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TI1E TURLINGTON FJIEF, PRKSS.
I? AM AND GARDEN.
EVERYDAY OBSERVATIONS AND EX
PERIENCES IN FARM LIFE.
Gntry Ccntlemiui'A Aillco A limit 5,hnp
Ing Appl Trisrii t'o as to fiiiln Pym
metrical Proportion-. Without Mntllat-
In tho accompanying illttitrationa cng-
gostions ore offered for keeping npplo
trees properly primed from tho first
!'ii.rn:o nis trees when yooko.
1 lg. 1 iu tho first cut represents a
young treo when first tot out. It grow
with ii single stvm and n few ride shoots.
Thesis were rut on! no represented, ho as
to form the framowork of tho now hvid.
I;i the conhe of ft year or two, and by
rubbing oft' lipmllosa shoots n they start,
t'r! hrad is lo.'ido to phwho 1ho form
represented by rig. S. By a little yearly
attention in removing r.upnrnninerury
! hoofs as they start tho tree is gradually
brought into 1 ho regular shape in War-in;-
' roprc. fiit 1 after i'.o leaves have
fallen) '''v),'ii by Fig. 1 i.i the second
rut. Fig. '-' o second cut represents
the trio if mi;il ago and ctdtr.re, but
v.ith i.o ii .mi given it fur forming a
i-vinuietr.e ii le ; d, distorted iu shape,
ju a Kvf io,-e m ars l'.:1 owner will find
H neiv:.:.ir i ir'iu olf it'n th" ax or saw
mm ' oi mo large hu.b.s which hnvo
(rrawn out of liinits or proportion, leav
ing large wounds several inches in diatn
( tar, injuring th health and vigor of
the life and endangering d' cay at tho
iVj "' W, i1-
6YM MF.Tt::CAL lirAD DISTOIiTKD IN SltAri!. 1
H 'ine varieties natnnilly grow upright
lie the E'irlv litrawbt-rry and Northern
?py. A :uuv'3 i jireadinfr form may bo
pvinthem in prnniir:; by cutting tho
pho. 'ts jc. t a'.'ove an ontt-ido bud. Others,
lif.-j the Ili:ouP lhir.d xr", nin-r, have a
i':ore sjire.tdlng fro.."ti', and to train tho
oung trees to a more upright shape, cut
the shoots immediately above tho in3ido
A common error in pruning is to thin
out the central portion of tho head, leav
i g tho outi r :ir; denso in growth.
r i.U practice phoull be reversed, and
l i rmi.ir Tinrf. tliiTmrwI. in t t in IIih
'.idiifht on tho center. It should be re-!
i .rmixreil tnalwitnyoungtroesiromtno
nursery, ii pruned a ft r tliey are set in
tin' oroivird, tho xoti must bo done bi
(';. tho bads swell or the- young leaves
l ipand, or clso n formidable injury will
be done the-iu uad thoir growtli senoubly
checked, if they nro not destroyed, by
the retarded operation.
llcjnw ?ith Short I'cUitrreri. i
It often happens t hit a short pedigreed J
horso pcssoiwei qualities which render
him inoro valuable tor general uso Uian i
many of tho highly bred ones. Alfred
S. ci:16J), bought by Mr. Homier for
f'.H.OOO a few months sinco, is one of that
i in. Ho was by Elmo, an 1 Jilmo was ,
1 iv Moluiwk, son oL 'jong Island Black 1
Hawk. The breeding of the dam of Al-
frai S. is nnirjiown. Klino, sire of Alfred
waa from a maru of unknown breed
ing, aud tho same is trno of Mohawk,
i iio of Elmo. Mr. Unmer proaonnces
Alt'rtsl S. a p-iffoet rovl'iter, and no level
headed that In h is int made a break
m-k'o Incoming hu )roperty, altiuiugh
dnring thattiiu'j ho has pulled his owner
. mila to v,Mgi!i on FKwtwood track in
J!, wagon and driver weighing !.77
i i-inuH, Tunro is but little doubt Uiat,
'.: specially fitted for thj eflort, Alfred
could bdat the wagon r(H:ord (E:1G).
.iorsci like Alfred S., taoug'.i not ttand
ard bred, will alwavs mako their mail;
and briug good pric O.nu thing is
sine, they can never producv 1 ( roni
colli bloo.'B.l cart horsoslok, s.iys Horse
Tin Olil Yrllorw I'ir.M'.il.ln.
Hew djiir lo this heirt la t'jei v -li., jvimpMn,
Whoa oruh.irds nrt h.irrja of bt.it.inK Isr picj!
v,'hiinrfchpanlavs'li ... t-'tlip'nafjiiure.
And berrlo' oj n.i L.u is lj ir jt id thu e.vca.
JIo'V lsdJy 7a tiir i t.i L.e rru oil tiin ror:fl(J'l -
TUi fruit that o.ir nil 'n-n ttr iiu?, . to do-
riic oil jUk r rximp'iiu, I arri nrvm-i pump-
Tli-.blBW-i puiipVI'i (.hit ni'.v eno. jrxsl ,
("i, K''lon h'H"i putnpl'lu, v i .rorftly ore "in tt,'
Yon Jslly oil ruival, wi rea.rly bpumd;
Wo u.k ye"jrJo'sicaansof.t-U!,J jtIus wronjed
When tnt.n yoitr ilcr.r ji-?rio3s wo bcornlullj
Cuiuo nJiU.,: Jjwn hill, till we mot ycaand Rrort
Your but'- U a feast ti our f niit hungry eves.
Wo lovu you, oH iiuair-lmi, ss vnll o couM eel
I'or you a: 5 ' I-itIc" wlif.i mvlu hito pirn,
li'.i.iu'n;; Walir for Coii-h,
At ono ' tho Now York farmeni' in
ntituttis Iha quuition wti asked, "What
is tlie chtait wjy to warm water fox
cows?" Cot Curtl', of Sftialoga county,
replied: "If the trough or tank is out of
doors a f Jiect iron Ktove can bo iut into
It with tho pipe leading up through tho
water, and tiv door opening outward at
tmi end of tho trough. Tho pipe and
the door can bo coloured in water tight.
An armXul ot v. oud put into tbii utovo
will varm n lar;) qtiintity of water."
Oeorgo T. Porwll aid, "Ii tho wafer ii
kept in a tann undur ccrver, a uuiall
lamp set iu a tin can will warm Cue
Wwor4xui it fiom Uioiiciiilly."
Slruplo IUMlintla of Urnolns Iho Totta
n (Sir 1110 j.nn ut h j.inci.
Prairie Farmer suggests that at every j
rorner or at Iho end of a jiost nnd wiro '
fi-tico there should bo braco posts to pre- I
vent the drawing of posm sidowiso by ,
tho wiro. Two methods of bracing tho
i il J -r .. ...... ;11...,4 -..r..l
mill Bufflcicntly explain themselves.
SHOWINO THE ERAC1XO OP
Tlie postn of a post and wiro feuco, to
turn cattle and horses, fiitould bo of wood
of tho ordinary r.izo for rail or lxard
funce, and set iu th' ground three feel.
Thu wiro is preferable galvanized, and
tho two Btrand superior to tho tingle
wiro, siuoo tho coulrrtion and expansion
exert comparatively little btrain on Iho
Io3t. As has been huggested, at every
corner and at each end of tho fence then)
should bo braco poti to prevent tho
drawing ludev.'iso of tho potts.
AS AOAIN'ST HTliAIK.
Throe wires, if hnrljod, will turn cattle
and horse.s, br.t four are liotter. Thu
I height of tho fence phould not bo less
I than four and a half feet.
i Cnntmillctnry I'fTecIs of rinterKnlalnnl
Through all tiuvs plaster has boon re
:,'..'ded by many as a direct and very
.tillable plant food, especially fi r clove r.
V others it has been regarded a.j of mi
vilr.e for the good reason that no visiblo
Meets followed its use. In the light of
inure recnt hnowledgo ench contradict
. . v pheno.nena are appaivntly well ex
i '.i u il. sas Uur.il Kuw Yoiker. Plas-
1 ' ; t 's t'.ie i::e 1 or insolublo potash of
i ..ios"H th..!. i-i to say, the sulphu
rii: r.cid of the pl.i-! " cmbines with tho
r.ved potasli of th) .soil, forming .sulphato
j of potrnli whi i iiiolnblii. So, too, it
may act upon I .e i arbonato of amnioina
, of tho suil. which i- volatile, fixing it as
sulphate of .'imnionia. until, as such, it is
used by tiio growing crop or vtses
iiir.iugh 1'f.e -oii in t'i" drainage wait r.
In luu-t ca-i s it is probable that tho
limo of tho gvpMim Ium little, if any,
etl"ct in incrJTi-'ing tho crop upon koiIs
which aio already well supplied with
lime, and yet it is often upon just srarh
suils that gypsum shows r.t iti be.'t. In
n'ch soiU thero is littledonbt that potash,
i .ther in unleached iushes, muriato or
sulphate of potash, would liavo a inoro
immediate tind telling effect upon tho
croo. In this case the needed element
(potash) is given to tho coil in a solnblo
condition; iu tho other, tin- plaster splits
into two parts, to to by, tho linio bo
c carina fixed and the sulphuric acidfeiz
mg upon tho inert potash rendering it
soluble. It will be seen that plaster is
tu.-reforo what may fairly bo called a
Miuiulant an excitant. How greatly
mover it may inert ase tho crop ono w.v
sou, we may look for a proportionate do-
c,ino tl)u llestl
Atlvautues of lltllhr Kooil. i
Tho shy and wherefore of coarsofood
f if catllo is treated as follows by Tho
Animals do not always eat bulky food
for its nutrition, but tometimes as a com
plete change from a sameness of diet,
and becausj tho bulky food distends tho
stomach aud aids di cestiou. A variety
of food of any kin 1 will bo preferred to
one or two articles regularly given. Cat
tle and sheep that are daily allowed hay
and grain, i.' p rmiUed to have access lo
wheat st iw or cornstalks will cat quite
a quantity of sueh materials, and if tho
-;raw or corn t odder is cut up aud groutul
grain added, even horses have been known
lo thrive well on such during tho winter.
Where a liberal supply of grain is al
lowed there is no iUk incurred by feed
ing tho coarse fooils to any class of stock,
anil it is an adv.intig' t j d ) bo in order
to feed less hay when tho s-.isou has not
been favorable to grass aud haymaking.
lUperimuulfl nitli Wheal.
At the Illinois station results gained
in experiments wit h whouD made it ap
pear that for cential lJlinois at least the
application of commercial fertilisers on
this crop is not as a rule xirofi table. The
fertilizers containing phosphoric, acid
generally produce the moot (-d'ect, and
potash lea-st, und good i.table mauuro
vaj) equal to any fertiliser. Between
r.i.o and two bushel, per aero is best for
I Reeding. Scod drilled iu plowed groimd
did liotter than that in corn ground or
loil preparo.1 with disk harrow. The
riper tho wheat the larger tho yk-.ld.
-t'iti.'tto of SikI.-u
On iiaaturcs, meadowa, tipplo or pencil
orchards Joseph Harris advises in his
essay on nitrate of soda to now broadcast,
early in tho Burini. 5)50 nounds nitratnnf
,,.ith . ...;,,. Wnnav.hU, or t,I.
fus.'. acoonung to wo previotw manann;
or tho condition of the land. Alwavs
make suro that thero is no deficiency in
the avuilablo cupply of phosphiton, pot
ash, etc. IE you have any doubt on this
point give tho crop3 the benefit of the
Thero appear reasons lor lxdioving
that tho consumption of mutton sinco
1S7S has increased twice an rapidly tu
tho advanco of population.
Tito latest potato story ia to tho effect
that many of tho tubers that nro being
tsjld nt fauoy price3 as thiu year'u crop
are really old ones wlu'ch havo gone
throngh como kind of a steaming process.
"Juit how far a horso will travel to
return to its own homo," Gays Field and
Farm, "ia not fnlly demonstrated in our
mind, but we know of an lnctnnco where,
a driving gelding traveled all tho way
from IVinvpr to Omaha, a distanco of
about 550 miles."
1 Itemombor thai tho cheapest animals
j ara tho best breeding. nJi
, Ml BS
WHOLESALE SACRIFICE OF RANGE
CATTLE IN THE WEST.
fiomo Ijiii(;naco AVlilcJi Is riiiin on Tlili
Sutjoot Not KnonRli C'owh In tlm United I
Slaton Iu rroiluco .'Hour Clop 'llml Ii 1
Huflclcnt fur t!i Ilein:inl.
Any person who has had access to tho
market reports contained in any of tho
papers published throughout tho conn
try during tho List four yeaiu knows
that tho marketing of cattlo lias been
something wonderful. They'itnow also
that cows nnd calves havo been forced
on tho market, and if tho result has not
been u reduction something in wrong.
Any perron who hart been connecled
with tho range bunne? knows (hat tho 1
oo.;. ot was ii ream lion or sacnlice in
o-vttle, aa it win no longer a profitable!
thing to run r.iugo cattle at the ruling
ju ice, whi. h h.is dropped lower and
lower b.uiso of an overcrowded marl.-1.
Now if t'ris whnlesalo sacrifico which
ha, beiu going on iJnep "P(J has not re
uliel iu a reduction it is one of Iho
so vi ii wonders. (Mil" holding are
n jt incn aiing in thi.i country; on ihi
fontrarv, Uiey have 1kch tailing oft for
.year., and at Ihii moment thorn is such
Increase iu iiuuib?r'i as compared with 1
ff'iiner years tint a j-enerul knowledge j
of th" facts an they exist wouldstimulato
. dues, for tin; rea. on that onco it lw-!
' i ;no generally known just how many
'title there aie in the country, the ship
ment of !-h entile, yearling, calves and '
.i.iripe stuff would ccaso and a shortage
would at onco be se- n. I
Wo h.ivo sa'.d before that the troublo
wit:i market price.? of cattle is ovurmir-
'iotmg, and it is going to bo apparent
ery shortly ihit there are not cows!
enough iu the United States to produce '
i rtccr crop sufii..'ient to hupply tho .
homo demand fur beef if wo should keep '
Hi" she ftock and yearlings oii the mar-J
uet for Ihree year I. Cows are wortii
double the aniotiDt thwwill bring on
the buif markut.) for use at homo if own- I
erwmld only bo conuucod and hold
them olT the mar.ct till tnu actual con-
diti-'M of the product of tho country ha- i
.uies apparent, for the farm onttlo havo '
b 'en as systematically sacrificed as tho I
i.mcro cattle, and the whole matt'-r is go- I
oig t bo forceil upon the country v.ith I
i'1! the horrors of a robbery of beef from
l Ik- dinner tables of tho working classes, j
Take a "hunch" and hang on to any- I
hmg in Iho way of n bejf anim.il till
'.'n shortage appears; it won't bo long
and is inevitable. '
This is the wrong season of the year I
for silver Hnititr editorials, so this cannot
1 e classed as such. Montana Stock
The division of milk cows of the best
known breeds iwhi.i to bo as follows:
Jerrys for butter, Holsteins for checMj
and Ayrshire for both milk and cheese,
'i lie Ayrshire U pobably tho be.t cow
f r the dairyman who supplies nvlk to
city customers. She gives a great ipi'in
tify of milk, and is not such an immense
feeder as thu Ilolatein.
cow in tho picture
pounds of milk in 101
mouths. One ac-
customed to cows would know nt a '
al.inco at her immense udder ihat she1
wonld b.i a famous milker. A huge, well
firmed udder aud lino hair are tho two j
surest signs of a good milker. Ayrshire
butter, iiowever, is rather pale, and needs j
to bo col red.
Tho Ayrshire thrives and is very popu
lar a3 a dairy cow in a hilly, moderately
oold climate, though thero is no reason
to suppose sho would nut do well else-
where. Sho is tho "old reliable" in New I
England and tho middlo states. Ayr- j
v, i i . - !i , -, sis, ". . a
shiros are ea.ily kept, are hardy and ex- , coiBiuc-wguMunousu i., s ... i to .vuier
,...ur,s i,-,wi..M ...... i,.; 4i ! ica, so great was tho deuiand lor drjtt
they are 20 yearn old.
( 'attlo of this breed are of a rich dark
rel color, vi.-.iag often upon brown
aud spotted with wails'. Like all milk
breeds the cows havo hmall, narrow
faces aud muzzles, with thin tails and
dolicato legs. Tho neck tapors finely,
tho hair is sxift and thick, and tho back
is remarkably straight. In a good milk
or tho udder always shows particularly
large behind, au 1 tho teats are set well
apart. Ayrnhiro cows aro very gcntlo
and docile in disposition.
Fait TjiI.o Stork Yanls.
Tho stock yard s i,chcma of Salt Lako
City bids fair to bo consummated, and is
being pushed with commoudablo euter
prWi. Thero aro over 130 incorporator?,
including many Omaha, Kansas City and
Chicago capitalists, as well ua Salt Lako
buriine.sa men. The plana for tho new
yards havo been prepared by Super
intendent fluids, of tho Kansas City
Union stock yards, and cover about
twenty-fivo acroo, including bulMlnc.
stable, yards and slieds for the handling i
ot Kittle, sheep, hogs and horses. Tho
exchange building, which includes tho
office of tho stock yards company, offices
for the various commission firms, proba
bly a bank, otc, has a frontage of about
1U0 feet, is two stories in height, and has
a depth of 00 foot. Tho present plan
also contemplate! a hotel and restaurant
soparato from tho exciiaugo building.
No reason oxista why a largo ami profit
able c-tttlo trado bhouhl not bo built up i
it Salt Kako, whero tho businesa of
Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah can
bo concentrated. Field and Farm,
senator Hampton nays that a thor
oughbred stallion is tho gaiacst cavalry
aorse ill tho world..
AMERICN "STALLION SHOW.
Important Action nl it SlfctliiR of Ifor.o
At a meeting of hore breeders in Chi
cago it was rrolved to fonu an nasocia-'
(ion to bo known us tho American Stal
lion show. Their object,') are to improve
horse of Hie country, and logivoi
annually an exhibition to bo known as 1
Iho American Stallion show. Tho first j
of Iheeo shows i'i to bo given in thu
ppring of LSI)!.
Tho association will nteo be direclly in
iensted in ei'biig to prcpari rt creditabto
live stock di.i; lay at Iho World's fair in
1H9J. All horse breeders in good stand
ing throughout tho country nro invited
to become m"iuliers of tho arsociatiuu
and aid it in all ways. Committee.! havo
bei-u appointed lo draft a constitution i
and bylaws for tho new society, and tho ,
eo lor cerlihcato ot mpmb"rs.hti) was
!Vp:iictious for menib"rliip can bo
filed with either of tho following gentle
men: S. I). Thompson, Chicago; CHiarles
IJnrges:-, Winona, Ills.; It. P. Steriiker,
Siiriugii'-ld. Ills.; J. Murray Iloag, .Ma
i)Uol:et:'.. I i : A. Oilman, V. atseka, Ills.;
(,'imrles F. Mill. Springfield, 111,: Archie
(albri1h, .I'lrirwi'le, Wis.; (.'luirles K,
Mnbbs, I'airlield, l.i.;.T. t). Conui-r, Vv'a
bah, Ind.. and W. If. Uoodpasturo,
Following are 1h" reasons net forth for
the formation of the. organization, to
gether with f.ome of tho resolutions
Whereas, The profit in bivedint; horses
largely depends up. m i'a.. advantages en
joyed for celling h'oek nt an advunce
over tho cost of production, and
her'as, The demand for titr.llions of
approved breeding and individual excel-
Unco of tho v.-.nous bn d I of hor.se
I laig 'ly exci-ds t'.io pweni supply, and
Nv'hereas, Th"grat majority of breed
ers of stallions lack tho necessary facil
ities for meeting purchasers ,.nd making
advantageous sates at tho season when
stallions are generally selected, and
Whereas, Tho developuu nt of the
commercial industries and the rapid ex
tension of the vast farming intercut of
tiiis country will make a corresponding
inctea.se iu tho future demand for good
i horse.,; and
Whereas, The interests of breeders of
stallions aud parties desiring to pur
chase the s.un" can b. greatly promoted
by the cslf.bho'uiueut of a tpriug stall
ion thow that will bring such parties
aud tho stock lugelher ut somo access
ible point, th. refore bo iu
llemlved, Thutlho breeders and im
porters of horbes her nsbCtnbled favor
tho establishment of an organization
to be known as tho American Stallion
Show, and invite breed' r.s of tho recog
nized breads of stock to become mem
bers of the association.
Hesolved, That each of tho associa
tions engaged in tho publication of stud
books for tho improved and distinct
breeds of hors-es bo n quet( 1 in desig
nate a representative br-jder, making a
specialty of the breeding of such stoi.k,
to servo on tho advi.-oiy committee of
Ktfolvcd, That the president and sec
retary of the Stud Book association ro
feried to above biiould, in tho opinion of
tho meeting, be apjiointcd lupirmtend
ent and clerk to take charge of and
make full report relating lo the exhibits
of tho breeds represented by their re
lirsolvcd, That tho judges appointed
to pa.-s upon the various improve i or. i .Is
of hor-es exhibited at tho American
Stallion Show should be selected by thu
official board of tho respective Stud
Iolnts of Intnrest.
' The question whether mutton sheep
' will improve in prijo nexc season is
I mixed. Tliero is borne prosp ct, how
ever, that breeding sh.ep of the mutton
build will bo iu active d-mand, sineo
both in tho north aud southwest agri
culturists are engaging more and more
iu sheep farming.
In grading up your flocks and herds
ulways uso a full blooded sire.
Tho tendency at proojnl is to import
fewer draft horses aud le;t'".' ou -s lrom
r.nrope. In Fngland, Soutl.tn I and
Francj for tho past few ynr. iisjoms
as if anything and every tain r has be. n
r I I l - . . t t .
i horses and so ignorant apparency were
I American breeders of 1 1" pjiuu o.' a I
' mally first diss animal. Now, howover,
j our breeders and importers havo had
I their eyetooth cut. They have imported j
1 this year fewer draft ho-ie.s than last
year, but tho ones that cany pre of
higher quality. ,
Hero i3 a noto for fanners aud impe-1
cunious agriculturists to remember: Tho j
universal testimony of butchers and meat i
ilonlt.ra In Hint, ihn lnr.h ltt.f it, th. ni:if. I
i ket, that wliich commnnds the highest ,
price, is tho homo fattened steer or lieiu-r ,
wluch tlio small farmer smghout lrom
his few cattlo and ixdls. Tiie'demand
for meat ia so great that of course the ,
large herds shipped eat by the car lo.nl I
aro a necessity, but the sweetett aud
tenderost, that which commands tho I
most money, comes from tho little
bunchco of homo grown beef, aud don't ,
W. T. Woodard's fecond combination '
horso breeders' sale of tho (season will !
take placo at Lexingtou, Ky., Feb. 10 to
".5. All broeders of first class horsc3 :iro
allowed to bring their animals to this
salo and dispose of tbom.
Somo of tho best sheep raitsora begin to
breed their ewes on Christmas day.
Of course nobody can tell much about
it for certain, but tho prospect is that
better prices will ba v ilir.ed for cattlo
the latter part of the .. .nor than was
tho caso during tho 1 'irlnniug of tho
reason. There was a gr. . U 1 f boef
cattlo to market iu tho f.. '. f'" i i.
wt;t and northwest, because i' ' 1 . a
aud water wero scarce. That nu..
ing ovor, good prices for prime stocu
cm liardly fail to bo realized.
Nevor keep a crooked tailed cock as a
BUTTEli AND OTIEESE.
CAN BEST BE
It .Unit Always l!n lloino In .ninil That
tlo ajnjnrlly of American (lonmimeri
Want ii .llllil Olieose 'flicy Will IUm
ttin llnst or None.
According to a New York grocer tho
demand for cheese is probably affected
by Iho quality almost more than any
other article of food. Iu tnis country it
is its j et a comparative luxury, although
in Europe it is as much u staple na meat,
ooiif.einiently tho majority of our p-oplo
call for ciceso only its tho pal.ito ii
pleased. The nvenigo American will
eat t"u pounds of choice chee.,e, win : i
, lw would not cat ono pound of po n
cheese. From these facts it is cvidi tit
that if the ictailer wonld build tiji a
I good trade iu i hecso ho must havo tlif
I very beft t'i market affords. It is very
poor ceon.Miy and detrimental lo his
trade to buy it when off in ipuality he
I can-so it is ( no, two or thrco cents per
I ifoiind cheaper.
I I livl.if. 1 1 1, I , niv.i'otim I 1 fl,n
I p.tuuAnvA ..? ,.,.o.". .i,lr, hihl'(,,.i.
try, our d"inaud has increased very
lariely, us is ; howu by tho fact that only
I a fi w yu.irs s-inco only about 10 per cent.
of our product was consumed at horns,
while U') per cent, was esporlel. Thtn
very lew but "skims"' wero mado west
ot Nov York, while now a ukim cheese
is an exception even in the west; and
conditions nro reversed, as we export
only about 10 per cant, of our pijduct
and consume at homo 90 per cent., and
this in tho immense increase of produc
tion, Wisconsin alone producing Irom
her 000,00.') cows .10,000,000 pounds of
cheese annually, and this is compara
tively a new industry in that state.
Much i hecso is lost or damaged by not
being properly taken c.iro of. Iu sum-
mer it should bo kept in tie; ceolost place
possible, and so covered that flu s cannot
get at it; a tight cheese safe or refrig
erator is beiit. No grocer should bo
without ouj or tho other, for if covered
with tho bos only or a cloth Iho fly is
almost sure to get in. Onco cut and ex
posed tho little sdupper fly lays its eggs;
they soon hatch and you have skipper
chee se. Tho average American is prej
udiced against eating tkippcrs with his
thee.-o and crackers.
Many people have a mistaken idea
about swollen cheese, flunking that, as
in a can of fruit, fermentation and de-compo.-ition
have set in and il, is spoiled.
Tiny could not bo more mistaken; a
chiv.;o being swollen does not indicate
that it is damaged in the least. The
chemical action taking place in proc
ess of curing generates a gas; if Mib
j cted to ft high tempeiaturo it forms
faster than it can escapo through the
natural pores, thus causing it to swell,
and if cut the escaping gas often gives
an unpleasant odor. But if allowed to
stand it will pas-.s off, and in a few hours
not a trace of it is to bo detected.
We have been in factory curing rooms
on warm days when half tho cheeses on
tho .shelves wero swollen, but tho fac
loryinen did not for a moment consider
them damaged, but turned them daily,
aud if badly bwolleu ran a nei die into
them, thus giving tho gas a chance to
escapo, and they got back into chape as
soon as cooled off.
Wo must cater to the demands of con-
finuiers, tho majority of whom want a '
mild cheese, whilo it is a positive fact'
that if well cured, nliarp or tasty it is
much mom healthy and inoro easily di-1
nil st..l: in filet If vnrv nlil if. i; mii ;ii,l tn I
digestion, and is often recommended to
tho dyfpcptic to bo taken after a full
meal. Y,T estcrn Stockman.
To jTCsent cheeso in perfection a gro
cer should not buy too much of it at a
time, as it is apt to get hard and fctile
uu his hands. Two weeks' supply at
once should bo tho limit, wliilo one
v. ek'a is still better. Tho cheeso is bet
ter kept in tho still, cool room of tho
maker than anywhere else till it is
ready to bo eaten.
Bemcmbcr this: It does not pay to
feed heavily a scrub cow for milk when
you can get one of a well known milk
breed for a moderate prico nowadays.
Tho blooded milker cats no inoro than
tho profitless beast.
Tho internal revenue receipts from
oleomargarine had a Etcep fall in the
past year. Tho main reason 13 Eaid to
bo that real butter has been so cheap
and plentiful. Another reason is that
tho dairy states havo forced their legis
latures to pata snch stiff restrictive laws
that tho oleo orticlo ha3 almost been
driven from tho market in someof thorn.
A favorite law in some of the states is
ono compelling inaktra of oleomargarine
to tint it n beautiful pink color.
Tho Minnesota agricultural experi
ment station liaa found that by washing
butter in tho granular state with brine
tho full amount of salt is incorporated
with tho butter.
Field and Farm asks iti readers if it
ever occurml to them that milking a
cow without first wetting her teats will
cause her rullk to leak from tho teats.
Somo lots of butter wero eliipped from
Australia to London, and reachod their
destination when tho butter was two
luoutlia old. It was found to 1h in good
condition, and brought a lino prico,
Thoso who shipped it from Australia
claim that it was prepared by mixing
with it fomo "preservative" alonir with
! tho rsalt. and tJiis was what lier.t it iu
j juimo condition. What is tliis preserva
tive, and 13 it any sort of poison, either
quick or t-low? If butter is kept suffi
ciently cold it will remain in good con
dition au indefinite time.
Dairy and farm butter should bo sold
directly to consumers to bo profitable.
The; 0 aro a few tolerably eure signs
of a p ir butter maker. Ho never is
.eeii ut ''airy conventions or butter
.d he never takej a paper. He
1....: . 'asy butter in tmiamer and
u oozy tmttor 111 winter. Anil you
would bo apt even to catch him smoking
j cluso to tho milk and batter.
Tbo JMau Olvf n liy u (l?orrr'i rorrpnnml
ent In Southern lrm lor JlaKiirR One.
I am using a tripod I ',ir
at top on hinges so thai t' "
spread out, ( r drawn up i -v
stick hi ;h enough to w o,
hoicht to ' i lit th? prso i u
1 1- i
j i id
. X 'I
' 1 1
up through th" opuiing w!i"
legs are hinged together t,
being rounded toab.ut lii '' o
pin to lit ;n a half inci' 1. o
center of n.rponteM' level
enough to reaeii the gl. i S
stnniient on a level plac i; br
lc- el: tlv n talto a light )!
h.df f.n inch thick, two ok e .
about coven feet high; f l t'n i
end of your level, and n ai .i '
(( Ul'of tho exact h. ii'l i t !
dl be a Hero point whi 'h w ,
used when a level lino i i to l
Above and below this i i.ir's- l
marks about two inches uji'tri ,
f r tir a
ber them 1, 2, 0. -I. etc,
phicos ubovo and below.
In the cut f bowing this
inent A is the carpenter'
' I ir
. i; !
t- m i ;
nu!it riff about 4 feet; (
graduat-1 rod; R, aero pot.i
rod sh'ini 1 i
white; marks above aM b-!ow?
numbers painted black; z i , r ' i
a ro'ic XAtr. i :
It may bo thongbt 'in'
will be too difficult of
so, mako tho common A l
about one rod, and plae iv:
floor, put a two inch b : i
foot and tlion f ist"ii t'i - i
level on the cross pi"" v t 4
on tho elevated side i
make tho babble stan . v
Iu using this instrumei t .
the end under which , i t
block up hill, sticking i p n
every time it is brought : i ..
dicatod by tho in trum . .
Some Cui:rlnhIou9 Al-e ' -Director
J. W. Sanbr , i
expeninent station, dev. t , ..
tho description of pk.- t
chiefly to dptormino
draught. I"r.,in tin to 'i
br:-. !ly tho fol'owing v '
that colilter.saddtothe'.ia. .
second, that t-uefcs mid ; t
lwam Lsseii draught au 1 ..J '
formity of tho furrow .
work of tho plowman. i .
shares aUo ci..se draugh' .
Again, wliea the nil;;, )' :
to take land by adjiuti. .
forming a lino at an air. .- ,
thtro was a loss of dra i. '.
of draught was found i.
share was inado strai;1'
straight on itj land sidi . o-,
a slight gain was recoil :.
ing tho hitch sl'glaly ie
draught of the plow. - '
bulky plow having in
wheel running in th 'irr ,
ing of a shorter kin si . 1
draught aud c , .
Walking jilu.v- n. .. s
dniuglit than did t . rpl - ,
but not a lu-uvrial ei .1 . . "
Lie ! u-ruw up to 1
widih 1 f th 1 plow ' ' i
quired to turn a r:r .
Alter p.t-.-hu this ,. tut. 1
a clovtr sward si . . i v s
tinues to decrease, ' 'ie-: ;
tiins the cEiei. ,al -i .1 1 I
tho surface ii w.i,f' li..' trr
depth there was an i.-i r r
stjuarv inch of soii ti ;.
Tlie 01.kslllt'Htitii of r.,r ry
Tho utility of breeis ' s .. v I ' 1
threo classes by Tho (i-n.i . . ,t -graph:
l. For egg l'-irui ,
Miuorcas, Aiuuibi i.nir. A'
ish, etc. 2. i'or tab e I s
I'rahmas, Coc hins, ! . .
broileis, cru.ssi's ot li it . . 3
above. !!. For gen l l":. .'
outh llov loll .
Langshans, etc. v. . i
man cm secure bet r i
ing according to tin U-,.i.
interebted. For iu- "
would be a very slo cm. ,
birds from chvss No. '. i' t
supply could nut b" s cur .
I. And whero both aie , , I
only a limited snpely of ,
clarr.s No. o will fill the !'.. -l
for a groat many failur -
not fcelect their varie,.
This year wo have secur l ; i i
for broilers irom t'.m Wj . i
their pnniy, but still fo '. .
tho equal of thatlloudi-i i i
we tried last cannot be s 1 1
hom makes a good cross .1 1 j
Asiatics or American c' :-- ,
and t ho.-e who havo t rie, 11' I
ou Cochin claim tuty 1.1 . 1 ,t
r.iriu I.'ol, s.
Few materials equal g ' i 1 1
for fattening nuimaK e a
A quart of kerosene, co j
nothing, v.-ill save many vu . - .
from becoming rusty. t.-i. .,i
with a paint brush. Itwdldn a
to any kind of implement.
Corncobs abound largely ' 1 r
hence every one of them shmil 1
fully paved and used as fa 1, t .
to lw bCJittered in tho 0rch.1i 1.
Coarse fodder aud other r
may be used witli advani.i : , I
tiling better must bo given :i .s
variety of food that kei'ps 1.1
health and profit.
Hogs must bo kept clevi 1
tho mud, us many enb aio 1
filth and cold. Kop thi u 1
warm now when tho uig'ni, ; .
long and cold.
Make it a rule not to ovtrf 1.
that every trough is clem U'oio