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THEGREAT FALLS LEDER
,DEVOTD TO THE AGRICULTURAL, MANUFACTURING AND MINING INTERESTS OF NORT.E. MONTANA .
VOL. 1. --"FGREAT FALLS MONTANA, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 6, 1888
JENE SHOE MAN
a Oene Fil Eq nip ShoeEah in rheLuer Block
On Second St., bet. Central and First Ae. South.
An inexhaustible variety of Boots and Shoes carried in stock. PRI.ES ow AND R SONL MaiL orders filled are
lly and expeditiously.
S. . . ....~ . .A...L E M a i o r d e rs"f i l e d c a r e-
DD FANCIES OF THOSE WHO
LIVE ON THE OCEAN.
arnlnp from the Spirits of the Depart
ed-Gloomy Forebodlngs-Fate of the
Good Ship FPrlday-Birds of the Sea.
Sailors believe that the spirits of the
parted, as in life, possess all their own
culir ways of warning or communi
ting to their friends on earth such in.
rmation as they deem essential to their
elfare and happiness. It is not an un
mmon occurrence for them to credit the
ides of some friend with many of those
,iing little changes in the flowing and
bbing of the sea as indicative of some
rospective ill luck or joy.
Rarely does it happen that the etymol
gy of their superstition contains a pre.
ursor for joy. Such gloomy forebodings
they are capable of interpreting are in
ariab'y omens of misfortune. Truly
ay it be said that superstition forms the
lpnabet of the seafaring man as one
norant of its varied branches is gener
ly looked upon as "green," and becomes
butt of his more fortunate and enlight
Their transformation into the ethereal
alms of space does not, in the belief of
hose whom they have left behind, alter
heir ideas one iota, and hence it is that
he several trifling mishaps and other cir
umstances incidental to a voyage are in
rpreted by the sailors into realities
.ich would fill a volume in themselves.
Sjustice to them, however, be it said,
such fatuitions conceptions are not
lthout foundation, as the loss of the
amship Friday many years ago will
FATE OF THE FRIDAY.
This vessel was a huge ironclad, built
Scotland regardless of expense, and
med after the unlucky day. She was
anned and commanded by capable and
xperienced officers, selected for their
pabilities, and altogether thoroughly
apted for such a task as the trial voy
e of an ocean steamer. She set sail on
riday, and when nearing the Cape of Good
ope a few weeks afterward on that very
ame day, sank, drowning all her crew.
t is believed that owing to this disaster
amen have considerable fear of putting
;o sea on Friday, and some go so far as to
ay that their fears date from this sad
atastrophe. Captains of small vessels
save always dreaded the prospect of sall
mg on Friday, while those of larger ones
cok upon that day with the greatest non
'halance and unconcern.
The sailor on land and on sea are two
stinct characters, each possessing his
iwn singular attributes. On land no
rther being has a more utter disregard of
remature danger or mishaps, as his daily
ctions and nocturnal orgies demonstrate,
o when once on sea he blossoms out
n into smiles of excessive obsequious
ss. There when danger dogs his foot.
teps at every track superstition is his
0o; to it he sacrifices every selfish senti
ent, and in it he trusts for those happy
resentiments which may afterward save
im from destruction.
Even while partaking of their meals
sailors rarely lose an opportunity of dis
:using and rehearsing stories which the
Iverage man would regard as the product
fa maniac's brain. The day's happen
ngs are interpreted by each and notes ex
'hanged. The most gifted romancer is
hen looked upon with feelings of rever
nace and respect. A visit to their sleeping
lUarters will reveal a miscellaneous col
ection of horseshoes, nails, palmlike
eaves and numerous other articles, each
if which has a history of its own. When
girds are swept aboard ina storm they are
nvariably left untouched, as sailors eye
lemn with delight and satisfaction as the
pirts of some dear departed friend met
Sulorphosed. The birds of the. sea,
sotably the petrel, immortalized by Proc
:or, and the sea gull, are held sacred in
'ousequence of the latter apparently rest
.ng on the surface of the sea after the
canner of the Saviour on the Lake of
Whenever this occurs in the immediate
icinity of a ship a calm is predicted, and
he jolly tars lose little or no time in
otifying the captain of their glorious
-ision. In sailors' eyes the porpoises are
never pleasant objects to contemplate.
When they suddenly appear during a calm
he sailors look for another wind from the
oame quarter as that which was blown
)t, and if they skip about it means that
gale is coming.
IN AWE OP THE sHARA .
The common barnacle which adheres to
hip's side becomes, according to their
belief, later on in life a goose. But among
ithose signs nothing is so well calcp.
ated to fill them with awe as the appear
Ice of a shark. When this monster of
h deep is seen to follow a ship for
vera days a death is to occur on board,
'twa "ains. are adouted in mating their
lourney a saIe ana successful one. "'e
;hip is then evidently haunted, and the
-aces of her crew, but recently smiling,
re now decorated with expressions at
,nee thoughtful and lugubrious.
Tbhe common mirage fills sailors with
read, and betokens an early death to
iome of its observers. Carrying a corpse
,a board appears to them to be inviting
disaster, and cases are on record where
the crew have become mutinous and re
fractory until the distasteful freight was
lowered into the sea.
Norwegian sailors are inveterate slaves
to a form of superstitionexclusively their
awn. They believe in the existence of a
beck or merman, a sea animal represented a
is having a fish body with the head of a
man and the flowing ringlets of a boy.
The merman sits upon the waves, plays
the harp, and, following the example of
many of the Norse fishermen, wears a red
cap. It is never seen more than once in
seven years, and no matter how many
vessels appear in its sight they all must
The crew, according to their belief, are
then transplanted in the merman's re- I
gions, where, after a brief stay, they go
to swell the shoal of hecks, and are then
'u themselves as disastrous as the origi
alr. The kraken, a sea monster whose
existence has been so often attested by
the evidences of alleged eye witnesses
that one is at a loss to know whether it is
real or has a being only in the minds of
superstitious sailors, is a constant source
of alarm to them.
Many assertions which have been made
at times regarding the existence of this t
leviathan, which occasions so much dread
in the minds of the Norse fishermen, have
been rejected as mere superstition. Still
some authentic grounds for a belief in its
existence are on record. The Norwegian
differs from his English brother only in
this particular belief, but in all other es
sential respects sailors of all ages and
nationalities worship the same supersti
ti us creed.-James W. Gavan in New
Postal Savtlngs Bak System.
Ona of the fantmnran of th nn e nwn.4
One of the features of the government I
of Great Britain is the postal savings
bank system. It is very popular and is
largely patronized by the public. Its use
fulness is beyond all question. United
States Consul Walling, at Liverpool. has
been investigating this subject and has
given some very interesting facts about
its workings in a report to the secretary
of state. The beginning of the govern
ment postal savings banks was in 1861
under a bill prepared and presented by
Mr. Gladstone. It was entitled "an act
affording additional facilities for deposit
ing small savings at interest with the
security of the government for the due
repayment thereof." On the day of the
opening of the first banks under this act
435 deposits were received. One year
afterward the number had increased so
greatly that there were 2,585 offices open
for the accommodation of the public. In
1888 the depositors had increased in num
ber to 8,781,421, and the amount of money
on deposit was £50,874,888. This in
American money would be $250,000,000.
Deposits of one shilling or any number of
shillings are received up to $150 or £80.
The interest paid is 2J per cent. a year
on every full pound. Should the sum
on deposit reach £200 the interest there
on will cease until the amount has been
reduced. The government has made pro
vision for the investment of larger sums
in its securities. The banks will receive
deposits from parents or other relatives
on behalf of minor children. Married
women can also make deposits which are
beyond the control of the husbands.
Another feature of the British system
is that the government guarantees the
repayment of all moneys on deposit with
interest, and also any life insurances or
annuities granted under the act creating
these banks. The results of the measure
of Mr. Gladstone have been such as to'
recommend it to the good will of the
people of Great Britain. That they do
appreciate it is shown by their liberal
patronage. The cost of maintaining it is
very little, being about five-eighths of 1
per cent. The guarantee of the govern
ment makes the system absolutely safe.
It is in every respect a well regulated
financial institution. Great Britain is not
the only nation which has these postal
savings banks. They are a feature of
the American and Australian British
colonies. They have been engrafted
upon the political system of France, Ger
many, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Holland
and Japan.-Detroit Free Press.
The Pig Headed Pasasear.
A correspondent wants to know why
railway companies do not arrange to have
all passengers go out at the frontend and
enter at the rear end of a car. He 4Pesn't
know the perversity of the average p:s
sengsr, or he wouldn't ask this question.
sIf a railway company should try to en
f orce such a rule it would meet with the
pig headed opposition of nearly half the
passengers in every car. Americans, in
dividuily, are abright heople, but in a
crowd they act as though they were not.
--New York Tai~a
GROWTH OF CREMATION.
EFFORTS MADE TO RENDER THE
PROCESS EASY AND PRACTICAL.
The Overcrowded Cemeteries of Paris-An 0
Obqection-Attelmpted Solution of h
Unexpected Problem-Where the Ques
Cremation in France is attended. with
difficulties. Technical questions have
arisen and the laws regulating freedom of
burial have caused unpleasant delays. .
Still, the crowded condition of the Paris
cemeteries, where the dead are crammed
into narrow mausolea and piled in an in
discriminate way on top of one another,
renders a solution of some kind impera.
tive. When the cemeteries of Pere la
Chaise and Montmartre were established c
they were on hillsides that were at some
distance in the country. Now, though
they are not in the heart of the city, they
are far within the city limits and have a
dense population on all sides of them.
No city in the world feels more impera.
tively the need of regulating the import.
ant question of burials in a manner that,
while it shall respect the prejudices in b
favor of the dead, shall at the same time
sumciiently protect the interests of the
iving. The establishment of anew ceme
tery on a grander scale at Mery sur Oise, I
a few miles from Paris, has been in con- tl
templation since 1879, and as the project
approaches solution the question of cre
mation is again being earnestly discussed. d
In 1879 and again 1880 cremation was
by city ordinance made optional for the
friends of the deceased, but thekeeper of
the seals found legal objections in the civil u
and penal code. Pending the settlement
of the doubtful points involved a society °
to promote the cremation was formed, of
which Gambetta was a profoundly con
vinced and exceedingly active member.
A new law regulating freedom of burial
was passed, and a crematory, or crematory
chapel, was erected in the least used part
of Pere la Chaise, which is a conspicuous
object in the sceneryif nothing else. The 4
law has not accomplished all that its pro. i
jectors desired, and various unexpected w
difficulties have arisen, which have v
strengthened the hands of the enemies of v
At Milan, Lodi, Cremona and other p
cities in the north of Italy, at Zurich and 0
in (3nsmonv nwuprlainn. ie .7'o.f.n .. rl .i
in Germany, cremation is effected in two l
hours. This is of itself considered a suf
ficient objection in Paris, since the long i
waiting, even in a room set apart for the I
purpose, would be too painful for rela- i
tives and their friends. To make it prac.-!
tical in a populous city, where, if crema.
tion became fashionable, time would be 1
precious, the process should be accom- I
plishedn halfan hour. It is this short
ening of the time that the experts are
studying at present. After having made
a personal examination of the crematories
at Zurich and Milan they concluded that
the desired result could only be obtained
by raising the temperatures, and that I
wood should be replaced by Illuminating
gas mingled with a current of air. Wood
only gives a temperature ranging from
900 to 1,000 degs. centigrade, while gas
gives from 1,800 to 2,000 degs.
Experiments have been made on the
ecarcasses of sheep at one of the gas man
ufactories of Paris which, though they
have not been entirely satisfactory, have
shown that they were tending in the
right direction. For instance, it was re
marked that when the high temperatures
effected incineration in the desired time,
it rendered the pulverization of bones
more difficult. A curious chemical pro
cess takes place. The bones, composed
principally of carbonate of lime, acquire
almost the hardness of porcelain when
brought to a temperature of 1,800to 2.000
What was to be donein a case like thisl
The cremator could not evidently give to
the weeping relatives a petrified skeleton
maintaining approximately the original
proportions of the defunct, and incapable '
of being put into any cinerary urn. in-.
stead of the handful of ashes which they
wished to be put into a china vase on the
parlor mantelpiece. So he set himself to i
solve this unexpected problem and dis-i
covered that If at agiven moment, that is
after the tissues were perfectly reduced a
to ashes, the remains were suddenly
plunged into water, by a mechanical de. o
vice easy of fabrication, the petrified
bones would at once resolve themselves.
into fragments of the desired minuteness. I
The process can be taken with glass
which, when heated to a high tempera
ture and plunged suddenly into water, is
reduced to a condition of impalpable! a
This is where the question rests. The p
experiments have been made under the p
direction of the Paris municipal authori-: ti
ties, who expect in any arrangements for e:
cremation they may hereafter effect to re- is
spect implicityreligiousprejudicees. They ix
desire that the time of the ceremonial ti
shall be as brief as possible. The body p
brought to them for incineration will not e:
he remnvlvd from the coffin. hbut reduced N
nts and ewels, all of wi .hich w -
vents and jewels, all of which will De re- t'.
trned in a conditionof fne powder. This
rill be done when, as expected, the cre
tatory at Pere la Chaise is inworking
rder. There are four "ovens," as they
re technically called by the French, and,
a the demands for cremation are numer
us, it is expected that they will all be
apt busy when physical and legal diff
uitles are removed, which it is hoped
ill be soon. It is not only the good
rench who will be cremated, but foreign.
rs who may wish to give their burial
eremonial a sort of eclat. A Belgian some
Lie ago sent money to pay for his cre.
nation at Pere Ia Chaise. In due time
e died, and the crematory not being in
rorking order, he was buried at Brussels
with the understanding that his remains
ill be taken to Paris for cremation as
Don as everything is ready.
The efforts of the French to render
remation easy and practical naturally in
_rest those Americans who have sought
D introduce this methodof burial. Where
ot a dozen persons are cremated in a
ear in a population of 60,000,000, the c
me occupied is of comparatively little
insequence. But should cremation be.
)me fashionable art and science will have it
ue called on to render the process not Il
uly inoffensive to the finest sensibility,
at even asthetic.-San Francisco Chron
Letters from the Queen.
It is probably not generally known in
his country that the queen of England
ever sends her personal correspondence
-rough the regular mail as her subjects
i. Everytrivial communication, whether
apersonal or a private nature, is de.
vered at its destination by a queen's i
sessenger. Queen Victoria is the only
ving sovereign who indulges in this
.ttle piece of extravagance at the expense o
f her subjects. Private and unimportant
ttters from other potentates are sent like
pistles from mere ordinary mortals, by
oat.-New York Truth.
The Capital of Bras.l.
Rlo is a succession of disappointments.
he only really pretty place is the Botan.
ml garden, which serves to illustrate
what the whole city might be. All
arleties of food are peddled about, the
enders attracting attention by clapping
leces of wood together and uttering
eculiar cries. There are plenty of street
r lines, and the cars are always crowded.
v]erybody roads a morning paper going
own town, and an evening paper return.
ig. Humming birds are as numerous as
tea, and at night the air is full of fire
ies that look like a shower of stars. The
women have a bilious look, and are in
arlably fat, while the men are invariably
an. Next to her complexion the ugliest
hing about a Brazilian woman is her
oice. She never goes shopping, the
ervants doing it for her, or going to the
hops and getting samples, from which
he makes her selections at home. She is
maous for her embroidery, made by her
wn hands. She is generally intelligent,
arnes readily and has considerable wit.
he never goes out alone to call on friends
ad receives no gentlemen except in the
resence of husband or parents.-Wil.
am E. Curtis.
Cause of Premature Age.
"I have 500 gray hairs in my head and I
'm only 8," said a friend to me, and
owming down in a street car another
rend took up the same theme and asked:
'Why is it we get old so quick in this
nuntry?" I could not say, not being old.
'We live in such a hurry," he said,
nswering his own question. "All we B
hink of is getting money in this country.
n the old country they think of spending
t. I mean that we are reckless of how
he money goes after we get it, and so
we are extravagant and need more money
nd strive harder to get it, and get old
roung. I believe there are more lunatics
n this state of New York with its five
nd a half millions than in all France H.
rith its thirty-seven millions. In France
man regulates his spending. He has so
such income. He makes it go as far as
t will, and lives in a regular and method
cal fashion on that basis. He doesn't
yieve for more because he can get com
ort out of what he has. But here we
re so anxious to make that we neither
pend with economy nor get comfort out
f what we spend. We waste our
trength to get it, and then waste what
re gain, for we don't get the good of it."
8Mggeation for Railway Companles.
The Boston Transcript wants to know
rhy railway companies do not hang up in
Bveral prominent places In stations a
lainly printed list of fares to different
laces. This would save a great deal of
me, as many passengers could have the
ract amount of money ready. In fact,
Slarge stations like those in this city, a
Loney changing office in addition to the
Lcket office might be established, so that
sople could provide themselves with the FF
tact change if they did not have it.
rew York Tribune.
THE GRI AT FALLSI
hater-Power & Tonsite Co.
THE INDUSTRIAL CITY.
GREAT FALLS, having the gentatet available water-power on the Amte.:Wl,
itinent, is destined to be the chief industrial city of the northwest. The Montanel
nelting Company is now erecting here the largest works for the reduction of ,or.
the United States, and other extensive manufacturing enterprisen will soon he
GREAT FALLS is now the terminus of three railroads--the t. Paul, Mine
tolis & Manitoba, the Montana Central nod the Great Falls and M.idi Coulee line.
It is the Commercial Center of Northern Montana.
has a population of 2,000 and is grVeing rapidly. Enterprises inow under way
id to be inaugurated will more than double the population this year.
No town in the Rocky Mountain region offers greater inducements to the settler
investor, and all such are respectfully invited to come and see for themselves.
For information regarding GREAT FAILS and surrounding country, address
CHAS. M. WEBSTER, Secretary,
Great Falls, Montana.
lurliturn an Ho1us Furniins111 ,
DE('ORATEI) AND PLAIN CIIAMBER SETS.
urtain Poles, Book Cases,
PARIOI I)ESKS. WALL IPAPER, IBABY ('AIRIAGES,
edding, Lounges, Bedroom Suites, Parlor Suites,
CHAIRS, RECLINING CHIIAIRS, ET('.
In fact anything you want in the Furniture line at Reduced Prices.
CENTRAL AVENUE. tGREAT FALLH. MI. T.
0. CHOWEN. PRESTON KING F. hi. WILt'OX
Preisdent. Vico-Pronmideat. See. & 'resa.
ArTjAl1j (rjT IILL COIPANY
Manufacturers of the followingaBrands of High-G amde Flour:
)iamond, Gold Dusts
cataract, Silver Leh.
CASH PAID FOR WHEAT. MILL FEED FOR SALE
IOCF --Cent Avenne, near corner of Park Drive. MILL - Feat of (Central Avenue.
Oc R AT A LL LS