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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
(Virginian And pilot publishing
LOfifOLK VIRGINIAN AND DAILY PILOT
(Consolidated Mnrch, 1S33.)
Entcied at the Postofflco at Norfolk,
Va.. ua second-class matter.
OFFICE: PILOT BUILDING.
, CITY BALL AVENUE.
OFFICERS: A. H. GRANDY, President;
W. OLK NN AN. Vlcc-Piesldent; W.
WILKINSON, Treasurer; JAM KS E. AL?
BOARD OK DIRECTORS: A. II.
Grandy, M. C.lennnn. L. I>. Starke. Jr..
0. W. Sbelion. It W. Shultlce. James L.
Allen. 1). F. Donovan.
Til Kill. CBSTN I'lCR COi'T.
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nications for Tho VIRGINIAN-PILOT
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Tho VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUB?
LISHING COMPANY. _
? THURSDAY, APRIL r,. 1S99.
A CARD TO THE PUBLIC
It having come to our knowledge that
our local morning contemporary, or its
representatives, claim that it has as
large a circulation. In Norfolk as THE
VIRGINIAN-PILOT, and call In ques?
tion our statements that THE VIR?
GIN I A N-Pl LOT has twice as many
paying subscribers as the aforesaid
contemporary, ami lias a circulation
that is fifty per cent, greater in Nor?
folk, Portsmouth, Berkley and vicini?
ty than the said morning publication:
We, therefore, in consideration there?
of, and as an earnest of our good faith
nnd of the moderation and accuracy of
our estimate of the two contrasted cir?
culations, do make the following propo?
Lot three well-known nnd disinter?
ested -gentlemen, of capacity and integ?
rity, he selected, to examine the books,
records, &-c, and the cash receipts of
the two journals, respectively; and, if
they find that THE VIRGINIAN
PILOT has not "TWICE AS MANY
PAYING SUBSCRIBERS AS SAID
LOCAL MORNING CONTEMPO?
RARY,; AND IF ITS PAYING SUB?
SCRIBERS IN THE CITIES OF NOR?
FOLK, PORTSMOUTH, BERKLEY
AND VICINITY ARE NOT FIFTY
PER CENT, GREATER IN NUMBER
THAN THE AFORESAID CONTEM?
PORARY'S, as shown by cash receipts
nnd other satisfactory evidence. WE
WILL DONATE ONE THOUSAND
DOLLARS TO ANY CHARITY THE
COMMITTEE OF EXAMINERS MAY
On the other hand, nnd as a condi?
tion of the foregoing, our contemporary
must equally bind Itself, that. If the
examining committee shall lind it (our
said contemporary) as far behind THE
VIRGINIAN-PILOT in circulation as
?we claim It to lie, (hen the morning
contemporary aforesaid, WILL DO?
NATE ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS
TO A NY CHARITY THE COMMIT?
TEE OF EXAMINERS MAY SELECT:
it lieing further agreed mutually thai
tlic report of the committee shall be im?
mediately published in full in both pa?
We Invite our morning contemporary
to accept the very liberal offer of THE
VIRGINIAN-PILOT, for the satisfac?
tion of all persons concerned.
This declining to do, we demand that
the aforesaid Norfolk Landmark shall
retract or disavow the statements of
Ita representatives and agents in claim?
ing for it a circulation equal to that of I
THE VIRGINIAN-PILOT and In de
hying our claims to a greater circula?
tion than the aforesaid contemporary i
has,?and shall restrain Its agents from
making the claims nnd denials, recited:
and all this we demand as due to truth
and the plain duty of our contemporary
by way of reparation for the injury
done us by its agents, it being respon?
sible for their acts.
And for the justice of our cause ami
the truth of our allegations; we appeal
to the public, whose generous recogni?
tion, appreciation nnd patronage have
given THE VIRGINIAN-PILOT the
prominence it holds.
A BETTER WAY.
Our Democratic citizens should see to
it that they are well and wisely repre?
sented In the May conference ni Rich?
mond to consider the nomination and
election of U. S. Senators, our people
are resolved, not only to prevent our
General Assembly from presenting tin
shameful spectacles recently beheld In
SO many legislatures, where money held
the balance of power, nnd prevented
elections, where It did not control them,
nnd our popular demand Is that some
ways and means be adopted so that the
will of the people, and not the power
and influence of capital, shall dominate
the legislative choice of Senators.
But the Federal constitution now di?
rects that U. S. Senators shall be
chosen by the legislatures of the States,
respectively: and at llrst blush, it would
seem that the people might easily di?
rect this choice, as they nominate nnd
elect the legislators; and this, no
doubt, was the view of tho framers of
the constitution. Experience has taught
us otherwise, and there Is a wl le clamor
for the election of the Senators by the
direct vote of tho peor.de. But this is
not so easy to realize. Tho amendment
of the constitution will taUe a deal of
time and trouble that involve it nl
wnys In doubt. Why change tho consti?
tution, if the will of the people em be so
expressed In the nomination and elec?
tion of members of the General Assem?
bly as to attain the end desired? Wo
thus avoid the delay, trouble, and risk
attending constitutional amendments
by 45 stales, nnd wo escape another
campaign and general election, when
we already have too many and none
satisfactory from an honest or consti?
A BELATED PROCLAMATION.
The Philippine Commission has at
last made a proclamation in the Philip?
pine Islands that should have been
made by Admiral Dewey, or President
McKinley, or some other high function?
ary, before we levied war upon tho
Phlllpplnos. Better late than never;
but it might have averted the war and
all its evils, if the men in power had
been less intent on assorting their pow?
er and authority, and more considerate
of tho rights and sensibilities of others.
The proclamation in itself, barring the
vicious pretences upon which "forcible
annexation" and "criminal aggression"
are assumed as "obligations," is ad?
mirable in tone, promise and conces?
sion; and even so late as it comes, is
well calculated to Impress the Malays,
especially if now seconded and fortified
by gracious acts In full accord with the
(Vordfl of the commissioners.
The proclamation, besides, is not in?
tended alone for the Philippines, but
also for the United States, if not for
the whole world; and It indicates (too
late for the Philippines, at least) a re?
treat from the cruel and arbitrary ad?
vance first taken on the bloody road of
a pitiless and ruthless Imperialism. But
It the Philippines must take what tho?
get with thanks, the people of the
United States are not yet conquered
subjects, nnd there is also a Just God
above us all.
GOLD A PACIFICATOR.
The Cuban Assembly has voted the
dlsbandment ot the Cuban Army and
has finally dissolved itself. A commit?
tee, however, was appointed to prepare
copies of the army rolls for Gen.
Brooke, Military Governor, under whose
direction Gomez will distribute that
$3.000,000. Was it a coincidence, that,
as soon as the talk of recalling that
money to Washington seemed to grow
serious, order arose out of chaos, and
all became at once lovely and serene,
where horrors on horror's head, threat?
ened to accumulate? The roaring As?
sembly began to eoo like a Bucklng
dove; the army began to disband and
lay down its arms (it had already done
so, in fact,?but it was "making be?
lieve" quite fiercely, until It heard the
clink of repacking the $3\00",nno for a
return home); nnd everybody now Is
eager to "make it up" with Gomez and
Alas ,Ih this venal ago, even tho Ar?
cadian Cubans exhibit a tender weak?
ness for gold; nnd it is not too much
to say that if the $20.000,000 giver), or to
be given, to Spain, had been tendered
to the Phlllpplnos themselves, they
would have received It as kittens do
milk; and patriotism would have been
tabooed till the money was got and ex?
THEY NEITHER PAY NOR FIGHT.
The question Is of some Interest to
the poorer inhabitants and citizens of
tili? country, who, unable to become
residents abroad, reside here and pay
their taxes, whether or not the plea of
non-residence*on part of an alleged cit?
izen should exempt him from the per?
sonal taxes levied on all resident cit?
izens. There is W. W. Aetor, for in?
stance, who comes from London to
New York to nwe.tr off a personal tax
of $2,000,000 assessed upon him In the
latter city. On putting In his mean
little plea, he was asked by one of the
Tax Commissioners If he had given up
his citizenship in this country, to which
he replied that he had not.
Verily, this class of citizens who en?
joy all the powers, rights and privileges
of American citizenship, but escape all
its duties and burdens by living abroad,
i? becoming entirely too numerous, and
entirely too heavy to carry. Soon this
class owning all the properly of this
country capable of yielding an Income,
and i ->ntrolling labor and Its wages all
ovrr the Union, labor will be left to
pay all taxes. Indeed, while our rich,
even in war, will expend their Incomes
abroad, exempt from mill nry service
at home, as well as from home war?
laxe?, but contributing to the "slncwi
of war" against tin: making it as true
here as it always has been under im?
perial rule: That the working men pay
the In'xes and light the battles of their
We are told that lion. John w. Dan?
iel speaks very highly of Senator Mar?
tin and sredlcta his re-election. Wo
have seen no detraction anywhere from
Mr. Martin's character or ability. The
allegation always has been that he. a
man utterly unknown to the public
(whatever his merits), by some sort of
huggermugger was mysteriously elected
Senator over probably the best known
and most popular man In the Stale,
whom the people (not In the secret)
confidently expected to see chosen. It
was that, more than anything else, that
started the movement In Virginia for
the election of 1". S. Senators by the
people. \\'e ourselves doubt very much,
however, If any papular movement can
defeat Mr. Martin, if he bo ngain the
candidate of tlic lobby.
Boston, it will be recalled, eometime
since passed resolutions of sympathy
for the Filipinos, and condemnatory of
the Hanna-McKinley policy of annexa?
tion and Imperialism. While dissenting
from the Administration's views we
may appropriately observe that if Bos?
ton expects tr> present these resolutions
to Aguinaldo she will have to start
pretty soon, before he gets out of reach,
and is not "comeatablc."
The Staunton Daily Spectator, vol. 1,
No. 185, announces its suspension, not
for a lark of patronage or money, but
because other pressing duties of greater
importance require the time ot the
editor, Mr. It. S. Turk. He will con?
tinue the weekly Spectator, an excellent
journal, at the old stand. The dally
was an up-to-date publication and we
shall miss it.
Now that Slgnpr Marconi has dem?
onstrated his ability to talk across the
English channel by a wireless tele?
graph system, he can further immortal?
ize himself by coming forward with an
invention that will enable the refrige?
rated beef to talk to the War Depart?
ment by the whlskcrlcss system.
It is said that the Filipinos have a
superstltous faith In Agulnaldo's in?
vulnerability. Some day he will con?
tract rheumatism or gout, or something j
else, that will make it impossible for 1
him to continue sprinting, and the faith '
of tho Filipinos will have been rudely
Boston's littest ailment was diagnosed
as a case of all-the-year round shivers,
which began with Spain's "phantom
fleet" In June, 1S1?S. Hot weather is re?
lied upon as a curative. "Phantom
fleets" and winter make a mighty
strong combination. Baked beans ab?
solutely failed to knock it out.
The Cubans are iL progressive set
When it comes to manufacturing a
muster roll with the view of having
Uncle Sam pay Cuban soldiers the case
and facility with which the task Is com?
pleted suggests intimate acnuaintanca
with the Spanish Admiral Camaras
secret of doubling over night.
Atlantic Coast resorts haven't given
up the fight for notoriety and patron?
age. One of thorn has bobbed up with
a sea serpent, another with a man cit?
ing shark, and still another with a four
eyed, six-tailed snake, all loafing
around the pens. And tho summer sea?
son Is yet two months In tho future.
Dr. Koch, the great C.erman special?
ist, has Informed a Now Jersey physi?
cian that tho mosquito is most active
J in communicating tlie microbe of mnla
| rla. Dr. Koch evidently has yet to
learn that a healthy "Jersey skecter"
can beat a whole college of physicians.
It is said that the Governor of Ken?
tucky is in receipt of live hundred let
| tors from writers who are ambitious to
j be colonels. That Kentucky has five
I hundred men who have not yet attain?
ed to a colonelcy Is a. genuine surprise
, to tho remainder of ihe country
The scientist who declares that tho
body of a man is nearly '.to per cent
water, will have a different report to
make when he analyzes the body of a
Tho world lias many curious and In?
explicable ways of doing things. One
of them is taking tho toast cf the even?
ing from a bottle.
Both the revenue and the ordinary
farmer predict it big crop for 1S99.
NEW GAME LAWS.
[Wilmington M< iscnger.]
The great number of agents travel?
ing now gives employment to hous -
k.-epeis nnd attracts the attention <>f
the men of the Fabcr, who are given
to fun and never willingly lose a chance
to put their prod into a fellow- one of
these very necessary ndornmonts of
journalism living In productive and
onto New England has amused, himself
by forming a series of new game laws.
Ho urges their adoption "up there."
Here is Iiis summary:
I "Book agents may be killed from Oc?
tober i to September i; spring poets,
from March 7 to .Mine 1: scandal mong?
ers, from April l to February l: um?
brella borrowers, from August l to No?
vember l and February I to May l;
while every man who accepts a news?
paper iwo years, and, upon being pre?
sented with Iiis bill, says. '1 never or?
dered it!' may be Killed on the spot,
without reserve or relief!"
WHY NOT "THE VIRGINIA?"
[Danville Register ]
If there Is any good reason why Vir?
ginia, the oldest and most famous of
the States, should not have a battle?
ship named in her hon >r, we have never
heard it. I' r namesake of tin. Confed?
erate states navy was Die polneer
armor-clad and wrought a revolution in
modern marine warfare. We tins; our
representatives in Congress will call to
the attention of the Nayy Department
ihe propriety nnd appropriations of
naming tho next battleship to be con?
structed tli.- Virginia, and have her
built at the Newport News Shlp-bulld
ing and Dry-dock Company's magnlfl
<. in plant, or at tho excellent navy
yard at Norfolk. There would bo a
ioy.il outpouring of Virginians to see
such a vessel launched.
DIRECTED BY PIIOF. SEYMOUR EATON.
SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY
WILL BE PUBLISHED.
History?Popular StutVis In European History.
Geography?Tho World's Great Commercial Products.
Governments ot the World of To day.
EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY?
Literature?Popular Studies In Literature.
Art?lh? World's Great. Artists.
These rnnnoi will rniilliuic mull June S?tli. ExniiilnHlltmii , otnlnei< tl
liy mull, will be belli nl llielr clove ?* n bnsia for ll>e fctrantlnB Of CeHlllemc*.
POPULAR STUDIES IN LITERATURE.
JOSEPH VILLI Kits DENKET, It. A.
Professor ?f Literature, Ohio stale
Some of tho greatest masters of dig.
|J-*u prose have used the essay ??< a
eonvenlent medium of communication,
yet none of them has told it* what the
< ssay, as a literary lyjie, really Is. Ad?
dison speaks of papers that "run out
Into the tvildness of those compositions
\ylilch go by the name of essays." "it
i.- stilliei.nl." he s.ys, "that. J have
several thoughts on a subject, without
troubling myself to arrange them in
such order that they may seem to grorr
out of one another and be disposed un?
der the proper heads"; and then he
goes on to say, that Seneca and Mon?
taigne are patterns for writing of this
kind. Dr. Johnson hod the same Idea
i? the essay, for he calls It "a loose
sally of the mind; an Irregular, indl
giested piece; not a regular and orderly
e.imposition." These descriptions of
Uhelr art by two of the older essayists
can hardly be regarded as adequate.
The world h;-.s preserved Addison's es?
says, because they show a keen sense
of artistic form beneath nil of their ap?
parent waywardness of thought. It is
Addison's distinction that he gave pol?
ish to the essay and used it for definite
ends. John Morley com is nearer to the
present conception of the essay when hr
speaks of it as briefer in compass than
the treatise, better adapted to popular'
apprehension, .and having for its <di
ject merely to open questions, to Indi?
cate points, to suggest eases, to sk-teh
outlines. Doubtless Addison was Indulg?
ing in u bit of covert pleasantry, :>s
was his wont, nt the expense of cer?
tain formless specimens of that litera?
ry typo which he mode efficient: and'
Dr. Johnson's remark may have been
penned In the same self-depreclatlve1
.spirit which led him to d?fln? a lex?
icographer as "a harmless drudge." I
Doth, however, recognise the essential
freedom of the essay form, its natural
discursiveness, the elasticity of its gov?
erning rules, its liberal provision for
the personal element. Its tolerance of
egotism when egotism is subdued to
the conversational tone, its charily even
for occasional irrelevancy, if only unity
? if Impression remain at the dose.
It was natural that a form of liter?
ature so free and flexible should come
to be used for a great variety of pur?
poses by writers as different from each
olher as Irving and Macaulay. Gold?
smith and .lohn Stuart Mill. Dr. John?
son and Robert Louis Stevenson. Lamb
and Walter Bagehot. Hazlltt and John
Flske. In the course of i;,? years tha
e.-tsay has differentiated Ints several
well-marked species. It. has he,-.->me the
accepted vehicle of literary and an
criticism; critical essay:-, are recog?
nized as a distinct type artrt reviews
tire maintained for their publication.
Macaulay made the historical and bio?
graphical essay picturesque and power?
ful; be Imposed upon I: a form and a
method of treatment which later
writers on historical topics have found
it hard to modify. Less distinctive in
form are the political, theological and
controversial essays; but the scientific
essay has risen to the dignity of a lit?
erary type, with a methyl of inquiry
finite its own; and the netvsp.iper lead?
er, or heavy editorial, Is (or rather was)
ruled by a form and method highly
conventional and almost universally
fallowed. The editorial has, hsppilv,
lost much of its rigid, oracular and uni?
form character in latter-day journal?
All of these present-day species may
be traced to the (amlli'iir or conver?
sational essay of the early eighteenth
century and the Investigator might
easily produce specimens of one or an?
other of them from the century precvl
Ing. In Drydcn's "Prefaces" he would
find a Simple prose, a critical method
not very different from Addison's antf
a. loose, familiar style. In "..'owley'?
"Prefaces" lie would find a ; till earlier
roach to literary criticism expressed
.11 comparatively apt and easy terms
and in Cowley's lighter essays a ramb?
ling, careless treatment of such themes
as "Solitude," "Obscurity" nnd the
"Dangers et' ah Honest Man In B&uch
Compnny." But, though Dryden nnd
Cow Icy seem in their "Prefaces" to
have anticipated Addison in the field of
sei ions criticism, it was Addison who
established ihd familiar essay as the
preferred form in ;which criticism of
the lighter sort should be presented to
the nubile. And. though Cpwley in
some of bis essays sei tns t<> have anti?
cipated Addison and Steele in llielr
most distinctive work as essayists of
manners* and morals. It remained for
Addison and Steele to fix the type, to
make tho essay of manners and morals
not only popular, but artistic, toset due
limits to its rambling. "We do not
-rk." says Lowell in Ills essay <'n Gray,
'whrre people got their liints. but what
they made out .of th'-m." Doubtless
Addison took many a valuable hint
Crem the essays of Montaigne, who is
rightfully accounted the great fore
runner In Prance of tli" English essay?
ists and to whom l>"ih Drydcn and
Cowley acknowledged their indebted?
ness- Montaigne taught the English a
freer nnd looser style i t treating their
subjects than Engllshm? n had known,
and Addison must have felt his Influ?
ence. H la possible, too, that Addison
took the hint for some of his churai tei
sketc hes from the "Characters ??: La
liruycre," tts Dr- Johnson in ids "i. re o<
Addison" suggests. What Addison mad
out of all the hin'ts he took was a weis
defined literary form and lie applied
that form to now uses. There were
hundreds of theological tracts bef re
Addison wrote in narrative essay form
his "Vision of Mlrea:" and there wcr<
thousands of pnlltlcnl pamplets before
Addison showed how political questions
might he handled with humor nnd, at
any rate, a pretended dlslnlcrcstednei s.
Political strife was too ft rce for Ad?
dison nnd his contemporaries to main?
tain at all times the Show Of serenity.
It is to their credit, however, that'they
put political controversy on a higher
plane than they found it. They res. ued
It from its pitifully narrow and strictly
argumentative condition and g.wc It
elements of light satire and humorous
indirectness: they made ;t entertaining,
though their prejudices were often but
thinly disguised. The grei t nchlcvcni -u
of Addison and his conti mpoi'.irics, the
essay of manners and morals, was their
special and distinctive property, by
right of successful exploration and con?
tinued occupancy, it not by right of dis?
covery. They owed but little to previous
writers in developing this th dr charac?
teristic type?to Montaigne something,
lo Cowley something, to tiio writers In
epistle form (Cicero, Pliny, Mme. de
Bevlgnc) very little, to Lord Bacon al?
Bacon's "Essays" are great In their
wisdom and depth niid great in the
amount of thought which they carry.
They are so closely packed with
thought that they d loan.! a pause for
meditation at almost every sentence.
They are sometimes like the proverbs
of Solomon In their solemnity and ma?
jesty and aphoristic truth. Bacon says
j ihaLhe endeavored to make them "n?t
I vulgar, but of a nature whereof men
shall find much in experience ;.r.i lit tli
in books." They pice us Bacon's rich
experience of life, without detail, wlth
out adornment, i:i scantiest brevity.
The shrewdness of their observations.
! commend.- them equally to t!,- rcholnr
in his stiidy and to the in in of affairs
Bacon desired that Iii? essays should
"come home t?? men's huslnrss :.i 1
besoms"?and they do, for they deal
with "Adversity," "Great Place.*'
"Seeming Wise." "Studies'," "Marriage
and .Sin*!.-. Life," "Truth," "Revenge,"
DR. SAKIJISL JOHNSON.
"Riches" and other subjects of perma?
nent interest to mankind. They are
the catalogued thoughts of one of th*
greatest minds the world has ever
knoT.-n. No other essayist for nearly
?.M years (Bacon's "Essays" were Hi i
published In i&st. Emerson's In 1841)
was possessed ef the. wealth of wlsd i .
the multiplicity of idc-i.i that woul I
justify a return to the sententions, cp.
igrammatic and weighty style of Ba?
con. Emerson returned to Ba :
style by excluding from his compasl
thins every sentence that was no
fuifficieiit. Each sentence must stand
alone and each must "hit the bull's
eye" with unerring accuracy. To Em?
ctfson, as to Bacon, the essay v...s a
collection of single, unexplained say?
ings on one general subject. Each
might be on "Infinitely repellent par
tide"; Emershn oared n. t for n unified
harmonious result. Bacon linked h a
thoughts together in very loose order.
Emerson said: "In writing my
thoughts I seek no order, or harmony,
or results." It is evident that essnya
of this type have nothing in common
with the kind which Addison produced.
They are so crowded with Ideas that
close structure Is not to be looked Cor.
Their thoughts are too weighty to ad?
mit of tho familiar, light and discursive
treatment which Addison could give.
The essays of Bacon and of Emerson
stand by themselves n.-? a distinct spe?
cies. They treat of manners and
morals, so far as they treat of these
dt (ill, Irrespective or time and pl..ce.
Addison and St'ei^ treat of manners
and morals with the Immediate axe to
which they belong in near view; they
are Queen Anne men writing for Queen
Arirte men; and their essays reflect the
life? of the time, present the moral con?
ventions Of the time and recognize no
deeper laws than those which were ac
I n?v !? e i by the best men of that
Tito essay ot* the eighteenth century
was typical and characteristic of tho
age. The propi r study of mankind was
man- man as !i ? might be seen at the
clubs, in th.iffee houses, at tho
theat e, In his country home. In these
every-rfay places, it was discovered,
man' might be Interesting. The essay?
ists, therefore, studied ordinary iife and
appealed to a wide: class of readers
lhan poetry could reach. They aimed
at everybody who could read; and tho
essay became a democrat in its choice
ol subjects, though Addison made It a
01 . id' I .?iri: t i: rat In style. Democracy
was a new idea in the age of Queen
At ne. The i volution of is<.s had made
: ublto opinion Important and writers
. - wfm:
CHARLES LA Mit.
who could direct public opinion were
: r?i ns of greater cohsi (tuenco than
they bad ever been before. The revo?
lution hi d also in ought freedom of tha
press, 'i in- newspaper had begun and
I was driving out the anonymous ami
often Bcilrrilious pamphlet. With its
crude comment on the news the news?
paper was preparing the way for com
? ? ei ; i in i n timers, u era is 0 ml?social
topics In general. H inl conditions
? ? re bad. for domo? t .. y was beginning
before the peoplo had learned Individ?
Appearing at Ihe time when It. was
! . :. tin essay, with its. gentle satire
of existing manners and men. Indirect?
ly hclried.cn tho cause of orderly living,
ti i ghl the graces and refinements of
life by making roughness ridiculous?
In iructed while i. entertained. It did
the work which the theatre professed
but failed to do. Literary and social
clubs, which flourished In great num?
bers at the taverns and coffee-houses
during Annc|B rclgh and through the
century, found in the periodical essay
their t< pics of talk, and literary men
went to the clubs for their subjects.
The ess.: - of til ? iim ? was edited by the
clubs, while it helped to make the clubs
what they were.
in Kot Defoe began publishing a
Journal, the tleview, one department ot
which, called the ??.-caudal Club," dis?
cussed such matters as dueling, swear?
ing and drunkenness. The "Scandal
Club" was, of course, a Petitions or?
ganization (as v is the "Blckerstnft
' lub" In the Taller of Steele and the
i> Coverley Club" in the Spectator),
hut-it furnished a i wnvehli :i .. of
Introducing moral questions, and in
the Tatier and Spectator the club idea
led '. ? those famous churacter sketches
which foretold tho novel' sketches ot
Sir Geoffrey Notch, tho gentleman of
ancient family nnd ruined fortune who
called every thriving 11.1:1 a pitiful up
stnrt; Sir Loger (le Coverley, Sir An?
drew Vre runt, Will Honeycomb and
Che rr t. In 11-ing the club idea Defoe
'.. .1 - h pioneer, as usual, lie was a man
; who in Ills hasty Journalistic work lilt
up,in many literary devices which*
pointed thr- way for men of greater
leisure to lake. He Invented the "let
tor Intt iductory," which corresponds to
the "leading feature" Idea of modern
journalism; he Interviewed noted peo?
ple, good and !??.'!. nod reported In his
pnper what they said nnd what they
iflld nol say: ho wrote what would now
bp called editorials, and he produced
"Robinson Crusoe" and other tales of
realistic < hnractcr. His essays were not
tliii tl productions naid he is import?
ant nr. tin essayist mainly because his
Review suggested to Steele the Tatier,
w bi< i; began In 170:?.
Note. This study will bo concluded
EXAMINATION'S AND CERTIFI
At the end of the term of seventeen
weeks, n series of questions on each
course, prepared by Professor^ Seymour
Eaton, will be published In the Vir?
glninn-Pilot, and blanks containing the
<;u<-rt': 11= will be furnished every sub
1, iltlng application for same.
Two weeks will be allowed after the.
courses close, for the receipt of examl
natlon papers containing answers.
Th papers will be referred to a
B : i of Examiners, who will assist
Professor Eaton, and as soon as tho
Work of examination is complete, the
result will bo reported, and certificates
Issued to the students entitled to them.
Best Baltimore Hums, Mon?
day, Tuesday, Wednesday and
VIRGINIA GROCERY GO.,
D. PEN DER, Manager