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THE GREAT FALLS LEADER.
DEVOTED TO THE AGRICULTURAL, MANUFACTURING AND MINING INTERESTS OF NORTHERN MONTANA,
VOL, 1. GREAT FALLS, MONTANA, SATURDAY, AUGUST 11, 1888. NO, 9.
IN NEW MEXICO.
A PICTURESQUE FEATURE OF 80UTH
WESTERN SHEEP RAISING.
Shearlag the maoek em a Sheep Ranch-A
Dase Mass of auddled Wool-ha HEs
pert earr at Wark-Patignita Labor.
Lambing time being safely past, the
sne shearing follows at once. The
Nav oe shear but once a year, but
neerty all other sheep owners twice-in
May and September. The sheearing is the
most picturesque feature of southweetern
sheep raising. It would fairly paralyze
an eastern wool grower, whose men lay
their subjects on a table and shear thirty
to forty head a day per man, to watch
the operation in New Mexico. It is light
ning thrice lubricated. Each man shears
from 75 to 150 head a day, and it is of
record that in a contest a single man has
sheared over 200 sheep between sunrise
and sunset. The shearing point is chosen
usually as near the railroad as possible,
to save cartage, it being much cheaper
and easier to transport wool on the hoof
than in the sack. A corral about 10 feet
high is built of railroad ties or cedar
posts; the army of shearers comes trudg
ing in from all quarters of the compass
Mexicans. Pueblos and a few Navajos;
the first flock is brought down from the
hills, and the fun commences. With
shouts and carajoes and flying sticks, the
flock is turned in toward the corral, the
little band of goats serving as an advance
guard and pilot. Fat, rotund and woolly,
they jam into the corral, from which they
are to emerge in a few hours the shorn
and shabby shadow of their former selves.
and likely patched with many a crimson
nick. Within the inclosure are from fifty
to eighty shearers, each with his own par
ticular station at the inside of the fence.
And now the 9,500 sheep arein, the gap Is
closed and the ball opens.
Three-quarters of the area of the corral
tois one dense mass of huddled wool. It
seems impossible that living creatures
can be packed so tight. A rat tossed
upon their backs would have to run on
wool to the other side of the corral before
be could reach the ground Unable to
move more than their heads, with Inglo
rious unanimity of tail turned toward the
common foe. trembling and breathless.,
the timid creatures await their fate
There is a grand rush of the shearers
Each man grabs a sheep by the hind legs
or by the wool-if he be ambitious he
takes one in each hand-and runs to his
place dragging his reluctant victim back
ward behind him. Then he throws the
cheep upon its side, gathers Its four little
feet into a bunch and ties them with a
soft, coarse cord or thong Then he is
rushed back to the bunch for more, and
so on until he has as big a row of captives
as he can lay out without crowding his
neighborson either hand. Then, grasping
a bunch of legs in his left hand and the
keen sheep shears in his right, he wades
in. It is apretty sight to see an expert
shearer at work. With lightning rapidity
and marvelous dexterity he drives the
heavy shears down through the dense and
matted wool, rolling it down from the
des as if it were a solid fabric which
ne might pick up entire; sliding the
r like blades unhesitatingly over the
les and into the hollows, hidden by
their thick coat, but seldom nicking the
hi. The current wages for shearers are
wo cents per head for common sheep.
hroe cents for improved sheep, and board
A good shearer, therefore, makes good
money for this country, as he will shear
125 sheep a day.
8lowly around the corral paces the
scorer In his right hand is a pencil; in
his left is a piece of cardboard, with num
bers from one up to the aggregate of the
shearers running down its left hand edge,
and each number commanding a line of
its own across the card. Every few see
Cnds comesa cry from some part of the
corral. "Viente-unol" "Cuarante-eisel"
"Numero clncol" as the ease may be, each
yell delivered with that emphatic unction
which seems indigenous hera Each man
recelves a number at the commencement
of the shearing season, and it serves him
as a name until Its close. The yell, there
fore, means merely that Jesus Romero
temporarily dubbed No. 21-has finishea
shearing a sheep, and the scorer tallies
one to his credit accordingly.
Sawing wood-an occupation which in
the east has some notoriety as a spine
spralner--i a simple nap as compared to
the New Mexican fashion of sheep shear
bIg, which Is, perhaps, the most fatiguing
work in the world. The sheep is on the
froundthe.shearer Is on his feet, bent
his hands are within three inches to a
oot from the ground, and in this attitude
orking twelve hours, with half an hour's
termission for dinner.
In an incredibly short time the shearer
done with his six or eight first victims
and unties them all They go skjpping
back to their companions, lookiz and
,possibly feeling something llke a boy
whose clothes have been stolen while he
was swimming It Is a pretty safe prop
altion that the world doesn't contain a
rrler. forlorner specimen than a shorn
eep And at our New Mexican altitudes
from 5.000 to 8,000 feet above the sea
vel-the dwindled wool wearers are
tles anxious for that proverbial tem
ring of the wind.
SHaving sharpened his shears on a lat
datone, the shearer Collars another
tch of recalcitrant victimns and goes on
th his breakback job. Meanwhile a
ted laborer gathers up the fleeces in a
. piee of burlap and res es his bundle
the corral, Here, upon four tall, strong
sts, set Bfirmly in theground and framed
with boards at the top,hangs a huge
. rap sack from whose nech project the
end and shoulders of a man, who Is busy
plng the wool down with his feet.
ic companion, perched upon the boards
bove, takes the fleeces from the gatherer
d dumpa them into the bag When the
is full it is sewed upand rolled aside.
place on the hooks being taken by an
pty one. Aliday log two little pals
oare trotting about Inside the corral,
d with wisps of greasewood with
hich they sweep into the corners each
ylock of wool, which wouldotherwise
Meanwhile the sacks have been weighed
n upon each has been marked its weight
veraging 225 pounds-with the iitials
r brand marks of the owner, and bloodier
ut equally important work ha bae
g,.ing on a little way from the corral, at a
st out post The shearers must eat, and
there is nothing so cheap as mutton. So
while the multitudinous click of the
shears fills the rare, bright air, two strap
ping fellows are busy all day killing and
dreasing fat wethers. Close by are the
smouldering camp fires and greasy kettles
of the men, who eat like sin.
When the sun sinks behind the long
mesas the shears are instantly still and
the men crowd to supper A little later
sees them rolled in their blankets upon
the ground, snoring away their fatigue
till peep o day again renews the bustle
New Mexico Cor Globe lDemocrat.
A Prophecy of the Weather.
The weather seems to run in cycles of
about seven years; that is, when we have
a hot summer, it is always followed by a
cold one, and it takes about seven years
to reach another equally hot It will be
r.membered by many that the summer of
1867 was very hot, and so dry that during
A ugust the grass crumbled under the feet
when trod upon The summer of 18.8
was noted for its coolness, the thermom
eter very seldom getting above 85 degs.,
and we did not reach the top wave of ther
mality again until 1874. when it was ex
tremely hot The following summer was
cold to a remarkable degree. From then
on the summers grew gradually warmer
until 1881, which was excessively hot and
very dry, no rain falling for over nine
weeks, and there were more sunstrokes
that summer than there has been in all
the summers since.
The summer of 1882 was quite cold: a
few flakes of snow fell on the morning of
July 4, followed by hall in the afternoon,
and during the rest of the month and
through the month of August the tem
perature was so low that overcoats were
necessary for comfort, particularly at
night. The summers since 1882 have
grown warmer, and last summer was a
moderately hot one; out unless all signs
alil, the coming summer will be the cli.
max of the cycle, and a hot, dry season
may be expected.-Indiana Pharmacist.
Compressed Gas for Car Lighting.
It has been urged that the use of com
pressed gas for lighting cars la attended
with the danger of the gas exploding hi
the event of a collision. The imaginary
nature of this danger was shown by the
recent accident on the Philadelphia and
Reading, where an escape of compressed
fas from a leaky hose simply burned for a
ew moments without any explosion.
Experience in Germany has been of a
similar nature, and a recent collision near
Birkenhead, Eng., between two trains lit
with compressed gas was unaccompanied
by any explosion. At the time of the col
lision between the Hoylake and Mersey
tunnel trains the gas in the latter was
alight. The gas cylinders of the smashed
coaches weretaken from the debris and
tested to a pressure of 150 pounds per
square inch, and they were found to be
entirely uninjured beyond a few severe
dents. The gas fittings of the remaining
portions of both trains had not suffered
in the least through the collision, and,
with the exception of those in the smashed
cars, not a single lamp glass was broken
in either traln.-8cntific American.
Courage of an Army.
Discipline, that well spring of victory,
is recognized as one of the most potent
means of raising the standard of courage
in an army. It teaches men that their
best reliance is in their own bravery;
gives them confidence in each other; re
moves the fear that they may not be
properly supported in emergencies; con
vi'ces them that they are part of an in
telligent machine moving methodically,
under perfect control and not guided by
incompetency, and establishes that esprit
de corps which goes so far toward making
armies formidable in war. It was disci
pline which enabled the commander of the
troops on board tye English ship, when
foundering, to form his men in line on
deck, present arms, and go down with the
vessel, while the band played "God Save
the King."-Gen. Horace Porter in The
)intury. _ . ..
Charity of the Kebrews.
Every Jewish association, whether a
ctub, or debating society, a musical party,
a mutual insurance fraternity. a business
league, or what not else, is by those con
cerned in It deemed incomplete if It does
not do something for charity At every
wedding, merrymaking, festival and me
morial celebsation, public or private, and
even in the house of death, the box for
voluntary offerings to some charity Is
conspicuous. And when public calls are
made in the synagogues for contributions
in aid of a charity, the responses are such
as are evoked nowhere else.-New York
A Petrified Tree.
A portion of a petrifled tree was dis
covered in a solid sandstone rock quarry
at Zanesville, 0., the other day. The tree
is about the thickness of a telegraph pole
and has well defined bark and oots. It
was found while blasting, or immediately
after a blast, fully sixty feet below the
topof the hill and was in solid rock. Over
it is the earth formation, then a species
of shale, then limestone strata, followed
by a conglomeration of stone, then somr
forty feet of solid sandstone, near the
bottom of which is the petrified tree.
The Study of Astronomy.
The heavens now present an interesting
study to the reflective mind. Venus rises
one-half an hour before the sun, and
Jupiter sets with the constellation of
Scorpio. Evidently the two have quar
reled and separated, Venus cutting her
own kindling wood preparatory to break
fast getting, and her spouse preferring
scorpions to his wife's tongue. The study
of astronomy is at all times an uplifting
Preserving Telegraph Polea
Telegraph poles are preserved in Nor
way by making an auger hole about two
feet from the ground, in which four or
live ounces of sulphate of copper in coarse
crystals are placed, and plugged in. The
chemical is gradually absorbed by the
wood, until its whole outer surface turns
a greenish hue. The sulphate requiresan
occasional renewal, and is said to be a
perfect preservative.-Boston Budget.
A daughter of the sultan of Zansiber
has written a descriptloo of harem lif.
ON THE PLANET MARS.
THE CANALS A LONG KNOWN MYS
TERY OF THE HEAVENS.
Mar arvoerably .tuated far Uhremo J
eat Obseryation-ame Rather Carisa
haets - Whams Lit ea Our Neighber
Falaet In Sappoeed To Be Lik.
M. Berthelot, one of the academicians.
Is evidently a light hearted savant, for he
I at ones asked M.de [seps, who was
present at the meetin he ad
chance a brother projector in Mars
whereat all the learned astronomers
smiled solemnly. This s, surely, the
first time that a Joke has been imported
from a spot 85000,.000 miles off. whch is
about the distance of the planet Mars
from our earth. The canals perceived h
M. Perrotin upon the surface of our next
outside neighbor in the solar system.
however, are a long known mystery of the
heavens, and one that is probably as far
as ever from being solved by the face
Mars happens to be better situated for
observation by astronomers than any
other body In the sky except the moon
He Is more than a hundred times farther
off than the moon at his very closest ap
proach, and measures only 4.200 miles
through at his equator; but, unlike the
moon, he exhibits in turn every portion
of his surface, rotating in a day which is
about half an hour longer than our own.
Thus the entire face of the planet Mars
has been pretty accurately mapped, and
presents a diversified aspect of large
patchee of alternating lighter and darker
marking. which may naturally suggest
the divisions of land and water. At-the
poles of Mars are extensive white regions,
which sometimes show up in the field of
the telescope with striking brilliancy and
clearnese of definition, and since these
under- periodic changes, occsaionally
a-mcevanisnhing and then shining forth
again at Inst the seasons when it would
be winter with the Martians, astronomers
had been led to call them toce caps," and
to believe that we actually behold the
Arctic and Antarctic polar seas of the
planet in the form of these little white
.aucers stuck on each end of the "star of
As for the canals with which M. Per
rotia poked scientifir fun at M. de Leesepa.
they are certainly very curious objects.
From see tc sea, or what looks like it,
run these straight passages, wearing an
appearance, no doubt. of some Immense
artificial work-some Panama or Suez
canal on a colossal scale. They do not
alter or extend-there they always arl
some of them completed, others apper
ently imperfect, asm f the Martian obam
her of deputies had refused to sanction a
lottery loan for the fulfillment of the
original design But when MM. Perrotin
and Faye begin to talk of engineers"
and "men in Mars" It in ucceseary to .vs
member that to be seen at all, even as a
hair line, these canals in Mars would have
to be at least 500 times as broad as the
Thames-say thirty or forty miles across
-and as their length IS to be reckoned in
hundreds of miles, the navvies in Mars, If
they exist, must certainly be wonderful
be .ing l
Astronomers, admirable on so many
points, are never so stupid and unimagin
ative as when meditating on the proba
bilities of life beyond this earth, that old
and fascinating topic of "more worlds
than one." They take their terrestrial
notions and experiences much too blindly
into space; they ask if there be an atmos
phere in the moon, or water in Mars; and
If any doubts exist about these elements
they solemnly conclude that these and
other lovely and eligible celestial abodes
are tenantless. As if life were not con
ceivable without lungs and a liver? As If
we must always carry about with us into
the glorious promotions of inter-stellar
space the dentist, the anti-bilous pill and
It is trne that for beings constructed
as we are at pre.snt Mars would be a
novel and rather a surprising kind of
abode. Supposing we found dense air
enough to breathe there, and water suflB
cient for tea and washing-which are
both dubious points-the diminished
gravitation of the little planet is so great
that it would induce a physical and
mental levity fatal to dullness and for
bidding sense of fatigue. What is a
hundred weight here \would there weigh
only fifty-six pounds, and we could all go
up stairs ive steps at a time, or jump
twice our own height with ease and grace.
Then it would assuredly be very nice, If
we were living in the right latitude on
Mare. to have a quick moon and a slow
moon, always careering round like splen
did Chinese lanterns, saving gas bills and
encouraging long walks of lovers and
Martial poetry A fall from a horse
would seldom or never prove at all seri
ons in the Martial hunting fields; the
rider would rebound from the soft soil
like an India rubber cushion Aerial
navigation has quite possibly been solved
long ago by the fortunates people of the
red planet, the conditions being so ex
tremely favorable, and who knows, in
deed, whether the so called "canals" are
not vast tobogganing slides, where the
entire population enjoys the unwonted
sense of swift descent, and some little
spice of perll? But we may be sure of
this, that If there be sentient creatures
on the silver and pearl surfaces of Mars,
they are of a very different type from our
terrestrial frames, for life is always the
equation of its surrounding conditions,
and we denizens of the earth have lungs
and a larynx simply because we live at
the bottom of an aerial sea, just as fish
ossese gills because they breathe the
'ater.- ndon Telegraph.
He Was Doably Grateful.
A certain minister of our acquaintance
was invited to dine with a member of his
flock who, though well enough off in the
goods of this world, lived sparingly in his
greed for the dollars and cents. When
dinner was served the host said: "I can't
give you nothing but bacon and greens,
parson: it's all I can afford these hard
times. Will you ask a blessin'?" The
minister responded: "Lord, make us truly
thankful forwhat weare (bout to receive.
We expected nothing but greens-and be
hold? here is bacon lso. Make us truly
thanktull"-Smlthvlle (Oa.) News.
Northern R. R.
Leave Great Falls 4di5 P. M. via St. P.. P . M. Rly
Arrive at Saint Paul 7 A. M.
0........ Lv. St. Paul ............. ... 7:30pm
116 ....... . 1Winona..... .... 11:15 pm
132........ LaCrosse.. .. . .. 12:011 a:
161........ " Prdu Chien............ 1:49 "
258....... Dubuque....... . 3:1
278........ alena ........... 4:05
285 . " Savanna............... 4:10 "
112........ Oregon.............. ...0t:10
431........ t'hiraago ....... :0. 9
139........ " Peoria... ........... :
1570........ " St. Louis ............... 1:20"
Peerless Dinin Cars andi Pullman SleetKrs oii
all through trains. No change of cars to
Chicago or St. Louis. For Tickets, Sleeping ('ar
accommodations, Local Time ta:bles anid other
information, apply to
Freight and Passenger Agent (iGrnt Falls.
Or, address W.J. ('. KENYON,
Gen. Pas. Agt. C., B. & N. y., St. Paul. Minn.
C. T. WERNECKE
Groceries, Notions, Fruits.
BARGAIN COUNTER GO)ODN.
Crockery and Lamps,
FRESH CANDIES AND NUTS.
Kennedy's Fancy Biscuits in thirty different
Fish, Salt and Fresh. Poultry.
CROWN SEWING MACHINES.
CAMP AND RANCH OUTFITB.
On Central Avenue,
Next door to Lapeyre's Drag store, are the
ESTEY AND CAMP
Pianos a Organs
Parties desiring to
BUY OR RENT A PIANO OR ORGAN
Shou!d leave orders with heoln as they are agents
for Montana, They also keep, in stock a linet
Delivery Wagon makes regular I)aily
rounds and delivers
Bread Free of Charge.
ZINCEL & CIES,
Second Street South, between Third and Fourth
Between Central and First AvenuesS Iuth.
R,. A. MOORE, Proprietor.
MRS. A. B. FAIRFIELD
Millinery and Fancy Goods
W. B. RALEIGH & CIO' STORE,(I
Great Falls Montana.
F. KIIAM IE('K, Proprietor.
Central Avenue and Fourth ilStreet, (bre.at l'alls
PRATT & RICKARD.
BLACKSMITHING and REPAIRING
Livery aln Draft oerse and i Mu1111 Shling.
Corner First Avenue nlth; andll Third Street.
Great Falls Bakery.
DIEAD, CAKES AND PIES
OF EVEIRY I)DESCIIPTION.
Third Street South between F irst and
CONFE(TIONI:ERY A SPEC(IA ,LTY.
J. K. CARSKADDON,
All kinds of general work riarefully at
cnded to. Lutheran block near the post
toffice on First street.
WE ARE HERE!
We have just received a large
y invoice of
" DEERING - ALL - STEEL - BINDERS
and the new Deering mowers.
We are not here for a few days but to stay
and don't you forget it.
We can furnish you with
Extras for all of our Machines.
We have just received an invoice
We will be glad to furnish you everything
in our line and at
Prices that will. Astonish You.
Please call on us on the corner of First av
enue South and Second Street.
William Delering & Co.
Per C. C. RAY.
C. A. BRIOAI)WATEII, PresiIdent. C. 31. WEl.'IIl', r,,try
PAIl.S G I.'ISON, Vice- rel sident. A. E. ICKEIMA N. i'r ,n..
THE GRIEAT FALLS
lTater-P0o r Tofnsite Co.
THE INDUSTRIAL CITY.
I OEAT FAIIS, having' the greFtlest avarla .le wliter-power on the American
continent, is destined to Ie the chief industrial city of the northwest. The Montana
Slnmclting ('ullmpany is now erecting .l re tl(e largest works for tlhe reduction of ores
in the United Stites, anid other extenlsiv\e lmanufal' ctulrin.g enterprises will sooln be
G( EAT FAI.LI,~S is now the terlinus of three railroads-the St. Paul, MNlne
apolis t& lanithb, tihel Mnltana Centrai l iiand the Great Falls anid Sand (Coulee line.
It is 1tfe Colmmercial Ctller of Northern Montana.
It lihs population of 2,000 and is grow ig raiilly. Enterprises now under way
and to 1be illlgulrilllte will miil thll doulile the o llliltilon this yeair.
No town in the IRocky Mountain rllegionr oilers greater inducemellnts to the settler
or investor, alnd ll i such ll e resplli tfully inrvited to catie rol see for themlllselves.
Foi info!'r! tiiii regardli g IIEAT FALLS and sulrlrolunding co: try, addriess
CHAS. M. WEBSTER, Secretary,
Great Falls, Montana.
Ii, 0. ('IOWEN, PIR',S'JT(ON KINI F. . WILCOX
Prcsldent. Vicv- riidi 'nt. Luc. & Treau.
CATRACT MILL COMPANY
M.:i luf:lL t rer Ii f tihe f II ll.winrll;, II. I olt if ligh-( 'lrlt o tlolr:
Diamond, Gold Dust,
Cataract, Silver Leaf.
CASH PAID FOR WHEAT. MILL FEED FOR SALE
FiO'F(C - Cont Avenue, n;l' corner of Plrkl Driv,. MILL - Foot of Central Avonne.
CR E A. T FA LL S.
orhwesteriI Fleld Coilpally.
Coal delivered direct from the mines - - - $7 per ton.
Lime - $15 per ton.
Montana baled hay $16 per ton.
Oats - $1.50 per 100 Ibs
Sller('h:llM ti ill ftlllrlljlllll In1,\v'e, toit ? I r i f the' 'iity. I g"r*.e.ht reeived Itnd ftorw, nntl.l .
I lffie,' e r .rt!'lq ol ,qt rte :tv,-n.ztl Ite;= |",l r lJ, mot;',,~tf.