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AGES of the EARTH
WHAT is tho ago of the world? How old
arc 'certain fossil remains? When did
man first appear on earth? How long
go in the world's history did this or that event
take place? Thcso are some of the questions
' that geologists aro called upon to answer.
Disappointment or impatience is commonly
expressed because definite figures arc not forth
coming in reply to theso and similar questions,
yet n majority of people are inci-cdulous or sleep
1 tical if tens or hundreds of thousands of years
are mentioned in connection with recent geologic
events, and millions of years in connection with
those that preceded them. The avorago person
has only a vague conception of the extent of
geologic timo or the slowness of biologic evolu
tion and physiographic development, and it is
difficult for the finite mind to grasp the meaning
, of millions, when applied to years, Unless the fig
ures can bo visualized by some scale of comparison
or by some method of diagrammatic representation.
A method utilized in lectures and apparently
with satisfactory results is described in the Scien
tific American by Arthur Hollick. The basic idea
"LV?"' '? clock or c,lart is ma,,e lo convey an idea
( of the time factor by translating years into terms
of hours and minutes. This chart is based upon
(1) an assumed age for the earth of 72,000 000
t .years, which is a fair average of the many esti
rnatos made by physicists and geologists, and (2)
the ratios between the several geologic time divi
sions as estimated by geological authorities.
The clock dial, representing the age of the
earth, or the cosmic day, is divided into 24 hours'
hence each hour is equivalent to 3,000,000 years
of geologic time. The estimates of the geologic
time ratios arc to the effect that pre-Paleozoic.
Paleozoic and Mcsozoie time are respectively
twelve, eight and three times the duration of
ISeozoic time, in which wo live today. If these
ratios are applied to the hour divisions of the
clock dial the following results arc secured
Pre-Paleozoic timo, 12 hours 30,000,000 year"
Paleozoic time, S hours 24,000,000 years
Mcsozoie time, 3 hours 9,000,000 years
Neozoic time, l hour 3,000,000 years
By subdividing each of tho timo divisions into
It appropriate geologic periods the approximate
antiquity of each period is indicated.
The even subdivision of pre-Paleozoic timo
into Azoic and Eozoic is purely arbitrary, as is
THE aviator is greatly dependent upon tha
wind. If he does not like tho wind at one
level it is his-privitatjc and his duty to, seek
'another level at which the prevailing air currents
'arc more favorable to his voyage. But this as
sumes that tho pilot knows where to seek such a
favoring wind; and this is not always in accord
with the facts.
, Tho t .lited States weather bureau is greatly
interests . in tho meteorological . problems that
Confront the aviator, for it scc3 here an oppor
'tunity to get its findings into immediate practical
application in a way which the still Uncertain
, ground weather prediction cannot yet hopo to
duplicate. The bureau has accordingly paid a
,rreat deal of attention to investigating wind con
ditions aloft. It will bo recalled, for instance,,
, that during tho period preceding tho transatlantic
flight?, one of tho bureau's men -was constantly at
hand in Newfoundland to advise tho aviutors as.
to weather conditions over the ocean, while thcro
was likewise published by the weather man "a
comprehensive discussion of alt tho meteorological
considerations involved in transatlantic flying. '
.Considerable new equipment is called for In
r the effort to take good account of the atmospheric
Is LIFE in CITY
PROF. O. C. Glaser of tho University of Mich
igan calls attention in Good Health Maga
zine to an interesting comparison made
"from army statistics between tho physical fit
ricss of city boys and thoso from the country
"In order to determine whether tho average
of physical soundness is higher among country
boys than among city boys, tho following com
parison was made: Selection was made of a typ
ical set of cities of 40,000 to C00.000 population,
with no largo immigrant element, and distrib
uted over 10 different states (Alabama, Arkan
sas, California, Colorado, Kansas, Montana,
Nebraska, New York and South Carolina) and u
corresponding set of counties of the snino total
aizc, located in tho same states and containing
no city of 30,000, tho total number of registrants
of the Globe
Three Million Years.
also the. indicated time duration of the several
geologic periods, except in connection' with'-the
Quaternary, which is assumed to include tho last
500,000 years of cosmic tirnp, equivalent to the
last 10 minutes of the 24th 'hour, and lo represent
the timo that' lias elapsed since tho appearance of
man; and if any one should wish to indicate the
historical period of human affairs it would bo
represented approximately by the' final 12- seconds
of the dial, representing approximately COOCfyears.
In studying tho various; ages of tho earth sci
entists learned that the globe is not an, absolutely
unyielding solid: There are sev.eral methods for
evaluating tho elasticity of- tho whole earth and
tho results arc a little surprising.
for the AIRMEN
conditions .above the earth. The clement' yi alti
tude' has always its significance, "but ; "never such
. a paramount. one ag in, this connection.
One1-of the new rai"ds to. aviation .described in
"the Scientific American, is. a .wind map which
shows how fast and from what quarter the wind
is blowing at various altitudes. This, of course,
is not an instrument of observation' ; it is simply
an ingenious .little scheme for recording in mo3fc
convenient form, the results of observation and
inference.' But as an ingenious scheme it surely
takes front rank.-
The win'd is represented by arrows. Thn Hi.
rection of the arrow indicates of course the direc-
tion of the wind; its leugih is proportional to the
velocity. Tho height is indicated .by the concentric
circles vlnc'lr' forjn the background of the dia
gram i' the quarter in whicli the observation is
made is .shown by tho position of tho arr,ow on,
tho circumference of, its circle, and u'convenient
means of reading of this feature of the map is af
forded by printing in a few of the radii.
What' appear to be crossed arrows, are merely
overlapping arrows, where winds'of substantially
tho same direction but varying velocity havo. been
found at different times, in tho same point
HEALTHIER Than in COUNTRY?
in tho two areas being 315,000. Tho result of the
comparison was as follows: Of 35,017 regis
trants in urban areas, 9900 wero rejected; of
44,402 registrants -in, rural areas, 12,643 were
rejected, or 28,47 per. cent, of- the city boys and
27.90 per cent, pf tho country bbys.1 Tho result,
therefore, wns practically n tie, snowing that tho
country boy docs not posscs'S a greater degrco of
the physical soundness necessary for his accopt
onco as a soldier."-
This is in a way an experiment in heredity.
Tho scienco of eugenics' should include experi
mental tests as to any rncasurnblu effects pro
duced by a chnngo in tile" environment. Such
changes are technically known as "modifications."
If two populations havo the- sumo average hered
ity and uro subjected to divcrso environments,
any changes noted may bo presumably referred
At .ic! to
. Vi IT.MIIHIFIl IVIfltr Jr . CJmAW III . 'Jill K TJ i S.1 1 J .1 KTi.rr", iXTiWTlWiaW m -o m
mmm ' i HIP, .iii.1 mmwAS
3?WM I';!! ill m7
,Y w "cww i n ut w 1 Hut BJKSSKuyk u k. 1 i!
points out, have an amplitude less than that they
would have if tho earth were absolutely rigid and
from this difference the rigidity of tho earth may
be calculated. On this method it appears that
tho earth is about as rigid as if it were composed
wholly of steel.
Are There Really
! Murder Months?
HAVE you ever heard of tho "Almnnack of
Crime"? It is one of tho most remark
able almanacs ever published, and is the
result of many years' research by a well known
European crimo expert, who has been steadily
collecting statistics for it nearly all his life.
The origin of this unique almanac is very sim
ple. Like a good many others, tho expert thought
not only that crime wan more common during
certain months of the year, but that certain
crimes occurred more frequently in one month
than in another. No one else, however, has taken
the trouble to test the theory thoroughly, and so
' the nlmnnac was born.
Tho compiler found that most cases of murder
occurred in January, Juno and August, and few
est in November, December and February. Tho
favorite month with poisoners is May, while the
month they liked least is September. September,
in fact, is one of the least "crimey" months in the','
Just as murderers dislike November and De
cember, it was just in these months that burglars
and thieves generally got busy. Forgers,, as ono
might havo expected, chose round about qua'rter
days moro frequently than any other time3 in" tho
year to show their skill.
The MANY Strange USES for CORK
COItK was known to the ancients. Pliny do.
scribes tho Roman fishermen ns U3ing floats
of cork to support tlleir fishing nets. Cjrk
was used by tho Romans in tho construction o
buoys for rivers and in facilitating swimming;
or history records that the soldiers! whom, Cnmil
.'"lus sent to tho Capitol when, it was besjeged by
'jho Gauls put on a light drees with cork .under it,
and when they .arrived at the vivcr Tiber they
bound their clothes upon their .heads,-placed tho
cork under their arms, and so swam across.
Cork was used by tho Roman sandal-makers
'for soles, and they sometimes applied it very
to the actions of the differing environments. Two
distinct populations can, however, rarely havo
tho same heredity.'' Selections acting through'
migrations and through survivnl of tho fittest
make the inborn qualities of different popula
tions necessarily 'dissimilar.
Somo forces in city life must havo been favor
able to tho 'health of its growing manhood, somo
unfavorable; and tho samo may be said for lifo
in tho country. It might hnvo been thought that,
on tho whdle, tho advantage of fresher air and a
more aimplo routino would have shown itself ia
this test, and that the country boys would havo
won. These results do not, of course, mean thnt
it is not a good idea, when ono is ill or run down,
to take a trip to tho country. In many ways tho
chunge wrought upon the individual is immcdiato
Kfvmi!pr Fintnr Hrrilre. 11)20.
Still another' method is based on observations
made on the displacements Df. the poles. If the
earth were absolutely rigid' this movement, it is
estimated, would have a period of 305 days. Tho
actual period, however, i longer, and the differ
ence enables scientists to calculate the elasticity
of the earth.
The Stupid SQUID
rl-' HE government fisheries bureau is now ex
I perinientin'g with the production of evapH
rated squid in cans. It is recommended as
Americans have never learned to appreciate
the squfd. T,hat is where they have missed some
thing. Toothsome? Oh, my!
Other peoples have been enjoying this luxury
right along for "centuries, and we have known it
not. The Chinese and Japanese esteem tho squid
most highly as a comestible. In Chili it i3 served
at restaurants of the best class. Many Ameri
cans 'in-San Francisco, where it is commonly sold
in the markets, have learned to like it. Even in
New'YorTt it finds not a 'few consumers fresh
out 6f water among the foreign-born population.
The squid is not a fish, but a mollusk. Though
related to tho octopus, it is quito different. It
is highly valued as bait by fishermen, who, after
big storms, gather' enormous quantities of thcso .
. curious animals on the beaches, where they are
likely lo be found heaped in "windrows."
The squid when full grown is less than a foot
long. It always swims 'backward, its organ of
locomotion being a siphon through which it ex
The squid has a weakness for staring at a
bright light. This ofttimcs proves its undoing.
Suppose a I'alm night with a bright moon.
Whole, Hocks of squids, staring fascinated at the
lunar orb, swim backward and run upon the shora
opposite tho moon, becoming stranded.
thick in order to increase the stature of thosa
ladies who wished to be thought taller than they
Tho ancients kept their wines in casks and it
as drawn off as wanted. When bottles first
came into use tho primitive mnterial used as
stoppers consisted of the root of liquorico, which
was cut and formed to tho shape of corks. Thesa
roots are still- often used in North America for
the making of bottlo stoppers, and it was not
till tho manufacture of glassware became general
that the practice arose of storing wine in bottles
Mid then and not before the value of cork as a
stopper for bottles became generally, acknowl
edged. Thenco came the saying, "This wine ia
corked" meaning it tastes of the cork.
Imperviousnoss to air and water Is a rare
quality which cork possesses over any other
known material; besides, it convoys no disagree,
able taste or' flavor to tho liquid.
There is much spare material in the cutting
of corks,"whlch is all utilized. Tho shreds ara
ground into powder and mixed with melted India
rubb'ery whiqh forms kamptulicon, and is more
durable than floorcloth. Models arc mado of cork
burnt-cork makes Spanish black for artists and
colormen, boys learn swimming on cork sup.
ports, lifeboat men wear cork jackets, and
whero tho cork tree grows pails and tubs are
mado of cork; tho roofs of the houses are lined
with cork. And whnt ia moro comfortable than
a pair of cork socks to keep our feet dry?
Cork is the soft clastic bark of a kind of oak
which grows in tho south of Franco, Italy, Spain
and in the greatest perfection in Portugal. Tho
wood of the trco is of small value except for fuel.
the MOVIE CAMERA
REPLACE the DIARY?
I UIB making of movies of a New York wedding, tho othor
I 1 - . i U 1 - 1 1 ' I. L 1 1
unit uiu uuujjiu cuuiu iiuvo an aniniu.uu ittuiu ui
now are having motion pictures made not only ot
but of anything else that will help fill out a com-
1 1 f 1 1 I , ill II-
pietc picture rueoru ai mis cartniy Fpan irom mo tmuiv
to tho grave."
Many persons are now using tho motion pic
ture camera where the pocket picturo machine
uscu to suit icc. dvcry once in a wnuo mo cnu
dren are photographed at their various activities,
winter and summer. If a new automobile Is
bought the first rldo is made the' subject of a.
picture, which is later flashed on the screen.
When a trip South or to a mountain summer re
tort 13 made the movie camera records the story
An afternoon tea is made the subject of at loast
a few hundred feet of film. In fact, the citizen of
the future niay write down his daily experience
about as follows:
"March 1 Arose and had a picturo made ot
my wife serving coffeo from a new silver urn,
which she prizes highly, as well she msnt, for it
cost mo many of these sadly depreciated dollars
of today. Arrived lato at office, as I stopped on
the way and had a picture made of an extremely
interesting clash between an automobile and a
reot car. Home early to dinner, after having
bad a. motion picture made of my new office.
"March 3 Up late, following a banquet, at
which "pictures were made of men drinking the
lust few bottles of champagne still available.
Photographed the children sledding and regrej
that I havo no picture that will show them tho
shape of my old sled, a long, low, rapid affair,
much superior to tho sleds of today. Tom
Brown of our local office is to depart for tho
far West to open a branch house, and he was
made the subject of a motion picture at luncheon
In the late afternoon photographed my wife in
her new coat. Had to chide our secretary for
failure to order more film, as I wish to photo
graph tho new Persian cat and the collie( puppic
In fact, it is pointed out the memoirs and
autobiographies in the future are all quite likely
to be regarded as out of date unless they have
motion pictures as adjuncts. It is not going to
be enough for the Boswell of tomorrow to say
that his biographical subject delivered such and
such a speech on a certain day there must be
motion pictures to show him in the ai;t of deliver
ing that speech. All of which will.b'o quite po
Hihlo. it is tiointed out. if motion picture ma
chines continue to invade the home as1 biograpM-
cal necessities as they are doing today.
As a SEA FOG&
They might easily turn about and swim s-a-
ward again, but intellect is not tho squid's strthg
point. Invariably, under such circumstances, it nns
itself further aground by pumping water throu;h
its siphon with all its might, and so it perishes.
Fishermen take advantage of this stupid crei
ture's weakness by going out in boats wifi
The Squid Is a Mollusk and Is Related
to the Octopus.
torches and advancing slowly toward the sen
beach. Tho squids swim backward whilo gating
upon the light3 and finally run ashore. Then if.
only remains to collect them in baskets.
yaried Symptoms of Eyestrain
r itt symptoms of eyestrain ure varied. A
I common symptom Is congestion or inflam-
mation of the edges of tho eyelids; not in
frequently that goes on to tho formation of
stye. Headache, especially an evening headache,
is ono of tho most frequent results of eyestrain;
cyeaehe, coming on early in tho day, as soon as
ono begins to use the eyes, is not uncommon.
Indigestion that does not yield to dieting and
drugs sometimes disappears as if by magic when
eyestrain Is corrected. Eyestrain cannot always
be corrected merely by fitting the eyes with the
proper glasses, for it may be that tho underlying
cbubo is systematic, and that the treatment calls
for tonics, good feeding and rest from overwork