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THE GREAT FALLS LEADER.
DEVOTED TO THE AGRICULTURAL, MANUFACTURING AND MINING INTERESTS OF NORTHERN MONTANA,
VOL. 1. GREAT FALLS, MONTANA, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, 1888. NO, 1
JENSE1, THE SHOE MAN,
Has ODened his Finely EQupd Boot a Shoe Eslablishment in the luther Bloc]
On Second St., bet. Central and First Ave. South.
An inexhaustible variety of Boots and Shoes carried in stock. PRICES LOW AND REASONABLE. Mail orders filled care
fully and expeditiously.
A VISIT TO THE "UNIVERSAL PRO
VIDER" OF LONDON.
One of the Wonders of the World ol
Trade-The Famous Bon Marche of
Paris Outdone-A Whole Congeries of
Whiteley's establishment is one of the
wonders of the world of trade. Compara
tively few Americans visit it, as it is far
away from what is known as the Ameri
can beat-i. e., from the Langham
hotel to the Metropole. Compared
to the trade kingdom over which
a single proprietor, William Whiteley,
rules, such mere overgrown dry goods
stores as the Louvre and the Bon Marche
In Paris are but simple affairs. White
ley's is not a store, but a whole congeries
of stores, each as accessible to but as dis
tinct from the other as the dining room is
from the parlor on a floor with folding
doors. What in the usual run of dry
goods stores occupies a counter or at
most but a room-such as the silk depart
ment, the linen department, the costume
department, etc.-has at Whiteley's a
large and imposing store to itself. The
jewelry store is a superb establishment,
the furniture house is magnificent; china,
glass, ironmongery, dressmaking, sewing
machines, coiffures, toys, Japanese and
Indian curios, each and all have stores
devoted exclusively to themselves, large
openings giving communication through
the entire series of establishments.
This would be wonderful enough, but
there are surprises at Whiteley's; a pro
vision store of extensive dimensions ad
joins an excellent restaurant, the restan
rant leads into the aviary, conservatory
and live stock establishments. There hi
s well supplied wood and coal office. Pi
anos are upstairs in a store of their own;
near them is a large hall, decorated with
flags, statuary, tables and chairs in pro
fusion. Here a dinner of several hundred
covers may be given, or ordered for any
place, town or country, with every acces
sory, from the banquet itself to the
waiter who serves it; all provided by
Whiteley. I had nearly forgotten to name
a charming picture gallery, where many
original works of great beauty are dis
played, and where orders are taken for
copies of any masterpiece on the walls of
anyof the great galleries of Europe.
Whiteley is also a banker. You may buy
or sell money on his premises. You may
take your passage by any steamer for any
port. You may hire a servant; bury a de
ceased friend; put your belongings up at
auction; purchase, sell, build or take dowr
a house. In short, there is not a single
transaction in life relating to trade which
Whiteley is not willing to make for you.
No wonder he calls himself "the univer
sal provider." Such a business as White
ley's must speedily make a man a bank
rapt or a millionaire; and as disaster has
not overtaken him, it is presumed that
Whiteley has a good account at his own
and other banks. His establishment has
suffered frequently from fires, whose
strangely persistent recurrence irresist
bl suggests incendiarism.
nthe matter of cheapness I find very
little difference between Whiteley's and
other establishments which are not es
pecially devoted to wealth, customers, as
are Gillow's in the furniture line, and
Lewis & Allenby in the dry goods. An
honest price prevails, and If an American
visitor sees anything he or she likes at
TWhiteley's, I would advise him or her to
purchase it without further ado, as It
would be a waste of time to run all over
London to try to find the same article at
s lower price.
AT THE BON MARCHE.
For one American who has heard of
vWhiteley's in London, ninety and nine
have heard of the Bon Marche in Paris.
Persons who know no other single word
in French are aware that bon marche
means "cheap." This famous store is in
deed a marvelous place. Outside of a
few little knickknacks known as articles
de Paris, the vast establishment is en
tirely devoted to the sale of dry goods.
No wonder the American woman, with her
national love for shopping, revels in
hours spent in flitting from one counter
to another Gloves are to the right of
her, flowers to the left of her, silks are in
front of her lace is beyond. Are these
beautiful things really, or only in ap
pearance, cheap? Why, the truth is they
are sold at the market price. Examine
well anything that is offered below the
current rates, and you will discover a
a will Call the attention of American
ladies to custom which prevails at the
arger shops in Paris, by which our coun
trywomen are misled, though no deceit is
willfully put upon them; it arises simply
rom a difference of custom between the
uench and American merchant. When a
Tree is seen upon a remnant in America.
the purchaser knows that tne marked
figure is the price of the whole remnant,
while in France the marked figure means
per yard or rather meter, according to the
French measurement. Thus, if an Ameri
can lady sees some attractive pieces of
lace or silk, marked variously from $2 to
$10, and decides to take some or many of
these remnants, it comes, as a very dis
agreeable surprise, to find out that the
articles were at so much per yard, and
that the shopkeeper will now measure the
yards. Often the price is but a few sous
reduction per yard on the original figure
asked, and the purchaser finds herself
with awkward lengths of goods she was
tempted to buy only in the Mrs. Toodles
spirit. To be asre, at the Bon Marche
the privilege is given of exchanging
articles which a purchaser may be dis
satisfied with-if no harm has come to
them. Even money is, under certain cir
cumstances, returned.-London Cor. Bos
CRYSTALLIZATION OF FRUITS.
T'he Method as Explained to Californla's
Board of Horticulture.
The process of preserving fruits in a
crystallized or glaced form is attracting
considerable attention at the present time.
This process, though comparatively new
in California, has been extensively ope
rated in Southwestern France for years,
the United States having been heavy im
porters, paying fancy prices for the pro
duct. The process is quite simple. The
theory is to extract the juice from the
fruit and replace it with sugar syrup,
which, upon hardening, preserves the
fruit from decay and at the same time
retains the natural shape of the fruit.
All kinds of fruit are capable of being
preserved under this process. Though
the method is very simple, there is a cer
tain skill required that is only acquired
by practice. The several rsccessive steps
in the process are about as follows: First,
the same care in selecting and grading
the fruit should be taken as for canning;
that is, the fruit should be all of one size
and as near the same ripeness as possible.
The exact degree of ripeness is of great
importance, which is at that stage when
fruit is best for canning. Peaches, pears,
etc., are pared and cut in halves as for
canning; plums, cherries, etc., are pitted.
The fruit having thus been carefully
prepared is then put in a basket or bucket
with a perforated bottom and immersed
in boiling water. The object of this is to
dilute and extract the juice of the fruit.
The length of time the fruit is immersed
is the most important part of the process.
If left too long it is overcooked and be
comes soft; if not immersed long enough,
the juice is not sufficiently extracted,
which prevents a perfect absorption of
the sugar. After the fruit has been thus
scalded and allowed to cool, it can again
be assorted as to softness. The next step
is the sirup, which is made of white
sugar and water. The softer the fruit,
the heavier the sirup required. Ordinar
ily, about 70 degs. Balling's saccharometer
is about the proper weight for the sirup.
The fruit is then placed in earthen pans
and covered with sirup, where it is left to
remain about a week. The sugar enters
the fruit and displaces what juice re
mained after the scalding process.
The fruit now requires careful watch
ing, as fermentation will soon take place,
and when this has reached a certain stage
the fruit and sirup is heated to a boiling
degree, which checks the fermentation.
This beating process should be repeated
as often as necessary for about six weeks.
The fruit is then taken out of the sirup
and washed in clean water, and is then
ready to be either glaced or crystallized,
as the operator may wish. If glaced, the
fruit is dipped in thick sugar sirup and
left to harden quickly in open air. If it
is to be crystallized, dip in the same kind
of sirup, but is made to cool and hardes
slowly, thus causing the suer whil:
covers the fruit to crystallize. The fruit
is now ready for boxing and shipping
Fruit thus prepared will keep in any
climate and stand transportation.-J J
Pashluns in Hanurriting.
There are fashions in everything nowa
days. The latest is in handwriting. At
least, I see that an instructor in that art
advertises at a stylish stationer's that he
will impart to our aristocracy, and I pre
sume any one else who can pay for in
struction, the latest styles of fashionable
caligraphy. It used to be charged against
the old fashioned writing master that his
method of instruction deprived the pupil
of all individuality in the use of the pen.
The writing master taught writing after
the fashion of a copperplate. The newer
style insists on an equal suppression of
individuality without the compensation
of elegance. The thing in handwriting
now is apparently to make it as illegible
as possible. The extent to which the
people succeed is certainly a credit to the
master.--John Preston Beecher in New
A STUDY OF SUICIDE,
WHAT LIFE RESCUER O'BRIEN YvI
ON THE SUBJECT
Observatioes of a Chicago Mae Who ae I
Saved Thirty Human Lives-People The
Want to Drown Themselves-Metbda
of the Genuine Self Killer.
"When I am free and at leisure I gt to
Lincoln park. The lake shore ther is
my field of operation. Most of the
drownings take place in the lake off ýin.
coin park. Dozens of young peopleare
out boating there every day, and one in
awhile a life hater turns up, deternmed
to bury himself in the waves. Fone
who is really tired of life it is ind
good place. The water is clear, cool d
inviting. The confusing roar and bise
of this busy city life is far off. Pece,
tranquillity and rest reign all around. T.e
place is just made for life haters rho,
you know, are often capable of waking
miles in order to terminate their life a
shady and green spot. Along that rery
shore I rescued about a dozen people and
at least five of them were would b'sell
"During the many years I devotd to
this peculiar occupation of mine--tht is,
to saving the drowning-I observeethat
not only place and time but alsi the
weather has a great deal to do wi14 the
occurrence of drownings. Those who
drown themselves in the spring and
autumn usually have a weakness for tdr
weather. They are visionaries sufferin
from inborn melancholy, and often poet
with ruined, dissipated talents. Tie
great majority, however, are poor cr
tures for whom sunshine is rather ih.
vigorating than productive of a desire b
die. They think of dying for a long time
but they do it as soon as the weathe
changes for the worse. If the weather i
too bad, if it rains or snows heavily, the,
will wait. They do not like too bal
"The days on which the drownings and
I suppose, suicides in general are mos
numerous, are in most cases those oi
which the sky is enveloped in gray clouds
Everything then seems gloomy and mel.
ancholy. An inexplicable heavy pressure
upon the breast makes the blood flow.
slowly and lulls the brain into a dull
stupor. The thoughts get confused.'
Deep sadness seizes the unfortunate suf
ferers, and whatever unpleasant and bit
ter their past life contained forces its way
out of the depth of recollection, and
bursts forth in one agonizing feeling of
despair and disgust with the world.
Those who try to plunge into the here.
after on such days offer grim resistance,
when one comes to their rescue, and with.
out preliminary precautions to rescue
them is a dangerous undertaking.
"Many of those who resolve to drowi
themselves often come to the spot they
select for the accomplishment of their re
solve, long before taking the final step.
They walk up and down along the shore,
gaze at the sky, look around shyly, thai
they begin to stare at the water, e
deavoring to measure its depth. Whei
they are about to make the fatal move
ment they halt suddenly and listen. The
chirn of a bird, the splash of a fish, the
whistle of a steamer, any sound. any
trifling matter unsettles their resolve.
They turn round all of a sudden and walk
quickly away. A few days afterward they
come back and seem to reproach them
selves for having been so cowardly before.
Instead of walking up and down they now
remain standing on one spot. They stare
at the water. In their eyes there is not a
spark of a thought. They have the ap
pearance of somnambulists. They can
neither see nor hear anything. Suddenly,
it seems, something startles them. The
hat flies from the head, the coat from the
shoulders, and-there-they are strug
gling with the waves.
'"Most of them appear on the surface
before they finally go down. A genuine
self-killer will fold his arms, shut his
eyes and go down without any noise. He
is half dead already before the unavoid
able apoplexy strikes his brain. Those,
however, who go into death with some
hesitancy, at this dreadful moment are
overcome by a powerful fondness of life.
They cry and kick and trample with their
arms and legs, and when one comes to
their rescue they cling to him like a polyp.
To die is not so easy a thing after all, and
he who attempts to take his own life will
not soon repeat his attempt.
"Even the hours of the day are of great
importance to the suicides. Generally
they choose the afternoon hours, when it
begins to grow dusky. Only a small pro
portion suicide in the morning. At day
break, when only the street cleaners are
at work, in Chicago as well as in other
large cities, you can sometimes notice
people of all ages and stations of life walk
down to the lake or to the river. They
look pale and weary, their hair is con
fneRd their, lnthd s in disorder. thev look
as if they had just come out of their bed.
They are gamblers who have lost all their
possessions in one night, or embezzlers
who have spent the money of their em
ployers in one great debauch, or thieves
who are escaping from the police. There
they stand at the edge of the water and
sigh. Yesterday they were happy and
free from all care, today a dreadful end
"The darkness vanishes more and more,
the city awakens, its noise becomes louder
and louder. They sit down and let their
legs hang over the surface of the water.
Tears fill their eyes, they sob quietly.
It is so difficult to die, especially when
one is young. The sun has risen high
upon the horizon. People hurry down
town from all directions. It strikes 8, 9
o'clock-now, perhaps, the embezzlement
has been discovered, the police are being
notified--another hour passes quickly
away. There is no hope left. They look
around again and again, then suddenly
they shut their eyes and glide down into
the water. They think it is all over, but
somebody comes to their rescue. When I
they are brought ashore and they regain
consciousness, they send forth shouts of
joy. Whatever may come, disgrace or
mprisonment-'Thank God,' they repeat,
'I am alive, I am alive!' "-Chicago Jour
The Mesquito a Blessing.
A lecture was recently delivered at
Madras, India, on that interesting and
familiar pest, the musquito. The lect
urer, Mr. H. Sullivan Thomas, asserts
that it is only the female musquito that
does the biting. Ie considers the mus
quito a most useful pest, seven-eighths
of its existence being devoted to the
service of men and only one-eighth to
their annoyance. It exists in the larval
state twenty-one days, and during that
period engages in sanitary work with
ardor and thoroughness. Wherever there
is dirty water, wherever there is a filthy
drain, there the musquito larvie are to
be found in hundreds, voraciously de
vouring the contaminating matter.-New
A Chinese Opium Story.
Since the introduction of opium into
China millions and tens of millions have
given themselves up to its use, its vic
tims being found in all the ranks and
conditions of life, among the old, the
middle aged, the young, and even chil
dren. But a case of an infant becoming
a victim to its pernicious influence has
just come to our knowledge. A man and
his wife had been in the habit of taking
opium for years, and one of their chief de
lights was in indulging themselves over
the pipe in each other's company, each tak
ing alternate whiffs. One day the woman
gave birth to a boy, and all the household
was in an ecstatic state of joyfulness. But
before long the baby began to show signs
of illness, and although a physician was
sent for they could not discover the cause
of its symptoms. Every effort was made
to save the child, but he only grew worse
and worse until his parents gave him up
In despair they took their pipe to
solace themselves, and behold! as they
puffed at the pipe the smoke was wafted
to the child's nostrils, and, giving a
sneeze, he instantly revived and began to
cry. Upon inhaling more of the smoke
he changed his crying into laughing and
became exceedingly lively. After that he
was all right as long as he inhaled the
smoke at regular periods of the day.
One day, however, his parents neglected
to give him the accustomed dose of smoke
and before they were aware he died.
He Revolts Against Cruelty.
It is rather in others and for others that
the modern civilized man dreads pain. He
finds it harder to knowthat other men are
suffering the pains of cold or hunger in
Kansas or Ireland or India; or that "pris.
oners of poverty" are working for pit.
tances in the great cities; or that laboring
men are driven to work sixteen hours a
day; or that criminals are tortured or mis
treated in the chain gang; or that "politi
cals" are driven to insanity in the Russian
state prisons. He resents and punishes
cruelty to animals where his great-grand
father, perhaps, thought nothing of send
ing a slave to the whipping post. He re
volts even against harshness in just
punishment, and desires to alleviate some
of the horrors of hanging. If he ignores
a case of cruelty, it is from lack of om
niscience; let him know about it, and the
world shall know his feelings about it.
Wilberforce and Copley might go on for
years telling Englishmen of the horrors
of the middle passage and of all the vii
lainies of the slave trade; and still the
slave ships sailed out from Liverpool, and
the slave trade was represented in parlia
ment. Cruelty in more recent times lives
by stealth and blushes to find itself fa.
mous in the newspaper pillory.-The
Red and orange do not accord well.
(. A. LBROADWATEJI, President. C. M. WEBSTER, Secretary.
I PAI'S GIBSON, Vice -lresidet. A. E. DICKERMAN, Treasiwier.
THE GRi'AT FALLS
Sater-Power & Tounsite Co,
THE4 INDUSTRIAL CITY.
(REAT FALLS, having the gresatrt available water-power on the AImert n2,
continent, is dlestined to he the chief inhistrial city of the northwest. The M.lotiaitall
Smelting Comp:any is now erecting here the largest works for the reillction of trr
in the United States, and other extensive manufacturing enterprises will ,on he
(GREATI FALLS is now the terml in; of three rhailroads-tlhe tt. ' Pul, Minne
apolis2 & Manitoba, the lonltatn Cntral 2 :2 d the (Great Falls and S;i 1d toulee line.
It is the Commercial Center of Northern Montaia.
Jt has 2a population of 2,000 iand is gro't ing rapidly. Enterprises now under way
and to'he inaugurated will more than d1(lle the population this year.
No town in the Rocky Molluntain region.2t offers greater inducements to the settler
or investor, and all such are respectfully invited to come and see for themselves.
For infornmation regarding (IREAT FALL' and surrounding country, address
CHAS. M. WEBSTER, Secretary,
Great Falls. Montana.
Fnllreit and House Furni ;]ini s,
1)D( lIlATEI) ANI) PLAIN (IIAMBEI SETS.
Curtain Poles, Book Cases,
PAlIIolt I)ESKS. WALI. IAPER, BAIlY CARRIAGES,
Bedding, Lounges, Bedr :om Suites, Parlor Suites,
(IIAIIS, ItE('LINING ('IIAIIIS, ETC.
In fI'rt anything youl want in the Furniture line at RIeduced Prices.
('ENTItAL AVENUE, (iIIEAT FALLS. M. T.
HI. (. CHOWEN. PIIES''IIN KIN(i F. B. WIL('OX
Presidlent. Vice,-l'resireu t. Sc& Troni.
CATARACT IILL COOPANY
Manufacturers of the fol lowingjlhrands if H igh-G1 rade Flour:
Diamond, Gold Dust,
Cataract, Silver Let, .
CASH PAID FOR WHEAT. MILL FEED FOR SALE
FFlO(C-Cent Av;,nlo, near corner of Park )rive. MILL- Font of ('entral Avenue.
QR 20 AT F'A LL S.