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HOW SALT IS MINED.
METHODS EMPLOYED AT THE EXTEN
SIVE works in Michigan;
,n SfFly f Eaw Material, "TIiicIi I
-xMae, Xr Practically Xaexhnastlble Tlie
IxdHstry Has Grtmn Enormously Sinco
1G, at fThidi Tune It Beally Segaa.
- "The existence of salt springs in the
lower paninsula of Michigan was known
to tne Indians long prior to the advent
of the white men in the conntryv and
they were resorted to by both Indians
id Wild animals. So well known was
th facfc of the presence of salt springs
that the general government made nn
- saerouB reservations of lands which were
apposed to contain salt deposits. By
the act of admission of Michigan into
the Union the state was authorized to
select 72 sections of salt land, or land
where the presence of saline springs in
dicated the occurrence of salt deposits.
On the organization of the geological
survey the state geologist, Dr. Douclas
HbughtOH, made an examination, witk
the view to the selection of these lands,
-and in 1838 reported be results of his
observations. Still these examinations
were limited to surface indications, and
no extended experiments were made to
probe the coast far below he surface.
However, borings were finally xmder-
taken in several localities, resulting
generally ih suchTa good measure of suo-
cess as to stimulate still further trials,
developing such gratifying results, es
pecially in the Saginaw valley, that in
1859 the first company was organized
JJCllUU IUJ3 -LliUUBUljr ilii3 iBitUIKU 1UJ
present stupendous proportions adding
greatly to the wealth and reputation of
the state and especially to the growth
of the cities and the region in which
the business Is carried on.
The origin of these deposits is not
known. Whence the waters, lying so
far beneath the surface, derive their sa
lhw property there is no apparent means
of determining, nor is the boundary of
the surface known beneath which these
deposits of brine may be found. The
Michigan salt group has a wide extent?
in the state, though thus far the great-.
tsj successes nave come rrom tne sagi-
" vuiiey. vYiiero mo iuwtsbii xiurizou
is found in the salt group the brine is
found to be the strongest, greatest in
amount and best in quality. It is for
this reason th'at salt wells in the Sagi-
aaw valley have proved to he more val
liable than elsewhere. It is the region
in which the greatest depression occurs.
The salt group here lies at a depth
reaching to more than 1,000 feet below
the surface of the lake. At what depth
below the surface of the lake this brine
is Ifound the writer is unable to state.
Of one thing there is an apparent cer
tainly, that the supply of the brine is
inexhaustible. The extent to which the
manufacture of salt in Michigan may
be carried on is one of cost and demand.
Tiie brine may bo assumed as existing
in quantity far in excess of. our ability
to dimmish it
Of tho two modes of securing the
evaporation of the water, either by the
application of solar or artificial heat,
tho latter is the method mainly resort
ed to in tho Saginaw valley. Solar evap
oration is effected by exposing the brine
in Eh allow wooden vats. Such vats as
are used are about 18 feet square and 6
inches deep. They are supported on
posts above tho ground and are provided
with a roof, which is readily moved on
the vats or off from them to cover the
brine from the rain or to expose it to
the snn, as required. The process is be
guu in March and the contents removed
in July, the product of the second fill-
ing is taken out the 1st of September, '
and the third and final removal occurs
the last of October. The annual product
of a single salt vat of this sizo is 50 j
A kettle block contains 50 or 60 ket-1
ties, set close together and in rows in
closed in stonework or brickwork. A
launder "connects with a cistern kept
filled with brine and runs along be
tween the rows of kettles, and from this
launder the brine is drawn out into the
kettles by opening a lateral spout.
When 70 per cent of the water has been
boiled away, the salt is dipped out into
a basket or sieve to allow the water to
run cut of it, after which it is emptied
into a bin, where, after a sufficient time
about two weeks it is ready to be
put into barrels. But the greatest ad- f
vauce in tho way of cheapening tho cost
of the salt production has bren achieved
fey the use of steaai to afford heat for
evaporation. For this purpose the ex
haust steam of the great mills in the
Saginaw region is used. J
Pans are also made use of. A so call
ed pan bloGfc, consisrirgof a "settler"
pan, andpacking room are inclosed in the
same mulcting, xus Drine is arawn .
i n ,- u, ..., v.Q -f.
building. The brine is drawn
tom cf wMch the- 'fire is directly ap-'
tiliedfmakiiiff the evaporation very rap-1
id and causing the salt totferm continu
cusiy t z
The salt business in iOchigan ha1?
swollen from tkemanufactuie in 3SG0
ef 4.000 barrels to 3,96?, 286 in 1S95.
The estimated, capacity "of tho 113
firms now engaged 'in the manufacture
of saItin this state is 5,930,000 barrels"
Ier year. Detroit Free Press.
Appreciated Scotch. t
Jl well known learned judge, who
was & keen politician hefore Lis promo
tion to the bench, went down while
yet- a plain Q. G. to "help the I2beral
candidate for a Scotch borough. He be
jjan speeoh with a Scotch story; tut,
failing in giving the "awecent" with
3ue emplrasiSr the story fell fiat, and the
audience began to- murmur: The. prac--ticed
orator changed his key and re
sumed in his satural and stentorian
voice; uentieraeu, x uu uvu ccau.
Scotch, but I vote Scotch.
dons applause followed, whereupon our
g. v. .ia..v.v.v.-, -v, -T- . , , T.
hensibly, "antrl otten arms scoicii.
; " r . .-., .,CV3.0
.Atter tms db was tna uuiutatiuuuuuvj
Xoasfett Administrative 3ciM.
The eear jaay possess qualities and
virtue which, uader a hsppjer system,
J might bear fruit in the prosperity C his
pvupj-e, poc ae, iikq his EUDjecis. is
crushed by the administrative machine,
from which, ia Bussia, there is no es
cape. A aew czar has as little initiative
and ia as srach at the mercy of perma
nent officials as is -the chief of an Eng
lish department reading in the house of
commons the elaborate evasions of his
head clerks. If he were really a despot
It might 4je well? for a henevolent des
pot is an excellent thing, hut he is no
more than the irresponsible head of an
evil system which is founded on repres
sion, ignorance, darkness and slavery.
The chief object of the Bussian bureau
cracy, whatever official apologists may
say, is to exclude the light; 'to hold the
people in a blind, superstitions obedi
eace; k) punish, imprison and hanish
those who would teach the miserable
mujik that he is a man and not a vod
ka filled beast, that the peasant has his
rights as well as the czar and an equal
claim to happiness and freedom.
This is why political discussion is
forbidden in Bussia, why every book
which opens the windows of the mind,
even though of pure science and philoso
phy, is prohibited by the censorship
and why every unorthodox dissenter
who questions the claims of the success
or of Ivan and Paul and Catherine to
mediate with God for the people is re
garded as disloyal and is treated as
such. A system like this would never
have been tolerated by any race of ener
gy and intelligence, as Englishmen have
often taught both popes and kings. But
the Slav people, of an oriental -type, pa-
tient sluggish, mystic and ignorant be-
and allow themselves to be driven, like
sheep to the slaughter, into the armie3
of the czar. Ninafcecnth Century.
The Young "England Party.
Largely under Disraeli's inspiration
the Young-England party was formed.
He was on terms of close friendship
with its leading members, who were
young men of the highest rank and dis
tinction. It was at their wish, not less
than in pursuance of his own impulse,
that Distraali sraVn litararv p-snrpssrinn
to their common views and aspirations
in the trilogy of political romances, of
which, though "Tailored" is said to.
nave oeen tne most nicniy esteemed by
the author, the teaching of "Coningsby"
and "Sybil" is by far the more direct
and impressive. Its purport has already
been indicated. It was to recall the
English aristocracy to a realization of
the true splendor of their position and
tho immensity of their responsibilities.
It was to imbuo them with a passion of
pity for the wretchedness and degrada
tion in which multitudes of their fellow
countrymen were plunged and to con
vince them that their power, as the
natural leaders of the people, to discover
and apply remedies for the prevailing
evils had not been lost, had not indeed
been essentially impaired, either by
the reform bill or by the circumstances
of its ultimate passage into law.
It would be quite inaccurate to say
that these books sketched out a policy.
They endeavored to create, or rather to
revive, a temper. And they conveyed
the confident belief that if that temper
were revived and took worthy manifes
tations in the lives of the aristocracy it
would awaken grateful recognition and
secure all needful forms of practical
support on tho part of the masses of tho
people. Quarterly Review.
Itwas evident that the man who stood
in the doorway of tho fire engine house lav and the Rabb Starck plantation
was terribly in earnest. produce graat quantities of cane,
"What is it?" asked the fireman. which is all manufactured on the
vnnXTf ?il7fr??rJl JZv Bio Grande plantation This cane
yourself a true friend to a great many , , . . . , , ,
people, if you arc wiping to do it." makes sugar which is produced by
"I'll doaaything in reason, "said the 'experts to be even superior to the
fireman. "What do you want me to do?" I best Louisiana product. Havana
"Why, you cce, I live in that big J tobacco has aNi) proven a success
apartment building on the next corner, j here, Col. J G. Tucker having
and there's a woman in the flat above j madp some mnst sncCPSSf n experi
me who plays tLo piano all the time.' mor . ... -. c-mniOQ TOOro
"Well, I thought, maybe if I turned
in a fire alarm it would, give you a
chance to rush up there and ruin that
piano befcre any one had time to tell
you that it was a false alarm. What?
You won't? I might have known you
were no true friend to humanity."
The use of hollow shafting instead of
solid appears to bo gaining in favor,
the principle, of course, not being new,
but mechanical difficulties presenting
themselves in certain applications. For
instance, a pulley is sometimes fastened j
to a shaft by means of a bit of metal
called a key wedged in between the
two, a slight recess or seat being cut in
the shaft and tho inner surface Of the
"v ,- . , j
wheel toireceivo it, and thus, so Ions as i
the phaft is so!id' thQ key can De n '
inward without special core. If, how-
--n 4-Ka flnfr noia lrll-TT t h mr4. t
ever, tne filiate were iioilow, it migiifc
spring slightly unrtpr the piessure ana
its shape be to that degree distorted.
But the fact is now coming to be recog
nized that screw clamping bolts run
ning radially inward from the hub of a
pulley will grip the shaft as firmly ai
a key, the latter beirg-pronounced need
less by experts. New Xbrk Sun.
Tacetlousness Doesn't Pay.
Shewasa cheaply fcut neatly dressed
little woman who walked wearily auto
the bookstore,, and asked or postage
"We aro not carrying that line this
season, " replied the proprietor in sar
tdstic tone and a lowot mock deference.
"Of -cjonrse not, " saidT tb$ rich! pretty
and indignant young lady who was
about to leave a largo order. "Of-conrs3
not. Ther5 i3 no profit in them, and
you canndc gcll the pnhlic by advertis
ing a quarter off sale ou than.
Then th3 pretty young lady sold the i
meew iittl3 woman seme stamps, arT I
uity wii.u)(t' t-uu.uiL, uiio wo j.t-
Ta3 .-..i r-. ?.? - 1 ..4- VTC" Tn1
r 7 . .. -
I&Tll UUnUlllbUUt4 UlA Uf.U r
tj!:ij- rh tmU. "J'ro't irrce rress. 4
The Goodrich Real Estate
ESSE 0. WSESM&, Secretary-
Brownsville, Cameron Go., Texas.
Cameron County la Hie extreme
southern county of Texas. -It is
separated from Mexico by the Rio'
Grande on the south and has about
100 miles of gulf coast as its east
ern boundary. It was organized in
ISMS, and contains 3308 square
miles. Farming and stock Taising
are the principal industries of the
people the location, climate and soil
being admirably adapted for both.
The greater portion of the soil is a
rich loam, and produces an exceed
ingly heavy yield of both cotton
and corn the chief farm products.
Two, and sometimes three crops of
corn, averaging from fifty to seven
ty bushels per acre, are raised year
ly, while cotton will easily jield
from one to two bales per acres.
Grasses grow all the year, and stock
find" pasturae without .being fed or
sheltered during the winter. But
the soil and climate- of the Lower
Rio Grande Val ey are by nature
best adapted for the production of
vegetables and fruits. Vegetables
nf all kinds grow all the year
oround, and northern people are as
tonished to find tomatoes, lettuce,
spinach, English peas, etc., served
fresh from the gardens in midwin
ter. This is undoubtedly the par
adise of track gardeners, and so
odn as rail transportation is ob
tained Cameron county vegetables
by the car load will be shipped to
northern markets during winter and
early spring, and will obtain the
highest prices, as there will be no
competition. This is due to our
exceedingly mild climate. Fre
quently the entire winter passes
without a single frost, and there is
rarely ever any cold arpather before
Christmas. Fruit culture has not
been attempted in this county on a
large scale, but there i3 one large
banana -plantation on which this
delicious fruit yields most abund
antly and in the greatest perfection.
Grapes are also raised extensively,
growing in almost every yard. They
ripen from two to four weeks ear
lier than in any other section.
Many planters here make all of
their own table wines. Oranges
and lemons also grow in profusion,
and this section cnuld easily be
niad to rival Florida in the pro
duction of oraricrps Sugar cane is
iMso one or tne most important pro-
pucts or this valley. lhe rtio
Grande'plantation of Mr. Geo. Bru
UH-uto II w a., .... .'..s-.v -.v.
'clawed oy ivew iorK Olivers as
J equal to the best Havana.
The county is watered by the Rio
Grande with its ample -flow along
tlit southern nnunrtary. and until
erou small streams ca led '"arroya,"
The population of C-imeron coun
ty according 'o the census of 1890
is 13,424. Brownsville, the county
seat, has a population of about
7000 Point Isabel, the seaport of
the county, has about 400 inhabi
tants and Santa Maria, a growing
little river settlement, has ahout250
Improved lands sell for from So
to 25 ner acre, unimproved for
-,, eD aM
rrom 4 to b ppr acre. 1 he aver-
as;e taxable value of land is 1
There are 82,240 acres of school
-.... . i
land in the countv. The county
has a total s hool population of
4400, aad gives employment "to 80
teacher. The average lengtb of
the school term is five nio:iths71 he
total tuition revenue recpived from
thetate is 13 000 There are- a
number of public schools in thp
countv, affording ample educational
4 Homeseekers ai'p gradually be
ginning to find their way to tin
land uhere farmers can work in the
open air 385 dav in th year, but
it is comparatively undeveloped as
yet. With the building: of the
aailroad to Corpvs Ohrfcti. however, j
a srreat niflirc of settlers mav be
expected and they wU be hear til v
welcompd. Thi valley is capable
of snpnortins: -millions of 'people.
The HEIcALDwili be pleased to fhr
nisn anv inrtiipr nunrmarion
,,. - ,, . m
tt. ii h,, t
1st. 300 acres of land, two must
from cily hall of Brownsville, sil i
ated on Resaca la Guerra, and
horse-shoe affluent of such resaca
on mail road, suitable for fruit or
chards, 30 acres now in irrigation
with pecan, walnut, chestnuts
plum, peach, pear, apncot, cherry
Japanese persimmon, fig grape and
ribbon cane. Can be sub-divided
mto5 or 10 acre los, giving each
abuudant water supply, there being
a depth of 5 to 15 feet of water all
seasons of the year. Price 10 to
25 per acre, according to location.
Will sell in a body at special rates.
2d. 32 pieces adjoining, one of
200 and the other of 120 acres, situ
ated on Resaca Rancho Viejo, five
miles from city hall on mail road.
Both pieces almoNt surrounded bv
water of 10 to 15 feet in depth, 40
acres under irrigation . '1 his land
is equal to if not superior to the
Mississippi bottom lands, and can
be made a paving investment for a
fruit orchard or truck gardening.
Can be sub-divided into 5 to 10
acre lots Price 10 to 25 per
acre; whole tract on special ttrms.
3d. 160 acre tract two miles
from the city of Hrownsville, on
resaea, with good water supply.
Ebony, Mesquite, Ash, Hackberry
and other timbers. Allnvial soil.
To one who desires to sub divide in
small tracts, this is a paying in
vestment. Sold in bulk only. Price
10 per acre.
4th. 25,000 acres in one body,
having a frontage of about six
miles on the Rio Grande Railroad
pn the south, and the Arrovo Col
orado on the north. Well timber
ed along the streams and lakes; ba-
lance prairie. Includes within its
limits the famous battle fields of
Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
arable ana pasture, r rice $d, per
5th. A tract adjoining No. 4,
which togother with that tract will
include 100,000 acres in one body
very desirabla. Special terms to
6th. 10,000 acre tract ahout
three miles, from the Arroyo Post
Office. '1 his land is well timbered
and watered, soil alluvial, adapted
to fruits, cotton, corn, cane, etc.
Special terms to any one buying
tract, obligating to colonize.
7 th. 1600 acre tract, fronting- on
the Rio Grande, obont twenty miles
from Brownsville and 8 miles from
Santa Alans, 300 scos under culti
vation on low JandB on river front.
All good arable land. Pnct $3 per
8tb. 725 acres. tmnpnlBi form,
fronting on Rio Grande, 16 miles
above Brownsville good land. Well
watered. Price $3,000.
9ih. Numerous tracts of pastnre
lands from 1000 to 5000 acres each
in differmt parts of the connry.
10th. This is a very desirable
place for a small frnit or trnok fnrm,
containing 10 sere, with a r.ew
hrick duelling of 6 rooms, frame eta
ble and other ont-hpases and large
nudergronnd cistern: three milts from
Brownsville on Resaca de la Palma
on the countv road. .
The ChicagoDenta! Parlors
of San Antonio,are now in their new of
fices 404 E. Housto.l St, (one block
west of Post-office) and are making
until January 1st.
i20. in Sold Given hif.
to the person -writing the bestadvertise
ment for the
CHICAGO DOTAL MUS.
he advertise-nent can be in e ther prose
r poetry to contain not oer 75 words.
Rememberthis is the only Dental In
stitution in Sfin Antonio,chartered under
the Slate laws to-practce den ibtry.
Best Work '?l!!.e-st.!J!!SS
Dr. A. Grant Goodman,
Dr. Robert Lee Hays.
Sec'y and Tears.
Ij5tnesr3 in iJoctli, Balr-ialung! T?rtz& OOQifgl
jESniD'X' CO., S3 iEsson" TercpIeSs
J EKrMfi, El for yroola of carca. CalJS
1 PS''1! &30,00w. "Rorst cases irri la 2CS
mil m ""
FA.MILY USE AND
Genuine onlv when bottled in this
Put up in
Ask your dealer for these brands lhe
Hasn't them, write us.
B. MONARCH BOTTLING CO.
B ' 3 3 3 J4 r ) j)jn
For Sale by
J'NO. a. PAREDES & CO
&UCCESS0K TO M. SCH0BTS.
KlincLs. Doors, Sash. Paints.
Oils and "yannsh
The verv highest Cash prices paid
foi Hides, Wool, Cotton,
Bones, Hair, Etc.
The modern stand
ard ramily Medi
cine : Cures the
ills of humanity.
0. H. Thorn
Office Hours From
9 to 11 a. m
row 6 to b p. m,
GEJTEB AL. AGENT 'OR .rfOKTU KR?r JlES
Best and Easiest I'
Machine 111 the orlrt. 1 ooic
the Medal forsuperioty at
the recent Oulnnsnian -
JJ2WEIR?, AllTS ANDV
fliuilO I ft
; VJ jiyj
OURPLAKS OP OPERATIOH-;
;Make your money; ear you jl
$10.00 and more made daily hv; oux
now SystematicPlan of Operation on
small investments in grainand stock
All we asi: is-to investigate our
new ana onnnai metnoas. x-ast
workings of plan and highest refer
ences furnished. OarBooklet"Point3
& Hints7' how to make money and
other information sent FREE.
GiLaoioE&Co., Bankers aad Brokers-
OpenBoard of Trade Bldg., um
cao II l.
Parker Eow, one of the test pro
perties in Brownsville, - centrally
located on the corner of Washington
and I2th streets, for $5,000 U. S.
Also 600 acres o f lsrc. at 30
U. S. currency. Jonx TT. Ho?t.
Boardmer and .Lodeino iioufl
PASCUAL A. BBISEKO, Proj
(Late of Millara'B Botel.)
Meals at all hours Coffee and
Chocolate, Fish, served at all henr
of day and night.
CUSTOM HO OSS
Is now Prepared to do all kinds of
Watch and C ocl wort
jRepairing Jewelry and Silverwareof ala
isinds a Speciality,
Cor. Houston and St. Mary's Sts.
ssan Antonio, ::::::::::::::::::TeSa'
Modern convenlencs: unsine a sen-
cialty ; nips $2 00 per d iy. eets eara
pa-s door to and from all depots.
LIDW1G MAHiX. Prep.
F B. Armstrong.
3esncan and Southern Birds.
Mammal SJcin, JKird Etjgs
and fjpecimens of JYat-
jOveats, and Trade-Maris obtairtand Ml Pat-'
Eentbcsissssconaccteaior Mooehate Tsea.
Ot.aOF?ICE IS OPPOCJT:; O. S. PATCKTOFrtCET
?an4 xrecao secure paieac in less iirae. tfaaa tiroscr
I remote tzottt Washmtoa. J
t Sena rrod'. (uatnng or pfcetcf., xnik. eescrip-5
tion. TS advise, if patenraoie or not, frcsKf 5
Jcbarze. Oar fee not due toll patent is Seccrcd. S
A PAMJtET, V ? OWSiit Patents," nth?
cost of same :a tee u. o. sua torriga cocntness
cseat freew AddrtsS,
A1DOTOU DESIEE TO MAX3E
t 11 lit
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j' VZF1 tVL S -T .? ! k. a u
tt?$wtBrriTmm fr 1
it DrWi? ott TMtetnrAmrAz ' . J
"woss. FSc KSict A- a
. an:mcrcic Si
5 $? ps-St Or! ', tre,'tn
.Subscribe for Ths Heracd.
f tbe km Houp1io!d Words.