p Wmj 'm
I . tW.Vv.; carded chrysalis from the boiled cc
8 . V t !!xN-1!'5,C;.-,',, ' I coons, of which they arc permitted to
B3W.',' -; . -x:JS, a- i?Saw fteQMIW" 'this a popular food; so this may not 1
Silk Industry In J hantung Dales Back At Least 2500
Years - Woi'ms Feed On Scrub Oak Factory
Conditions rar From Ideal.
Copyright, lU-'O, The International Syndicate.
,V U OfTlNO?"
is yes! tll','', P'ac
v) an wants to lake from China."
J' i it Is famous fur other
r It was the home, for in
.m. of -ho Br -at philosopher, Con
i lbs gpvitist of Chinese sages.
If t o l'uriu." wero to. return to earth
iJay, af cr an absence of 2,000 years,
n v k through his nntlvo province,
vet, id Unci many things Htlll the
"ami. T'.is would bo true of at least
r intl istry which Is a moat tmport-
i) oni in this densely-populated tor- Oak Loaves Food For Silk Worms
o y xr i which has been the prin-
Ing must consider in looking out for
their future Industrial welfare.
Where are the mulberry trees? Is
a question which a stranger visiting
Shunning for the first time and wan
dering about over a hillside, might
ask. Ik hud been told that many of
the farmers raised cocoons as part of
their agricultural activity; and In his
mind the cultivation of cocoons had
always been associated with mulberry (strength.
leaves. Hut nothing answering that ,.,.,..,i n.i.n. nitir nr mn.ir.
description was visible.
I in Shantung; and there are differences
iiu the operating method, also In the
1)0 as great a hardship as might bo
The odor of steaming cocoons com
bines with those of kerosene lamps
land of the human beings In these reol
lng establishments to make ventilation
most desirable and most necessary;
and yet practically no provision Is
.made for this sanitary mensuro. A row
.of reeling tubles Is placed along each
:vall of the long, narrow, one-story
T.,r....l l,n t..1lnl,l .......
.Ot.-.lU i HJ IllliaillLl WUS 11 V UV . .. , 11.1 ,-.-. .1.-
I! ,1 nr MT-umn of hnn.lrmk nf tt.nn. 1 1. - ..... ....... . WUKOH ami L'OIIU UlOllS Mirruu .1U111H lliu
Mi.d. of he people there, and the his answer; for it Is on the scrub oak Wlrkers- rllorc ar0 ll,,'co klnds
mr nl o.-cupation of many others, for and not on the mulberry that the sill: !""1B' es; Nmgluils, Shantungs and
nnirics. Uvni-in In timt mirt nf'ni.m,, Kanflhans. The Ningbala of high
Pi- s 'he reeling and weaving of Sericulture la .suffering because of the iuali.y. both light and heavy weight. UnUcd guUc( cun. . for caeh
,s or Shantungs. The same antl-fact that the natives have been cut- are made en irely of local llk; in the ; an( ,n ,,dtlltIon rpcclve whtlt
i. d sry.e of wheel la used for reel-' ung down many of thoso trees fur 1 modlum dnahtles the warp Is of Mng-,s ,eft nfter u haVQ flnlhc(J
ng ' te tinre; anu tno native farmers i ,j,eli' domestic requirements. This ,uu "'"i- u,e "l,ul ul ,"",ulu""" i""i,llhe piece.
width. As a matter of fact, however. ! there Is more uniformity In that varl- building, with a narrow nislo between
the delivered product is usually a little 'cty. he tables Lnder these conditions It
under these figures, both as to length i I" 'H.c Factories d" " "'onder there is heavy mortality,
and width. The method, by which I Working conditions In the city differ 1 .Manufactured
these workers are paid Is held to bo, widely from those In the country, the I In order to soften the sorecln or
accountable for this deficiency. They Hatter being far superior to the'sllk gum and set free the fibre, the atrophied.
loom of western countries. Practi
cally all of them are built to bo op-
eat as much as they desire. Tho narrated by one man. It is necessary at
Hmno In iter n cMttrMrtliv nMflt fllfffil
Itlvos in that region, however, consider j, ' ' . , J,,,
tho usual size, which is from thirty
three to thirty-four Inches. Tho two
man loom Is seldom satisfactory, how
ever, for tho shuttles are not thrown
with tqual strength and tho fabric 1 1
i consequence is not uniform.
Tho Worm And Cocoon
Cocoons are gathered In Juno anc
September. Tho Spring Crop ii
smaller but of better quality than the
Autumn Crop. Tho Autumn Crop, for
one thing, Is darker In color. After
tho cocoon opens In April, tho moth
or imago, requires four or flvo days t(.
spread and dry its wings and reac1)
its full development. During this pe
riod It docs not eat. as Its mouth U
It then mates, and h
receive part of their payment in cash. I former. In the silk factories in the ! cocoons are immersed In boiling male dies immediately after this pt
cities the operatives put in long hours. I water, to which soda has been added, riod. The female begins depositing
but even more Injurious to their und allowed to steam In large cauld- eggs on tho leaves of the scrub oa ;
health Is tho crowding Into long nar- rons. After tho cocoons arc removed one day after mating, and within i
row rooms where ventilation is not from the chrysalises, or pupae, which vvcek dle.s. These eggs hatch In abou
a matter that enters Into the scheme h.avo been killed by tho boiling water, two davs. although cold weather mnv
'of things. The life of an operative Hiov nro nlaced unon a drv table and retard them un to live days. The
i 5 Hie pongees or blianitlllgs in I condition probably would not exist If ftn'""ull('s 1110 mau- 1,1 S1,K "l Tin. "rnltmro waivers" devote, In one nf lte.se fnrtnrlei is short nnd Mm fltirn l limn snlllelentiv free for orin heffin lit once to feed on the
uir co"ates on hand looms Hko tho few wealthy owners of the silk .Manchuria. Nanshans are made hyony a sma1 pan of tholr Um(j t0 1 tuborculoMs la common. Skilled la-! reeling. Hoxes containing about 500 oak leaves. This they contlnuo for
n e 'h'-y used In tho days of the .reeling establishments attempted to "slng 'lle li&ht-colored cocoons rromtl,s work Each famll.. usuaiv ims bor can be found, however, and at cocoons each are supplied to tho op- seventy to ninety days.
rt1 pti'.oopher. inieet their own requirements for co- lni- -anBi uisirici oi nn.iniung, loom, ami the farmer or some (low wnc?s. because of tho densitv of PMtnrs. One man ran reel the eon-I nwlni to their voracltv and tho faef
)i'v a portion of tho silk making I mctnnri iiiov ,innnn,i fnr Mii.. known as Nanshan silk, for the warp
f Phan'img Is a "cottage industry." supply, except what thev Import from :lnd Manchurian silk fibre for woof.
I'tho- gh it would be well for the j Manchuria, on tho nat'lves scattered . A (.'ottaso Imliifetry'
i"h of the operatives If more of tho .throughout the mountains. As a side The making ' of the Shantungs
xc-U wtrc done In the homes Instead ,ssue these small runners utilize the 'proper is what might properly bo de
r in over-crowded, poorly ventilated .scrub oaks on that part of the farms scribed as a "cottage Industry," for
nd -'l-smelUns factories. not dc-ired foj' agricultural purposes. ! n s carried on in tho homes of the
Must Adopt Modern Methods 'for tho production of cocoons. Tho 1 country people. Sill; is distributed to
location of the trees makes a dlfter-1 them and they deliver to tho owner
once in the quality of the crop, both m i the finished pieces. For each bundle
color and quality of fibre. Trees onlof silk yarn weighing sixty Chinese
other member of the family works at
It "between times." If ho wero to
continue steadily at tho loom ho could
turn out as many as eight pieces of
Shantung a month. Tho average.
tho population in Shantung. 'tents of eight of these boxes In a day. that they grow so rapidly during this
Winter and -.summer alike, work In and this will produce roughly 1C5. 000 period, tho worms shed their skins
these filatures s-tarts at G A. M., and yards of S-flbro silk. every two or three week's. Thus they
continues, with tho exception of fifteen , For tho purpose of purifying the I back out of their old skins four tlme..
But In tho factory, as In the homo.
f'onfucius would note little chango In
nethods of operation. Modern ma
h'nery however, used during recent
tars In Japan In tho manufacture of
in 'a'lon pongees is a factor which
'"hantung's hana-workers In sllk-mak-
mlnutcs for tho midday meal, until It silk and making tho fibres adhere.
however. Is only two piecos'a month. I o'clock at night. In other words, the nfter the reeling has been completed
As to wlmt ho does with the excess i worker there puts In fifteen hours and .the fibre Is steeped In boiling water in
silk which ho receives, tho home forty-live minutes at actual work; and .which soya beans havo been boiled.
After having reached full growth tho
worm chooses a twig and begins to
weave its cocoon.
On the first day an irregular web.
weaves Is practically uncontrolled, ho does this seven days a week. Frob- An excess of soya bean will increase which later serves to hold tho cocoon
Tho result Is that Irregular sizes of'ably that alono would be sufficient I tho weight of the finished pongee, and i In place. Is woven. Then begins the
pongees get on the market; and this 'cause to insure a heavy death rate (consequently Its price, as weight is a ( spinning of the cocoon proper, the
the southern sides of the hills produce ounces the home weaver must return 1 Irregularity of standard works to lie among this class of workers. They! factor In determining price; but the 1 process all told consuming about t
cocoons which yield strong fibres of two complete pieces of pongee silk,
good lustre. Cocoons which havo cn-lKuch of hr.se pieces Is supposed to bo
joyed less exposure .to ihe sun yield a i from clghtc n to twenty yards in
Huffy fibre which is soft and lacks i length and from 33 to 34 Inches In
harm of tho trade. The weavers of get tlietr breakfast at 4. .10 in tho I real value of the silk Is decreased by week. Thunder pr any other unusua.
Ninghal pongees, on the other hand, i morning, and their supper after 0 this "loading" with soya bean. disturbance during this period wil'
are paid by tho piece, nnd do not re- 1 1 M. i The weaving looms of Shantung are causo the worm to ceaso spinning
eclve excess silk, on which account I Their noon meal consists of tho dls-on the principle of tho ordinary bund after which It dies.
IIP - mWmMh WTOPi
uaagigBis "m .... i x
, i "l it ' r-i -; 1 1
A Star from Sweden The
'1 hirteenth Bride An Ilal-
and Obey The Marriage i
Pit Takes Aristocratic
I'arts Began As School!
k'.'tHAI'S tho most striking thing
ut Anna Q. Nllsson aside
m hor personal charm nnd
ity Is her Individuality, i
-bsolutcly no desire to form
f . ompany; Is tho only Swedish
"r 'o r-aoh stellar heights In this
ounry; tin-, a mlddlo name tnaij
f3imas ukr a Sam L.ioyu iiuzzmi
iviremia itako It, homo nnd try It
u your vocal chords); and last but
i'0 ea in "in -tho Ileurt of a Fool,"
he pprars as (ho only blond vampire
n iiMtvlty. She expects to sail short
y f"r Swul. n where she will act In n
ri p ciures depleting llfo In tho I
-a '1 of i ho Midnight Him.
'J'he 'J'liliteenlli Hrldo
T1 r Tiiiricemh Hrldo In tho clutches
' he p. rues. Ituth Storrow (Mar
r f'liyton), kidnapped In hor
YedU.iiT unery, Is taken aboard tho
ilbmarlne. The Mahdl. chief of tho
' ra'r t ang, Is shown at hor left (with
it) and iSarl. tho fomalo mombor of
ho despcradoos, Is nt extreme left. Tho
ory details the adventures of Amcrl
in brides who havo been captured
jy pirates and hold tor ransom. In
many of tho scenes tho U. S. Navy
took active part.
. Frank Mayo
Frank Mnyo has JuBt finished "Tho
Marriage Pit." a thrilling story of New
Vork's smart set based on Frederick
qulto content with comedy roles.
Wilila Ilciuictt And Kenneth Ilnrlnr.
Wllda Bennett, lato prima donna of
the musical play, "Applo Blossoms."
and Kenneth Harlan, In a charming
love sceno from "Love, Honor and
Obey." XTho picture was adapted by
Eugene Walter from Charles Novlllo
'Buck's novel, "Tho Tyranny of Weak
ness." It tolls the engrossing story of
a young author who falls in lovo with
a New England girl and Is then for
bidden by her I'uritanlcnl father to
see her. due to his having written a
I hook containing advanced views on
tne suDject or sex.
Miss Lois Wilson, who is a Birming
ham, Ala., girl, began hor career as a
school teacher. She has been seen as
leading woman for many stars, among
them Wallace Held and Bryant Wash
, burn, and soon will bo seen In tho
on tho American stago
Isham's- novel "Black Friday." not understand him, and a dancor I A notnble' fact about tho cast is
The character of lUchard Strong Is from tho Follies comes Into his, llfo that nearly every member of It has
nartloularly suited to Iuttyo. Ho 1m- with her unprincipled husband to been well Known on tho speauint
orbockor families ho finds she does women
I prominent actrosses a score of years
The scenes .shift from a Wall Streot
office to a luxurious boudoir, from tho
'Stock Exchange to a mansion onjleadlng feminine role In tho screen
iHlversido Drive. Thero are also lino version of H.r JnmesM. BarrleVWlmf-
kshlres and of tho i livery woman Knows, a pnrt crcatea
plains out West altogether an un-
lusual number of settings. Tho action Adams,
Includes an attempted panic on Wall
Street, soma wonderful lovo making,
and a thrashing from tho hero to tho
man who tries to ruin him, adminis
tered In the best Mayo style.
I Mario Mosqulnl, tho sprightly, dark character parts that present a hard
beauty of tho comedy screen is tho problem, especially wnon uiey repre
f nil embodiment of laughter. Mario, sent well-to-do men or women who
I just loves" 1o laugh! Perhaps that's must look as though they "belonged."
I why her forto Is comedy! This llttlolThat Is where Charles Lane fits prc-
Itallan beauty made her entrance to , eminently, ana therein lies tne ex
tho lllms and leadlng-ladydom through , planatlon of his screen success,
tho Harold Lloyd comedies. Sho was 1 Known os ono or tho leading acton
next mado leading Indy for tho "pint- on tho legitimate i stage ho wtw recen'
slzcd" comedian, "Snub" Pollard. Oh. ly seon with-William Gillette In "A
yes! There was a little more to It Successful Calamity." and with Julln
than that! MtldVcd Davis had been Dean In "The Law of tho Land" Lam
been popular lending mon. Lillian 1 appearing with "Snub" ana, vviien long rciuseu to enter iiio-ium worm,
TiiPirer. wimun iii-ut lilt mn in Mndnmn Houe Daniels ontorod features Mildred but finally succumbed. Two of hli
Sherry, has played principal roles In i was mado leading lady for Harold latest films aro "Dr. Jckyll and Mr.
. 1 i - . r . . l . 1 a ILL rr...t.. I ,1 II rtKit neii.1nnnn "
In which ha
ltlploy and Frederick Vroom have Mayo's aunt, was ono of tho most 'play Juliet or do tragedy, but seems In tho story.
If you speak with a motion picture
director about his casting troubles
you will soon learn that tho roles of
tho leading man and tho leading
i woman aro tho easiest to fill; It Is the
Z i mZi to being a out In tho end and saves both his for- long line of actors.' appearing on tho 'mar Godowsky. daughter of the cole- plications In tho film world Marie Mos- He has jusl - nnUhe.l
power on Wall Street. After morrylng tune and his homo makes a story stage when he was four, and mado a limited pianist, appeared .with Bolasco quln became a lending lady. She Women Loved l lm
juwn un nun un.vn . . . . . ... m- 1 nn Tj-iiiatrtn i?rnnl linen'f 'tt fitntoH Mint film ilslrps to nlavs otlfl of the most
of one or tno oui kiuck- wmcn.wui appeal uoth to men ana it success nororo no wus iwcniy. iwiy uuu uui.i.n.., ? i , ' 7 . , V , , I " " , , '
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