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THE GREAT FALLS LEADER.
DEVOTED TO THE AGRICULTURAL, MANUFACTURING AND MINING INTERESTS OF NORTHERN MONTANA,
OL, 1. GREAT FALLS, MONTANA, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 1888. NO. 16
'ALUE OF MESMERISM.
THE THEREPEUSIS OF HYPNOTISM
AS A MEDICAL STUDY.
An A isthethe as Perfeet as Ether.
Story of the Seven Headed Cow-Be.
benelous Respeasies-Can Crime Be
Committed by the Aid of Mesmerism?
It is conceivable that mesmerism might
injure an invalid. If be have heart dis
ease, for instance, an exciting or violent
episode. a rapture of joy or a convulsion
ofgreat griefo fear, it might prove to -
rus or even fatal, just as It might in sis
This possibility is abundantly offset by
the value of mesmerism as a therapeutic
agent. The responsive can be made so
intoxicated on water, which he has been
told is whisky, aA to exhibit all symptoms
of extreme inebriety; can be made dis
V stingly sea sick by being told that he
at sea In a storm. and can be at once
physically affected by an imaginary medi
ciue. His temperature can be changed,
his eye dilated and his pulse quickened.
Mesmerism is as perfect an anesthetio as
ether, and as harmless as water. Any
mesmerized person can at once, by a
single stroke of the hand, be rendered to
tally insensible to pain, and can have a
tooth drawn, a cataract removed, a can
cer cut out, or an arm cut off without
feeling the slightest pain. This has been
so often demonstrated that amputations
frequently take place under Its influence
in the Paris hospitals, and it is success
fully employed in obstetrics. Though
only a fraction of patients will be found
eligible as candidates for this annihilator
of pain, its utility Is so obvious it cannot
be long before medical societies will take
up the therepeusis of mesmerism as a
serious study, and army surgeons will
be required to have as practical a knowl
edge of it as of any part of the pharma
I quite erroneous to suppose that
the conduct of the resposive is directed
In detail by the operator. He only sug
gests the general line of thought, and
each responsive pursues it according to
his own knowledge, experience or preju
dices. I say to my responsives, for in
stance, that I have a wonderful educated
cow with seven heads. They all want
to see it. I call their attention to the
Imaginary stable door near by; they look
toward it, and when I snap my fingers
they all see a seven headed cow enter.
Now, by questioning them it becomes
obvious that they all see a different cow.
Unless I have designated her color one
sees a white cow, another a red cow, and
Then I tell them that she can dance,
can waltz and keep time with music. I
hand one a cane, telling him it is a flute,
and that he is an eminent performer, and
he goes through the motions of playing
to the dancing cow. They all hear differ
eot tunes, but the exhibition is satisfac
tory. I now add that the cow can sing
can sing a different part with each mouth
-can sing seven ballads at once. At this
point there is some Incredulity expressed.
They see the cow stand up on her hind
legs and hear the seven ballads-and this,
I may as well add, is the narrative of an
Fire of the six mesmerized persons be
lieved that she sang. "She is singing
*Tit Willow,"' said one. "And 'A War
rior Bold,"' "said another.
"I hear singing," said the incredulous
one, turning to me. "'Annie Laurie,' isn't
it? How do you work her-the machinery,
The others laughed at him. "Why,
the cow sings," said a young lady. "Can't
you hear her sing? Can't you see her
"She looks as if she sang," conceded
Incredulous. "I see her mouths move all
around. She sounds as if she sang; but
she doesn't sing. Cows don't sing.
"Very well, what is it, then?" asked
one of the others.
"A tube and a hole in the floor," said
Incredulous, "or perhaps ventriloquism."
"Awl" exclaimed the first, derisively,
"ventriloquism does not work like that.
I've made a study of ventriloquism."
"Well, I've made a study of cowl" per
sisted the scoffer obstinately.
Sometimes I turn the responsives into
children, and have them play school with
infinite fun; sometimes transport them
over ocean to Africa or Japan on the en
chanted carpet, where for a brief space
they enjoy all' the delights of travel;
soeie epriiaei atei iaeandt smetimes %oc'ratese Moses or Con
fatius is introduced and interviewed, the
intelligent responsive furnishing both
questions and answers in a curious dual
action of the mind that is highly enter
Not only the reason sometimes rebels as
above, but the conscience also. As a rule
et o bcompletely dominated
andmad t doanyhig of which they
e hcl c They could gen
eral b inuce totake poison, or jump
the house, or throw themselves under
a locomotive, or attack one ano4her with
Sweapons. But there are some ex
ceptions, I was unable to overcome the
ferof one of myresponsives. wvhom I
sent to assault aniaginary Indian in the
park. He refused to go, and said it was
"difficult to kill an Indian."
A young lady, one of the brightest sen.
!ltives I have ever seen, steadfastly re.
fuses to play cards. I tell her she is
Bffalo Bill, and easily induce her to as
501me his character, but when cards are
S te,"No, I never play cards. It
Eldpla cards h will not. I was pux.
yh t h ttill, inquiring, I ascertained
her her religious parents had brought
,er upvetry strictl an taught her it was
iothdfl~is gs us to the question much
inittldte, whether crime can be corn.
ttdby the aid of mesmerism. If so,
edin bought into relation, not only with
meiie, but with jurisprudence; not
inywith th Phamcpsa bu te pn
metoccur the ozn4 to whom punish.
met must be dealt out is the mesmerist.
Icspould eprobalnduce any ono of my
but the mind wanders curiously in tma
strange condition, and generaUy takes
little cognizance of surrounding objects.
I have used the word "probably" in this
sentence because the conduct of mes
merized persons cannot be positively pre
dicted. The mental impression may not
in a given case be sufficiently vivid and
dominating to induce action, or the ini
tention may be counteracted by the
trained moral sense asserting itself and
overbalancing the confused hypnotic ten
dency.-W. A. Croffut in North American
The Prince of Wales continues to gain
In flesh, much to his chagrin.
WHAT IS LITERARY MERIT?
What Is the Agreed Upon Standard?-In.
trinsle Literary Worth.
What constitutes "literary merit?"
Each editor thinks he knows. So does
each literary critic. So do the people who
will tell you that the poems or essays or
books that live are possessed of it. There
is a sort of agreed upon standard, known
in a vague way by literary people and
represented by our best periodicals. By
all means keep this standard high, and
keep yourselves up to the standard; but
at the same time, once in a while, let
your mind dwell upon the lesson con
tained in the parable of the widow's mite.
If poems or prose writings had Intelli
gence, and could think for themselves,
there would be one infallible test for in
trinsic value that they might append to
themselves after they had stood the fur
ther test of time: "Only remembered for
what I have done." For instance, several
years ago a little poem appeared in one of
our daily papers from a local author. I
cannot think he was paid for it, nor can
I think any other paper ever thought it
worth copying for its own columns. I
well remember glancing over It with a
little bit of contempt in my mind and a
good deal of indifference, and feeling sure
it was quite without "literary merit." It
was about the "baby bo," a very hack
neyed subject, you wil ll agree.
Well, the other day my pride of judg.
ment received a humiliating blow. A
woman, good and true, in the humble
ranks of life, had seen this poem. - Her
own baby boy was only a few weeks old,
and perhaps she had let creep into her
heart the thought that he was something
of a burden, with poverty and hard work
pressing upon her each day. The little
poem struck a higher, better chord than
that, and the tune of her thoughts grew
sweeter. She cut it out of the paper and
tucked It into the sewing machine drawer,
and learned it, a line at a time, as she sat
at work. Nor did it stop there; around
among the neighbors it went, and brought
many a blessing to the little babies in the
poor, crowded houses.
Question: "Did the poem have literary
merit?" Certainly; its simple phraseology,
its humble truth, its honest purpose,
spoke to the mind as well as the heart of
these people as one of Browning's sonnets
could not have done.
Again: There is a housekeeping paper
published in one of our western cities.
"Very ordinary," I have been wont to pro
nounce it, and after a cursory, indifferent
perusal I have sent away my numbers to
a little housekeeper on a Virginia farm.
She is a brave little woman, left, at the
age of 14, by the death of her mother, to
bring up the three younger children and
do the housework. Very limited was her
schooling, of course. For two years, now,
she has liad this housekeeping journal,
and I have had her occasional letters. And
how she has grown mentally! It must
have been the "literary merit" in that
paper that I calledordinary, and could not
waste my time upon.
There is apparent literary value and an
intrinsic one, I feel bound to admit.
There may be two ways of considering
whether a poem or a book lives. If it is
printed over and over again at the de
mand of the people, all the world knows
it lives. But it sometimes happens that
it is printed only once, is caught up by
some heart, passed on and oi in word or
influence, and the good it does never dies.
Is it not really "literary merit" that makes
it live-the mode of its expression as well
as its inherent thought? I am asking; for
at the very end of my remarks, with a
full recognition of the value of high
standards, with a just respect for editors,
critics and cultivated readers, but with
an equally ardent appreciation of compar
ative value, I humbly confess that I do
not know what "literary merit" really is.
-Juniata Stafford in Belford's Magazine
.n a Mexican Market square.
Passing on through the market place I
emerged suddenly from a side exit into
the market square. Just in front of me
sat four or five groups surrounding a
bunch of smoking faggots, and as I ap
proached them a little girl or boy would
step forward and offer for sale strings of
lass beads or baskets of images made by
Indians from clay. I bought several of
these images and narrowly escaped being
cheated in the process, for the little rogues
who are playing merchants know when
they have a stranger to deal with, and,
although they smile at you, showing their
white, pearly teeth, they will give you
the wrong change if they can.
Just beyond these groups I saw other
groups seated about large, square holes,
which had been dug in the ground. At
first I could not understand this, but
after awhile I found out that they were
engaged in roasting the century plant.
The holes in the ground were apparently
three feet deep an.d perhaps four feet
across the top. Inside these holes they
had placed a half dozen stalks of the plant
over smoking faggots, and from the
smoldering fire there Issued a volume of
smoke and the sound of escaping pulque.
By and by a Mexican strode up, threw
down a three cent piece, and, without a
word, one of the aieboys jumped into
the hole, chopped ofa bit of the wood
and delivered it to the purchaser, who
went away munching on it as though it
was the leg of a chicken. The juice of
the maguey is sweet and intoxicating, and
a great many of the Mexican people are, I
regret to say, slaves of its power.-"R.
M. Y." infit. Louis Republic.
There is a respect due to mankind
which should Incline even the wisest of
men to follow innocent customs.-Dr. L.
THE ARID LAND AREA.
RECLAIMING WASTE REGIONS BY
MEANS ¢F IRRIGATION.
Agricultaral Lands of Colorado Which
May Be Made Immensely Productive.
Atzee Canals and Irrigation DItches.
The Rain Belt-Farmers' Testimony.
Mr. T. C. Henry, formerly of Kansas,
and now one of the most prominent men
in Colorado, who has been instrumental
in building several large canals in the
state, in discussing this question, says:
Of the 40,000 square miles of the terri
tory in this state east of the foothills less
thane 3000 rnare miles are actually and
systenmatically ,formed. It is my deliber
ate conviction that were all the water of
all the streams covering these plains ab
solutely preserved for domestic and irri
gating purposes and applied with the
skill and economy displayed even in India
or Esypt, we could irrigate and make
fruitful every acre of this immense area
-an area capable of mupporting an agri
cultural population, urban and rural, of
3,000,000 people, and yet it would be less
than one-half as densely populated as
Belgium or the agricultural sections of
"The area east of the mountains Is
practically all agricultural land, and If
peopled as densely as is Belgium, would
contain a population of more than 8,000,
000 of . Or if provided with water
for , skill applied, each forty
acres would support a family of five per
sons, aggregating a population of more
titan 8,000,000, not including the directly
dependent urban population. On the
same basis, the great Ban Luis valley
would sustain a population of 1,000,000;
the San Juan country in the southwest
nearly 1,000,000; the Gunnison and the
Lower Grande, 750,000, and the White, the
Yampah and the almost unknown North
west, 1,000,000 more. Before the close
of another century there will have been
elaborated a system of agriculture sur
passing that wonderful civilization which
Moorish power planted in the irrigated
valleys of Spain ten centuries ago, main
taining the millions then populating our
grand commonwealth. There are not less
than 80,000,000 acres of agricultural lands
na this state which only need the app lca
Ion of irrigation to be made as valuable
znd productiveas any already cultivated."
Carry these same predictions into west
ern Nebraska and Kansas, into Wyoming
and New Mexico, Idaho, Utah and
throughout the west, by utilizing the
waste waters saved in reservoirs, and the
future greatness of the west is almost in
conceivable. These things are possible.
The ruins of the Aztecs and Pueblo In
s, das, and great nations that are only
known in the dim past by the desolation
of mighty cities, tell us how densely pop
ulated were vast regions in the west in
an almost unknown antiquity. With
these ruins are old canals and Irrigation
ditches, and in some of them there is said
to have been used a kind of cement that
is now a lost art. These ruins are found I
in arid sections where it would have been
impossible for a great population and
cities to have thrived without vast irri
gation schemes. These great nations I
have been swept away. How? No one
knows, but from the dim borderland of
that almost hidden antiquity there come
up facts that when first considered seem
almost like a dream. But it is history,
and let history repeat itself. The public
domain will soon be a thing of the past,
and the present must look to the future,
and if this great water questionis grasped
by our statesmen as it should be, it will
lay the foundation for still new and
Is the rain belt gradually moving west
ward? This is a much disputed question.
Irrigating ditches make more surface
water, and hence there is more evapora
tion. That proposition cannot be denied,
although it must be admitted that the
rain does not always fall in the same lo
cality where the water was taken up by
evaporation. It is also claimed by some
that tree planting does not materially in
crease the rainfall.
In the January number of Science, Henry
Garnett says: "Over 100,000 square miles
of almost treeless prairie in Northern
Missouri, Southern Minnesota and parts
of Illinois and Indiana have been reforested
since their settlement, and furnish an ex
ample of reforesting unequaled elsewhere
upon the face of the globe, and yet the
rainfall has not increased. On the other
sand, there have been more acres of land
lenuded of forest in the United States
within a century than anywhere else in
the world, yet there is no evidence of a
Professor Sargent, of Harvard college.
says: "The removal of a forest from any
region will not diminish the amount of
rain falling upon it; nor can the increase
>f forest in a slightly wooded or treeless
rountry increase its rainfall. The gradual
crying upof countries once fertile, within
the history of the human race, but now
sarren and almost uninhabitable, must
ue traced to gradual geological changes.
if course entirely beyond the reach of
ruoman control, and not to the mere de
struction of the forest."
But there are able men who have thor
)ughily studied the question and who state
;hat the rain belt is surely coming west
ward. Among the numberare Professors
IVilber, Asgbey, Snow, and ex-tiovernor
Lýurnass, of Nebraska and Kansas. The
bse-rvations taken at Fort Leavenworth
hiring a period of thirty-eight years are
sal-? to indicate an annual lucre::eo in tie
-aisfall 'If 5.21 issches; thirty years tt I
Asit Rliley, twenty-four nt the State
igrieulturatl college, and sevesnteesn years
st the State university. Laws-sace, Ken.,
u'-e ssid to give figures showing nu its
:rcusse in the rrassiall of 3.05 und 1.00
ichses per annum. The datis is very
raluable, and seems almost indisputable.
But these is still a stronger authority,
he farmers themselves. In Western
Iansas and Nebraska and Eastern Col
Isrs~doo farmers are now raising crops on
vhat was formerly known as the Great
tmcriean Desert. They claim that there
asa great future for that section, and
hey raise crops without Irrigation, de
sending solely on the rainfall. And so
chile some scientists are doubting the
statement that the rain belt is coming I
rest, farmers are raisinr cmons. uf.in (
tout section, tney can raise the cereau
without ir:igation, so mnuch the better
but there are many millions of acres oi
land that can never be made productive
Jithout irrigation, and let us have reser
veirs and great canals, and from whal
:a now arid regions in the west net
Sunites ara possibilities.-Will C. Ferri;
in Kansas City Journal.
The Cause of It.
First Citizen-Your wife seems to have
aged greatly of late. What is the matter
Second Citizen-she got that way wait
ing for change in one oe our big trimmin
Farming In the Indian Territory.
An official who has spent the best year
of his lifo in dealing with the crimes and
the people of Indian territory talket
freely about thecondition of things there
"The end at the present political con
dition of the Indian territory is not fat
off. I took for it within ten years. The
railroads, the great number of white men
and the peculiar conditions existing thern
are hastening a solution of the problem
I find on talking with the principal met
among the Indians that they agree witl
me. The railroads get no grant, but the
employes are allowed to settle on the
right of way. The towns are full o'
white men without rights, and in sucl
numbers as to ie undisturbed, and ti
possess privileges that no one disputes.
"The manner in which the soil it
worked is most peculiar and forms one o0
the greatest abuses and one of the strong
est agencies for the overthrow of the In
dian supremacy. The fact that the lane
is rich and valuable, taken in conjunctiot
with the fact that the Indian does no:
like to work, has naturally brought abouw
a condition in which the whites do th(
work and take a large share of the profit
and give the Indian the rest. TInder the
law no Indian can sell or rent his prop
arty, but he evades the law very easily
He turns his property over to the whiti
man by pretending to hire him as a farn
laborer. The white man, to all intent:
and purposes, becomes the farmer am
manages the farm, and yet is registered
under the Indian law as a mere farm hand
hired by the land holder. The plan o:
renting is called the third and fourth sys
tem, the white man paying the Indiai
one-third of the yield of corn or a fourtl
of the yield of cotton.
"This evasion of the law that bringt
whites in to operate the farms, the inter
marriage of whites among the Indians b)
which the whites become entitled to r
full citizen's share of the land as if theN
were Indians, are all weakening the In
dian hold upon his own territory an(
tending to bring the present system to at
end. What then? That is a serious ane
peculiar question An evil of great mag
nitude has been allowed to grow up it
the territory. Enterprising Indians, hall
breeds and whites who got full rights b.
marrying squaws, have done what you ot
I would under the law-accumulated large
holdings. Many have 8,000 to 10,000 ot
even 20.000 are-s in their claims. The
law says that a man belonging to any o1
the nations mty pre-empt a quarter of a
mile around his cabin. The enterprising
-man takes that quarter of a mile, goes t
quarter of a mile further on and takes an
other claim and so gets all the land thai
he could improve and till."-New l rlt
Wooe lor the Xylophone.
"I was the inventor, or introducer, more
properly speaking, of the xylophone, which
Instrument you know is composed of a
series of wooden bars arranged like thy
metalaphone on a frame."
"You were not the inventor of the xy:
"I might be so called, I suppose, but
the Chinese, I believe, were the real In
ventors of that kind of instrument. I
think there is one made by the Chinese in
the Smithsonian institution This nation
also invented the system of producing
musical notes from stones or pieces of
metal suspended from a frame.
"Do other manufacturers besides your
self make xylophones?"
"Yes; but I stand practically alone as a
maker of the finest variety. When I in.
troduced the xylophone into orchestras
some years ago they became so popular
that a large demand for them was felt.
To supply this demand many makers of
musical instruments went into the manu
facture of cheaper grades, and they are
now sold as low as fifty cents. I still,
however, get my original price of $l5."
"What is the best wood for this pur
"I have finally settled upon locust after
trying every other kind. The advantages
possessed by locust are that it is more
elastic and less oily than other woods. It's
funny, too, how I happened to think of
locust. I was standing talking to a friend
late one evening on a street corner, when
a policeman sounded his club upon the
pavement. The quality of the musical
note it made attracted my attention, and
as I knew policemen's night sticks were
made of locust I tried the same wood suc
cessfully on the xylophone. "-Brooklyn
Searc- aor use swassnes.
There are a great many funny things
attending the rise of the "Jenkinses." I
mean those people who have advanced in
material wealth without adding a whit to
their literary or social position. They are
bragging of an ancestry they never had,
and are at a loss to establish themselves
as members of the old families. Just now
there is a search for old gold watches,
which will be paraded as family heirlooms,
handed down by this or that distinguished
Roundhead, or Mayflower pilgrim. The
old Johnson watches, made on Church
street, Liverpool, are among those most
eagerly sought by the man who wants to
trade money for lineage. Few of them
are left, and in Baltimore an especial mar
ket has been established, and large sums
are paid for them. Money Is a great deal
plentier than blue blood, and the exchange
Is willingly made by those who have
laly acquired the shekels.-Watchmaker
Glass in Old Trnes.
Glass was in use among the Romans at
the time of Tiberio;, and tho ruins of
Pompeii show that it was in use for win
dows during the First century of the
Christian era.-Boston Budgot.
C. A. BROADWATEIR, President. C. M. WEBSTER, Secretary.
PARS (1i SON, Vice- President. A. E. l)ICKEIIMAN, Treasurer.
THE GREAT FALLS
hter-Power & Tonsite Co.
THE INDUSTRIAL CITY.
GREAT FALLS, having the greatst available water-power on the American
continent, is destined to be the chief ind trial city of the northwest. The Montana,
Smelting Company is now erecting tier. is largest works for the reduction of ores
in the United States, and other extensi manufacturing enterprises will soon he
GREAT FALLS is now the termi::;s of three railroads-the St. Paul, Minne
apolis & Manitoba, the Montana tontra. a-t:d the Great Falls and Sand Coulee line.
It is the Commercial Ce er of Northern Montanl.
It has a population of 2,000 and is gr' ng rapidly. Enterprises now under way
and to be inaugurated will more than do : the population this year.
No town in the Rocky Mountain re : oilers greater inducements to the settler
or investor, and all such are respectfully i ited to conme and see for themselves.
For information regarding CHEAT VA lT.S and surrounding country, address
CHAS. [1. WEBSTER, Secretary,
Great Falls. Montana.
NEW YORK CASH BAZAAR
THE SPECIAL 3A GAIN STORE.
The Almighty Dollar, the Many have
too Few and the few too may.
NOTE THE FOLLOWING EXTREMELY LOW PRICES'
haclice' Fince Kidi Sines ............m pries $200 Montana pirise Pl250
I ciii, ' F'inest Fsrisch Kid ............. .......~ lries 5U Miinktna price 00W
l isilii- (,it wcirkeist ttoncle Shwor ...... anly price 1t0 Montana price 200
Indies' t l wkltthilccc Shies, best........ry prilce 225 Montana price 200
Clcildteeci's Solair rlip Shos......................imy price 100 Mcintana price 150
('hltieai's Fine Hfigt lit. Shearss.......... ...Sy tries 101 Mointana price 200
Men's (,BEgiKOs", Whit, VCies.....c.oy airie a00 Montani price 800
nii's ll Whol VeN di. ...... .i. price 2WiN Montana price 300
itetia c 'ingress oi blkst, Fine Calf, (ioeisyrcir Welt my pie 25 Mnaa rc
M er....y irie 275 Montana price 400
Mtei's tinie 'rr tiits ......... . . .y arice 175 Montana price 250r
alen's Still lints....................my pries 125 Montant pirice 200
Dtimy's ains Ions 25 cent" to $1, wiirth s pie "tutscnui,.
Cavetalring'cii in propsrtisn. A fall line f Dry thesis, Millinery, Notions and.Oeta'
f CAiiis iiDg (:ORsleATt. MIih FrFOes.E
R. D. BECKON, Central Avenue.
HI. 0I. l'IIOWFN. PILtsSTO IJN id F. Hi. WILCOX
Prsldet. Vie. lest oat" Sec. hTrees..
ATARItACT ILL COAPANY
Mtainuifactners if c falliwing ilkinds of hh-Grade Flour
Diamond, Gold DustL,
Cataract, Silver Le iU
CASH PAID FOR WHEAT. MILL FEED FOR SALE
FFlcM':: - Cont Avenue, near ctrser of Park Drive. MILL - Foot of Central Avenue.
.RE T F'AZLLS
GILCHRIST BROS. & EDGAR,
Dealers in Pill kinds of ROG and FtIeeB.
C'EDAIR DO() Its, SASHI MOULDING,
PINE and CE)A It CORNER BLOCKS.
BUILDING atic 'T'AR PAPER.
OREGON PINE A SPECIALTY.
AIrD---Nineti avenue Wiritth and 'I1fiistrect CIT'Y OFFICE- -Central