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THE GREAT FALLS LEADER.
DEVOTED TO THE AGRICULTURAL, MANUFACTURING AND MINING INTERESTS OF NORTHERN MONTANA,
VOL, 1, GREAT FALLS, MONTANA, SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1888, NO. 7,
BEARD AND MUSTACEII
TODAY'S FACIAL ORNAMENTS ONCE
'Whiskers In History-The Fatlibre of the
Republic Were Entirely Beardless or
Smooth Shaven-Faets coneerning Presi
delts and Presidential Candidates.
The beard and mustache as an appendage -
to the face Is of comparative recent date
in the United States Thirty years ago a
beard was an exception, and thirty-five
years have scarcely elapsed since the
wearer of a beard was either an object of
ridicule or suspicion When a boy the I
writer listened to a sermon in which the
smooth faced preacher descanted on the
sin of the beard, and conclusively proved
that Adam was not endowed with this
facial appendage until after his fall, and
that it constituted the actual thicket be
hind which he sought to hide himself
from the sight of his maker.
it is quite evident it was at least as
A;fficult for the ancients to keep down the
growth of the beard as it is for the modern
youth to raise one. Before the invention
of the razor, which dates back less than
two centuries, the hair was kept from ac
cumulating on the face by rubbing the
skin quickly with pumice stone, which
gave it that peculiar polish and hardness
of outline noticeable in old paintings
Barbers are first mentioned in English
history shout the year 1629, during the
reign of Charles I, when a number of
Puritans were ordered to be punished by
having their "beards shaven from their
faces with sharp knives, and the hair to
be cropped close to their heads therewith,
in addition to having their cars cut off
and.tongues bored with a red hot iron,
and to be thereafter stood in the pillory."
A BUtIEiJLY OF RIDICULE.
About 1885 beards and mustaches began
to make their appearance in this country
on the streets of the cities, and were
everywhere the subject of ridicule, so
much so that few were vain enough to
cultivate them In 1838 the fad for wear
nug hair on the face was given a great
thrust forward by a picture of Count
D'Orsay, published in Frazer's Magazine.
ilastrating.how copiously a chin could be
cushioned, and which, it was conceded,
reached the climax of hair arrangement hi
Still for a number of years later long
beards were considered disgraceful; as
masks behind which criminals and out
laws sought to hide their identity. As
late as 1848 the writer remembers to have
seen a Jew with long hair and beard
"bated" on Beaver street, in this city, by
a crowd of boys. who chased him with
sticks and stones through the streets and
alleys of what was then one of the most
attractive portions of New York, and for
no other reason than the great mass of
hair which concealed his features. And
on this occasion the sedate business men
of that part of the city gathered at their
doors and cheered the boys with their ex
pressions of approval.
One or two judges about that time be
!an 'to make their appearance on the
bench with whiskers. This the public
took as an offense, and the papers seri
oasly discussed it as a matter of prime
importance. "Whiskers," says The
Democratic Review, "are bad enough at
the bar, and even then they are pestilent
accompaniment for counsel. There is no
gentlemanly managing a jury with them.
Mten are not open to reason or pathos that
might issue from any part of a face thus
cultivated. They continually, and for
good reason, suspect those who talk to
them in a mask. But to carry whiskers
up to the tribunal is unbecoming the,
judge as it is unfortunate for the wool
sack. What would men have us think?
Do they mean to enforce decisions by the
ferocity of their countenances? To make
us fear instead of honor them? Or would
they, wherever they may be, have us
understand that their strength, like his
of old, lies in their hair?"
None of the fathers of the republic ever
wore a beard. The appendage of hair is
not to be found on the face of any of the
signers of the Declaration of Independence,
and it was unknown to all the officers of
the revolutionary army. Those men of
great minds, iron will and strong purpose
stood forth in the broad light of day with
faces so clean that their every thought
might be read.
TaE CROPPED sIDE W5IBRKE.
The war of t112a brought no generals to
the front with beards, but all the comrn
manders of the navy appear to have culti
wated the "mutton leg," as it was once
ea.led-the side whisker reaching an inch
or so below the ear, but always kept
.ropped. This is the whiskers we find on
the pictures of Perry, Bainbridge. Deca
tur. Lawrence and others, and is the
plant which was afterwards built out and.
In connection with the mustache, became
the "Burnside." All the principal officers
of the Mexican war were also beardless,
although the mustache and beard began
about that time creep into the army.
Of the presidents of the United States
John Q Adams and Zachary Taylor had
a mere bunch of hair. extending the
length of the ear. Martin Van Buren
had more of the "mutton leg." which
curled forward, and being of a sandy
color, gave that peculiar expression to
his face which caused him to be nick
named "The Red Fox of Kinderhook" or
"Fosy" Van Buren. All the other pesi
dents had faces shaven of every particle
.of hair, and up to 1861 no man had oc.
.cupled a position of prominence in the
national government who wore a beard on
,his chin or a mustache. John C. PFr
pnont, the first candidate of the Republi
gaP party for the presidency, also culti
vated his entire cheek and chin space for
air., and Abraham Lincoln. his successor
on the ticket four years later, and the first
e'publican president. also wore a full
'" The cabinet which Lincoln assembled
was composed largely of bearded men.
The despised abolition sentiment had ob
tained the ascendency, and men by the,
thousands who ten years before would
rather have been caught burning a house
than raising a beard, threw away their
razors and turned their faces out to nature
for coverings. The officers in the field of
both armies let the beard grow or cut it
in shapes to suit their particular fancy or
appearance, until a smooth faced man be.
came almost as rare as a hairy one had
been a rew mouths previous
Presidents Grant. Hayes and Garfield all
appeared in full beards, and we all re
memberthe luxurious Burnsides of Cheater
A. Arthur, the pre-eminently gentlemanly
occupant of the White House. Cleveland
is the first president that ever was elected
backed by a mustache only.-New York
Eight Acres a Day.
The Dutch are taoing Holland at the
rate or eight acres a day During the last
two centuries. it is estimated. 1.000 acres
of land have been reclaimed from the sea
A Joker Comes to Grief.
They are laughing In one coterie about
a young fellow who has come to disaster
through being at once a joker with the f
boys and a masher with the girls in the t
former capacity he is Ingenious and ex
pert in playing tricks upon his fellows at d
the club His latest device was what he c
called the "goblin squirt." It consisted i
of a scarf pin, the form of which was a
comic face, calculated to make the ob
server look close at It, and this was at
tached to a water filled rubber bulb hidden
under his shirt bosom The practical
working of this invention was to press on t
the little tank at the instant when some
curious friend had his face close to the
pin and thus eject a tiny stream of water t
upon him Possibly there was no great
wit in this joke, but the chap enjoyed it o
very much The mistake that be made
was in not putting aside the apparatus
when he went out in his capacity of
One wealthy maiden was understood to
be his serious choice for a wife, and he
was in the early stages of earnest en
deavor to win her. le called on her, and
sat alongside her on a not too capacious
sofa They were in some sentimental con
vereation at dlose range. Her face was
far enough away from the scarf pin to
satisfy the demands of propriety, and yet
it was near by when he placed his hand
with a passionate gesture on his heart.
But between the palm and the heart lay
the little rubber bag. A squirt of water t
few into the eyes of the maiden. It was i
a dash of cold water on the romantic i
hopes of the poor fellow. How is it known I
that it ended his courtship? Why, be.
cause the girl told the story merrily to all I
her acquaintances She wouldn't have
ridiculed a love scene if she hadn't re
garded it as terminal.-New York Sun.
A Persian Boy's Dresm
As soon as he can walk and talk, the
small boy is put into clothes of exactly
the same cut and material as those of his
father I don't think you will be able to
remember all these hard names, but I'll
call them off for you, so that you can see
for yourselves how much goes to make up
a suit of clothes there, even for a boy of
6 or 7 First. then, we have the shirt,
called "phrabau." which buttons on the
shoulder Next there is the tight fitting
coat of native cotton goods called "ark
helook:" then the coat of one shade only,
named "khaeba " Around the waist is
worn the girdle or "kamerbund " This.
with stns of the wealthy, is sometimes a
costly thing, of velvet or rich silk, and
studded with diamonds or woven through
with gold thread, forming fanciful de
signs Over it all Is put the long coat or
"kuledjeh," with short sleeves ending at
The overcoat or "djubbeh" is, accord
nlug to the season, of cashmere shawl
cloth, or of thick wollen stuff, or even
felt. Of course, the little fellow also
wears tight drawers, and over them short
and very wide trousers called "shalwar,"
as well as short socks or "djurab" and
shoes or "kafsh." On his shaven head
he dons the "kolah," a cap of conical
shape This may be had as low as thirty
cents of our money, and as high as 0,
according to the fineness of the lamb
-Wolfoon Schierbrand in The Cosmopolli
A Tooth Worth a e inton.
A charming road of seventy-four miles
carries the traveler to Kandy, the ancient.
Singalese capital of the country. This is
a picturesque place, with some beautiful
views, a residence of the governor and a
Buddhist temple, where, in a wonderfully
rich shrine, one of Gautama's teeth is
kept This is one of the treasures of the
"Light of Asia." for which, it is said, the
king of Slam offered 1,000,000 rupees not
long since, but in vain, The priests hay
Ing it in their care are said to be among I
the most intelligent and learned of the
eastern craft, and possess much Budd
histic lore of great antiquity and value
One of the attendants informed me with
much pride that Edwin Arnold worshiped I
at the shrine when last in Ceylon. I can
not say that Edwin is a Buddhist, but his
writings show him quite as deeply im- 1
bued with reverence for Gautama as for
him we of the west claim to be the Lord.
One cannot talk with the intelligent peo
ple at this temple without being impressed
with the fact that their creed rests with
them upon enlightened faith, and not
upon blind superstition. The priests, too,
wear an expression of calm dignity ut
terly at variance with bigotry or fanatic
ism.--Carter Harrison's Ceylon Letter.
Tempered by Eleetricety.
By the old method the steel wire from
*hich watch springs are made was heated
to the proper temperature and immedi
ately plunged into oil. In the new process
the wire is immersed in the oil bath first
and is then brought. by means of an
electric current, to the desired degree of
England's Watch Trade.
The introduction of American watches
into England has reduced the number of
gold cases marked at the Loudon assay
office from 84.844 In 1876 to 20,416 in
86.O, and of silver cases from 119,894 in
1876 to 95,708 in 1886.-New York Sun.
Rewarded by Bonor
Col. Hilginson told the whole truth in
his recent Cambridge lecture on the pro
fessional life of a literary man, the gistof
which was, that honor makes a great part
of the feward of an honorable profemaion.
-Susan Chauning in The Writer.
Plenty on Band.
Wife-Why is it, John, that you rarely
kiss me now? Before we were married
you bothered me almost to death.
Husband-I know It, my dear, and I
laid in stock enough to last.-The .,Enha
MAKING STRAW HATS.
HOW THE INDUSTRY HAS GROWN
IN THIS COUNTRY.
Suecessive Step. by Which the Gram oi
China BeDomes a Has in Ameriea-Why
Bleached rata Tarn Yellow--laishbln
The manufacture of straw hats, though I
not peculiarly American, has attained tinm
mense proportions in this country Over
in Brooklyn, in some of the quiet streets a
between the city hall district and Broad.
way, are a number of straw hat mann
factories, some of which give employment
to more than two hundred hands, besides
a lot of the most ingenious and skillfully
devised machinery. Most of this ma
chinery is of American invention. With
it ten times more work can be turned out
by the skilled operative than by the old i
hand process. and yet better wages made
at less labor.
The straw hat of civilization is nearly a
century old, and its manufacture was not
begun in Brooklyn to any extent until
about eleven years ago. The raw mate
rial is all imported, and, in fact, reaches I
the manufacturer here in a considerably
advanced stage of preparation [t comes
from China, Japan and southern Europe
chiefly. Years ago, when straw goods
brought higher prices, braids woven with
Tuscan straw, and that from Bohemia and
Switzerland, were exclusively used, but
they are now employed only for the finest
grades. The cheaper qualities for the
masses, such as the "Mackinaws." are al
most entirely made with the straw braid
imported from China. This was found to
be less expensive than any other, because
the cost of living among the producers
amounts to almost nothing.
THE CHIP HAT.
The Leghorn hat is made entirely in
Italy, and only the finishing is done in
this country. Chip and Panama hats, al
though sold under the general denomina
tion of straws, are made in fact from en
tirely different material. The chip is so
called because made from the splints of
the Lombardy poplar, out of which the
sap has been dried by burial in the ground
for three years-a precaution taken to
prevent it from turning red, which hap.
pens when dried in the air. The Panama
is made from the immature leaves of a
palm tree indigenous to South America.
The district of China where straw braid
is made lies in the region of Canton, and
many millions of people are employed in
its production. Living principally on
fruits, which the soil of that country
naturally yields, and with no inclination
to do more profitable work, it is often the
only occupation that all the members of
the family engage in. The average wages
earned are a penny a day. When the
species of grass or wheat used for making
the straw has attained its full height, and
before it is quite ripe, it is cut down, left
on the ground and allowed to bleackh ht
the sun. This process being completed,
the stalks are bound in sheaves about a
foot in circumference and then drawn out
as wanted. After severing them at the
joints into strips four or five inches in
length, they are put into a kind of a sieve
andsorted in equal sizes. Those at the
top being finer have a greater value than
the lower or coarser ones. These pieces
are in turn separated and tied into bun
dles of convenient size. Those of good
color are laid aside for bleaching, while
those spotted or discolored are dyed and
used with the bleached to make variega
ted braids. The solid colors are all dyed
in America to suit the leading fashion.
The bleaching is done by inclosing the
stalks in a box with burning brimstone.
The plaiting, next in order, is done mostly
by women and girls, while the straw is in
a damp state, and after the braids are
pressed flat they are put in rolls of Tty
yards, packed in bales and ready fot ex
portation. Encouraged by their govern
ment the Japanese, with their character.
istic energy, have recently begun this
WEF HATS TURN YELLOW.
When the rolls reach the manufacturer
in this country the braids are slightly
moistened and then sown together, begin
ning at the crown and working round
until the whole is finished. On the top
floor of the straw works are the sulphur
rooms,where some of the hats are bleached.
It is found that nature or science has pro
vided nothing so powerful in this regard
as the sun, and all the sulphur baths and -
other processes of bleaching are not com
parable with a sun bath. Ladies often
feel disappointed because their straw hats
turn yellow, but this is the natural result
of sulphur bleached goods. Such a thing
never happens after sun bleaching. When
practicable and the weather permits this
latter process is used at all the works,and
on a fine day rows of hats may be seen on
the roof undergoing whitening by the
operation of the sun's rays. After being
dipped in French glue they are placed in
a drying room where the temperature is -
about 115 degs. and where the moisture is
extracted by means of rapidly revolving
fans, driven at high speed. This leaves
the hat in a very pliable condition.
The blocking process is next in order.
Looking at a numbered tag which has
been previously sewed inside, the work
man places the hat on the proper steam
heated sectional expanding metal block
and presses it into the required size and
shape. This blocking machine was in
vented at the straw works. The hat is
then placed on solid metal dies corres
ponding in size to the blocks above men
tioned, and subjected to a powerful hy
draulic pressure, which gives it its proper
form. If for men and boys, the sweat
band is then sewn in, and meanwhile the
lace tip for the interior of the crown is
prepared by an ingenious machine which
has an attachment for cutting it the ex
act shape and size, as well as for sewing.
Putting on the band, the only process re
quiring handiwork in the making of these
goods, is the last operation, and the hat
is finished ready for boxing and ship
ment. - New York Commercial Adver
The virtues of cinchona were not knows
till 1083 or 1638. when it cured the wife
of the Peruvian viceroy, Cinchona.
It is stated that at least 1,000.000 tons
of commercial fertilizers are now annually
used in this country.
Northern R. R.
Leave Great Falls 4:35 P. M. via St. P.. M. & M. Hy
Arrive at Saint Paul 7 A. M.
0........ Lv. St.Paul.. .......... 7:30 pn
116........Ar. Winona ....... ........ 11:15 pin
132........ " L.aCrose ..... ......... 12:1 am
191........ Pr do Chien............ 1:9
58........ " Dnlque ......... . 3. "
278........ ( Galena ................. 4:05 "
28........ " Savanna ................ 4:30
332 ..... . Oregon................ 0:10 "
431........ Chicago................ 0:30 "
439.......... Peoria .................. 8:d0 lm
570........ " St. Louis............... 5:20
Peerless Dining C(ares and Pullman Sleepers on
all through trains. No change oif ears to
Chicago or St. Louis. For Tickets Sleeping ('r
accommodations, Local Time tables and othler
information, apply to
Freight and Passenger Agent, irrnt Falls.,
Gen. Pas. Agt. C., B. & N. ty.. St. l'nul. Min.
C. T. WERNECKED
Groceies, Notions, Fruit.
BABGAIN COUNTER GOODS.
Crockery and Lamps,
FRESH CANDIES AND NUTS. o
Kennedy's Fancy Biscuits in thirty different
Fish, Salt and Fresh. Poultry.
CROWN SEWING MACHINES.
CAMP AND RANCH OUTFITS.
On Central Avenue,
Next door to lapeyre's Drug store, are the
ESTEY AND CAMP
Pianlos Orf alS
Parties desiring to
BUY OR RENT A PIANO OR ORGAN
Shoui!d leave orders with them as they are agenta
for Montana. They also keep in stock a fine
Delivery wagon makes regular daily
rounds and delivers
Bread Free of Charge.
ZINGEL & GIES,
Socond street South between Third and Fourth
Second Street. Between Central and First
R. A. MOORE Proorietor.
MRS. A. B. FAIRFIELD
M1illinery and Fancy Goods
W. B. ItALEIG1[ & CO'S STORE
Great Falls Montana. f
F. KIRA[IBE('I, Proprietor.
Centrul Avenun and Fourth Street, Great Falls
MRS. E. McLEAN'S
And Lodging House.
First tavenue South between Park I)rive,
and First street.
Great Falls Bakery.
BREAB, CAKIES AND PIES
Of Every Descripflon.
Third-Street Hmuth, between First and Second
ConfectionerY a Specialty.
A. A. BROADWATER, President. C. M. WEBSTER, Secretary.
?ARTS GIBSON, Vice-President. A. E. DICKERMAN, Treasurer.
THE GREAT FALLS
hVater-Power & Tonsite Co.
THE INDUSTRIAL CITY.
GREAT FALLS, having the greatest available water-power on the American
continent, is destined to be the chief industrial city of the northwest. The Montana
Smelting Company is now erecting here the largest works for the reduction of ore*
in the United States, and other extensive manufacturing enterprises will soon be
GREAT FALLS is now the terminus of three railroads-the t. Paul,Minne
spolis & Manitoba, the Montana Central and the Great Falls and Sand('6dlee line.
It is the Commercial Center of Nortein Montaa.
It has a population of 2,000 and is growing rapidly. Enterprises now under way
and to be inaugurated will more than double the population thise year.
No town in the Rocky Mountain regien offers greater inducgpents to the settler
or investor, and all such are respectfully invited to comenand see. fr themselves.
For information regarding GREAT FALLS and surrounding country, address
CHAS. M. WEBSTER, Seretary,
Great Falls, Montana.
DO YOU WONDER
That my store has fairly swarmed with eager buyers every day this yea.r? Well, its
no surprise when you know the bargains I am giving in everything in my
line, and that I am selling goods at fully 25 per cent lower
than they have ever been sold here before.
Coats, - Pants - and - Vests.
Gents' Furnishing Goo ds, oots and Shoes,
Rubbers and Blippers of all kinds, I, ,ys's Suite of the last stles, etc., etc.
HATS! HATS! HATS!
Silk Hats, iserby Hats, Fur Hats, Cow Bloy Hats and in fact every style known to
the lHat-maker. Hats for old men, Hats for young men, Hats for
boys, Hats for children, hats to fit every head and
every pocket-book at about 25 to 40
per cent less than ever
sold here before.
My assortment this season is immense in qualty and great in variety. All o. tbe popular
shadces and colors, nilade of the nneet fabrics andl in the latest and moist upmroed styl, are shown
by me. S.um are silk faced, some are full silk and satin lined, aad all of them are is n lathe
heighth of tailoring art. My prices on all goods cannot be equalled in the city. o'l make
make money by seeing me pefotr buying.
ONE-PRICE Central Ave.
CLOTHIER. 1, Great Falls.
New York Cash Bazaar.
THE SPECIAL BARGAIN STORE I
The Almighty Dollar, the Mazy have
too Few ans the few too may.
NOTE THE FOLLOWING EXTREMELY LOW PRICES:
L[Adies' Fine Kid Shos ...... ............................... my price 200 Mo-tapa price 250
Ladies' Finest French Kid.............................. my price 5(0 Montana price 7(10
Ladies' Goast worked Buttonhole Shoes....................my price 140 Montaa price 200
Ludies' Goat worked Buttonhole Shes. best ..............my price 2'25 Montan price 00
Childlren's bdar Tip Shoes .................................my price 10 Montana price 150
lhildren's Fine High Cut Shoes .......................my price 11.0 Montana price 200
lien's Congress, Whole Vamps .............................my price 200 Montana price I00
len' lil, hole Vamps ............................. my price 200 Montan price 00
(en's ('ongrese or Balse, Fine ('alf, (ootdyear Welt.......my price 275 Montana price 410
Ien's axoy Its.................................. my price 05 Montana price 200
len's Fine Fur Hats.......................................my price 175 Montana price 250
len's Stiff Hats .................................... my price 1215 Montana price 200
Boy's Hats from 25 cents to s$, worth -0 per cent more.
Everything else in proportion. A full line of Dry Goods, Millinery, Notions and Gents'
turnisning (tdlsi at Panic Prices.
R. D. BECKON, Central Avenue.
E1orthwesteria Fuel Colpanly.
Coal delivered direct from the mines - - - $7 pr toe .
Lime - - - - - - $15 per toe.
Montana baled hay . . . . .. $1i per tie.
Oats - - - - - - $1.50 pr 00 Io s
Mercl..hadlise and furniture moved to any part of the city. Freight received and forwarded.
)Hies corner of ('entral avenue and Fourth atrreet.
T. .M. M.d..d.'.
Expert Tonsorial Artist. Park Hotel, Great Falls.
I, Connection. the Best-Appointed Bath-Rooms in the City