprising and
too imaginative newspaper correspon?
dents. WILLIAM A. BUDOL.PII.
PEACE COSTS BIO MONEY.
Calculations of the Losses to Warring
Nations In Anns and Men.
It Is estimated that since 'lie days of
the Trojan war no fever than 1,300,000,
OOd men have been sacrificed on the al?
tar of the god of war. If It were pos?
sible to gather together these mil?
lions of war's victims into one ghastly
army they would form a column, twen?
ty-seven abreast, long enough to clasp
the earth at the equator, with a residue
of ten similar columns stretching from
London across Europe to Naples. If]
this fllo were to pass a saluting point
at the rate of one every second, night
as well as day. the la;t "shade" xvouhl
only become visible in the autumn of
1936. -?
Two and a half million men fell In
European battle Holds during the first
half of this century al use, and tills
slaughter coat Ii i" ?!'?' the colossal sum
of ?0.850,000,000. Bach victim cost (1.
74!? to kill. A calculation as careful as
is possible places tip- total cost of war
during the last 3,000 years at the ap?
palling sum of $000.000,000,000.
All the countries of Europe are spend?
ing on their armies and navies at the
rate of nearly $50 a second, or the al?
most in edible sum of $4.000,000 a day.
?San Francisco Chronicle.
A PK KP INTO THE FUTURE.
Year 1940.
The haughty agriculturist of the
tropics looked contemptuously at the
n an who groveled at nis feet.
"Naw!" he exclaimed with scorn. "i
won't."
"You will no; take $10.ooo.Oon for |t?"
tremblingly asked the man who grovel?
ed
"Naw!" contemptuously repeated the
haughty agriculturist. "My prico Is
|60,.,000."
"Make it $20,000,000!" pleaded the oth?
er
"You weary me."
"Say $35.000.000."
"1 think I told you." said the agricul?
turist, with a yawn, "that it would cost
you exactly $50.000.000- -no more and no
less. 1 wouldn't sell for $19,999,999.99."
"But think," Implored the other,
"what on Immense sum $45.000.000
would he! I am authorized to go as
high as that?$13,000.000 in cash!"
"You aro authorized to go as high as
I ask. You know you are and you'll
pay me my price. What's the use of
you wasting any more time? You Will
pay me $50,000,000 cash down, or you
don't get It. See?"
He was the agent of an automobile
and bicycle syndicate.
And he had Just bought the last rub?
ber tree on the globe.?Chicago Tribune.
EIJXTROPIATli COPPERING
U. S. Navy to Investigate the Tug
"Assistance's" Hull,
Tlx* Vlrglll lnii?l'llot n t - <" ?I ' <>>? ol
i..\*t November Meet* i.mo Ku?
<lor?rmi*ut ? H'iml Siioces* of Ex?
periment Means ionicoI etblps.
On the Cist of last November (ISOSj
the tug Assistance, then owned by the
LoulslanMStatc Quarantine Hoard, they
having brught her from P. Dempscy.
Son & Co., of Philadelphia, came
here and went to Colonna's shipyard,
where she was hauled out, some minor
repairs made and an inspection ot her
hull held by Professor \V. H. Crowley,
Electro-Chemist, and Professor A. A.
Kundson, Electrical Engineer, both ot
New York.
HER RECORD HERE.
The statement of her arrival, hauling
out and inspection was noted from day
to day in this paper, and on November
-7th ttv.ts) the Virginian-Pilot printed
the following:
"P. Dempsey, Son & Co.'s tug Assist?
ance has Just been sold to the United
States Government (this was ait error;
it was thought the 1'. s. Quarantine
Service had bought bei) as result of the
late inspection and report made on her
hull's condition, it will be remembered
that tier hull was coppered by electric
welding some four and one-half years
ago. one-eighth inch of solid copper be?
ing welded onto the steel from her
Water line to her keel.
"The recent Inspection proves that
the Assistance is ? ? ? perhaps the
only one of her class afloat that is a
steel boat with coppered hull, with nei?
ther wood sheathing nor bolts, rivets
nor screws, to hold the copper in po?
sit ion.
THE PRIME SUGGESTION.
"It is remarked that in the looking
abon-_being ? Ioni' by ill.' C.ovenuiu n; ?
In search of some method of protect?
ing the bottoms of her warships, the re?
ports of the experts on the Assistance's
hull may give a new direction to the
Navy Department investigators, and
electro-weld coppered cruisers and bat?
tleships may be a feature of the future
navy."
HER LATER HISTORY.
Since the publication of the above In
this paper, November 27th, the Assist?
ance has proceeded to her destination,
nt New Orleans, having a very rough ,
voyage, and is now condemned by the I
Quarantine Hoard there as unlit for!
their service and Is advertised for sale. I
It does not appear, however, that the
present trouble is wholly with the hull,
or that that part of the hull uninjured]
by accident, groundings, etc., is in the'
least injured; in other words, that the
metallic sheathing or electro-plating is
ut fault.
THIS JOURNAL'S EN DO R S E M E NT.
The New York Journal of Tuesday,
on its editorial page, has this to say
of the matter, endorsing, it will bo ob?
served, even though tardily, the sug?
gestion of this paper of last November.
The Journal says, under the caption
"TO ELECTROPLATE OUR SHIPS
W ILL MAKE AN OCEAN GREY?
HOUND OP EACH VESSEL:"
BY LIEUTENANT G. L. GARDEN.
"The methods employed In the pres?
ervation of the under-.water portion of
ships' hulls are likely to be revolution?
ized as the result of a remarkable ex?
periment which has recently been con?
cluded on the ocean-going tug Assist?
ance. For a period of nearly four years
the Assistance has been navigating on
the Atlantic coast of the United states
without once having to go Into dry
dock to e'? an bottom. This Immunity
was accorded by reason of the under?
water skin of the ship being covered
by a copper illtu fused into the plates
by an electro process.
NAVY DEPARTMENT ACTS.
"The Assistance has recently arrived
at New Orleans, and yesterday It was
learned that the Hoard of Construction
at the Navy Department was under or?
ders to proceed South for the purpose of
making a critical examination of the
vessel. If it can be shown. a_s the p'v.
llmlnnry reports all Indicate, that the
Assistance has demonstrated the prac?
ticability of fusing copper directly on
steel plates, and that despite Immersion
in salt water no galvanic action sets
Up, then it Is a pretty well assured fact
that paints, sheathing ami all other
makeshifts to keep vessels' bottoms
clean will have to go.
"Copper is the only known substance
applicable to ships' hulls that Is dele?
terious to marine life. But if there Is
a chance for salt water to get in be?
tween thi> Steel plates and the copper
plates then galvanic action is sure to
result. The effect of galvanic action is
to eat away a plate.
_THE METHOD USED.
"In the case of the Assistance the
copper was fused in the plate to a
depth of something like one-thirty sec?
ond of an inch. There was absolutely
no chance for the water to work in be?
tween the copper anil the steel.
"The work of coppering Iho under?
water hull of the Assistance was car?
ried out with a good deal of secrecy at
a ,i rscy City shipyard in the spring of
1805, and from that lime until within a
few weeks the tug kept steadily nt
work. She was grounded and cauie In
collision with rocks and other obstruc?
tions as many as fifty times during the
four years, the rubs, of course, being
very light, but sufllciotitly hard to tear
off the copper fusing were it not well
secured.
WHERE Tili: IDEA STARTED.
"The Assistance was taken out of the
water near the Norfolk navy yard at a
very recent date and a critical exami?
nation of her hull was made by Pro?
fessor W. H. crowley, electro-chemist,
of this city, and by Professor A. A.
Knudson, electrical engineer, also of
this city. The report showed that there
was aa almost entire absence of gal?
vanic action, the result being an as?
tonishing on.- |o nil who witnessed It.
"The action of the naval authorities
as a result of the Assistance's experi?
ments depends largely, it is said, on the
report of the Hoard of Construction. If
it can be demonstrated that the new
pr.88 is applicable to vessels as large
as battleships there can be little doubt.
It is claimed, that the new system will
be taken up bv the Government.
WHAT NEEDS OBVIATING.
"The great difficulty encountered by
all steel and iron hulled vessels Is the
fouling of the bottom In salt water.
Mantle growths such as barnacles and
grass fasten on to the hull and servo
to greatly retard speed. It Is stated
as an actual fact that owing to the
foul conditions of?their bottoms nt
least two battleships during the past
summer had their speed reduced from
sixteen knots to ton knots. Even the
large cruisers, vessels capable under
first-class conditions ot making* twenty
knots per hour, were reduced In speed
full four knots under the maximum at?
tainments. It Is a matter of record
that the cruiser Philadelphia, a ship
with a speed showing to her credit of
some twenty knots per hour, entered
San Francisco harbor, after a ioag
stay at Honolulu, able to make not
much more than eight knots per hour.
The instances are Innumerable of high?
speed ships having their powers
crippled by marine growth on the
under-water hull.
PKE3KNT ATTEMPTS AND RE?
SULTS.
"To obviate the trouble, recourse has
been had to various patented paints.
It has been claimed for nearly, al! un
der-water paints that they possess autl
fcullng properties. So far, however, tba
paint has yet to be produced that will
guarantee immunity from marine
growth.
"In the British navy the practice of
late has been to sheathe the bottoms of
the warships. This is done by secur?
ing wooden strips to the skin of the
vessel, anil counter-sinking the bolts
used in fastening the planking to tha
plates. The heads of the bolts are
covered with plugs, leaving absolutely
no metal surface to come In contact
with the copper. With the planking se?
cured firmly to the ship, the copper
plates are next fastened to it, the man- .
ner of scouring being the same as in
the case of a wooden ship.
OBJECTION TO S H HATH INQ.
''The objection to sheathed ves?
sels Is the cost, and the fact
that not only is the vessels' displace?
ment Increased, but that on a given
horse power the speed is less. The cost
of sheathing is estimator roughly at
$5 per square foot. It is said that the
fusing of copper on the steel plates can
be carried on for about $3 per square
foot. For a vessel 250 feet long about
twenty tons of copper are required by
the electro-fusing process. The same
v< ssel if sheathed would have an added
weight of about one hundred tons. It la
not generally known that a copper bot?
tom adds to the speed of a vessel. It is
a fact, however, that the frletional
contact of water against copper Is over
."i'j per cent, less than against iron. A!
painted surface can never be made as
smooth as a burnished copper surface.
An iron vessel with a speed of twenty
knots per hour, if coated with copper,
will have a speed power of twenty-one
knots.
TRIUMPH OF AMERICAN BRAIN'S.
"The success of the experiment with
the Assistance Is a distinct triumph for
American inventive Ingenuity and
American perseverance. The world
over governments, and Individuals act?
ing on their accounts, have striven to
obtain a substance that would prevent
the fouling of ships' hulls. It would
seem that the credit is to be claimed
wholly by American engineers.
"The question of covering ships' bot?
toms was never more pertinent in tho
history of the American service. A
number of battleships are now in pro
co.ss_-.of building, and provision will
have to be made for them. It Is under
sta d that the plan had in mind by the
government officials was to sheatho
these vessels. The Board of Con?
struction, after examining the Assist?
ance, may recommend otherwise, but it
Is extremely doubtful If such a radi?
cal departure will be taken prior to a
test on a small government vessel."
The Assistance was built In Camden,
X. J-, In lNsS. for the Standard Oil
Company,: was electro coppered in 1895
as an experiment; sold In 1891 to P.
Dempsey, Son & Co., it being thought
the coppering was a failure. This la
now thought to be a mistake.
GUN TO DESTROY WAR BALLOONS
Military experts are much Interested
In a new machine gun which has re?
cently been constructed for the purpose
of destroying war balloons. The gun
is mounted oh a wagon, and Is so
placed that It can Instantly be pointed
in any direction from zenith to horizon.
It throws a continuous stream of pro?
jectiles, and no aerial gas bag yet in?
vented will be able to withstand its fire.
The projectiles are conical and of solid
steel. They contain no bursting charge
and weigh a liouml each.
The weapon Is supported on a hollow
conical stand, fastened to the floor of
tho carriage, so arranged that when the
gun Is aimed vertically the gunner
must squat under It. Its effective
range i.s 1% miles.
Military men are of the opinion that
.in efficient fighting balloon will be in
vented before or during the next great
war. An aerial torpedo has lately been
doviuod w-hb-h in tiald to bear the-saw*?
relation to the future war balloon that
is borne by the Whitehead torpedo to
tho modern torpedo boat. This aerial
torpedo is a small balloon, which car?
ries, suspended beneath it, about 30
p tunds of some high explosive like dy?
namite done up in suitable form.
A small metal cylinder contains a
simple electrical contrivance which will
produce a spark at any time, for which
the instrument may be set in advance.
Then, the direction and force of tho
wind ascertained, the balloon can be
:! iated over a fort or armed camp or
battleship, and If the apparatus be cor?
rectly timed the spark will at the prop?
er moment ignite the gas in the bal
1 n. causing It to explode and drop
-its deadly load. This device has never
een tried in warfare, but may be em?
ployed in the next great contest.
Elaborate experiments in France and
Germany have shown that ballonss,
while by no means invulnerable, are
not seriously damaged by a few shot
9 under ordinary circumstances.
Consequently they must be menaced
by a constant stream of projectiles.
Maxim and other authorities on tho
subject contend that the only practical
method of fighting the airships of tho
future will be by means of other air?
ships?that is, a nation will be obliged
to maintain a fleet of aerial engines to
! i : et itself from attack by similar
contrivances belonging to an opponent*
PARTIALLY/ SUCCESSFUL.
'Tell me. doctor, were you successful
with that patient on the next block?"
"Partially so: I cured him, but T
haven't succeeded In getting any money)
out of him yet."?"Yonkers" Statesman,
EXTENUATION.
"Samuel Johnson defined music as lhc5
least disagreeable of noises," said Mr,
I'enn.
"But there were no popula^songs or
rag-time nonsense in his di>y," added
Mr. Pitt.? Plttsburg Chronicle Tele-,
graph.
OUGHT TO HOLD TOGETHER. '
"A combination of chewing gum man*,
ufacturcrs has been formed," remarked,
Mrs. Snaggs.
"That is a combination which ought
to stick." added Mr. Snaggs.?Plttsburg
Chronicle Telegraph.
DELAYED TOO LONG.
"I think I'll get my wife a cook boob,**
said the young man.
"How long have :.->u hem married?'1
asked the eperlenced one.
"Six month*."
"Too late. You ought to have bough!
it the first week. 8ho will take It now
as an indication that you no longer, lev*
hcr?"^iudiajiajloii3 Journal.

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