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SOUTHERN STANDARD MCMINNVILLE. TENNESSEE-
The Cash System. Its Effects.
Cor. Country Qentlcmnn.
The charge made lor some months
by certain political papers that Amer
ican manufacturers of farm machin
ery sold their goods to foreigners
for less figures than they Bold to
home buyers, led me, with several
friends, all having had some experii
ence in the manufacture or sale of ag
ricultural implements, to make a
thorough investigation, of the farm
implement trade. I have delayed
publishing any of the results ot our
investigation until after the elections,
a3 doing so before might be construed
as partisan action. Even now I will
not say whether or not our investiga
tion disproved the charge. I would
call attention to onefact that was re
vealed to us with startling certainty :
The large majority of manufacturers
of farm machinery could sell to the
foreign trade for 20 per cent, less than
to the home trade and yet the foreign
trade would net them as much; and
this is altogether owing to the for
eign trade being spot cash.
I say the foreign trade is cash.
When a manufacturer of hay presses,
for example, receives a foreign order,
in a majority of cases the draft no
companies the order. The order
may, however, come through an ex
porter or an agent. Then when the
presses are shipped, a sight draft,
with the bill of lading attached, is
made on the exporter or agent, and
this draft must be paid before the
presses can be lightered. This is not
the manner or the course f foreign
trade in ail lines of farm machinery,
but differences in methods are not of
such nature that not considering
them will lead us into error. The
majority of hay presses (to continue
our example) are sold in the home
trade on time one-third clown, one
third in one year, and one-third in
two years; this is about the average
of credit given. Threshing machines,
traction engines, etc., are sold on
longer time. Most farm machinery
is sold through agents. The manu
facturer sells to a jobber; he sells to a
State agent; he to a county agent; he
to a local agent; and he to the farm
er. For example, a large plow man
ufacturer of Moline, 111., has jobbing
houses at St. Louis, Kansas City and
Minneapolis. The St. Louis house
sells to Mr. T agent for the State of
Texas, for instance; and Mr. T. sells
to county agents, who sell to local
agents, nows are soiu ior casn in
many cases, but in a majority of cases
they are sold on time the plow
bought in the spring being paid for
in August, when wheat and oats can
be marketed, and the plow bought iu
the spring being paid for in January,
after the hogs are marketed. The
farmer gets at least four months'
time. All farmers do no not pay
promptly, and the local agent must
have a little time in which to get his
collections in shape. Hence the
county agent must sell to the local
agent on six months' time; the State
agent must have a little longer time;
tne jobber must have yet longer
time. At the best, the manufacturer
does not get his money until nine
months after the fanner has bought.
But the local agent must get his
goods some time before he sells; so
with the county agent, the State
agent and the jobber. This, with the
time consumed in transporting and
handling, will make at least three
months. It ia a year from the time
the manufacturer sends out his goods
till he gets his money ior them. In
the case of two-horse cultivators,corn-
planters, grain-drills, mowers, self-
binders, etc., the credit given is long
er and collections are slower. As
seventy per cent, of the home trade
in agricultural machinery is on time
ana tne average credit is about one
year. Take the average of the coun
try, and the banks discount the man
ufacturers' paper seven per cent.
Hence on account of credit the manu
facturers lose five per cent, of their
in spue 01 an me manuiacture can
do, he will get bad accounts. The
jobber fails, because the State agent
has failed perhaps. The manufactur
er is also put to much expense for
bookkeeping and especially for col
letting. We can best understand this
by an illustration. I will take a man
ufacturer with whose affairs I am
(iiute familiar. Ie sells nearly alto
gether direct to the farmer; hence
there are no agents to defraud him
1 lie anicie in sens brings y-'U or
more; hence he has no small accounts,
the collection of which is proportion
ately more expensive, and which are
mo-t often lot. When he sells on
time he takes a note, which is safer
and more easily collected than an
open book account; and usually this
note is secured by mortgage. He has
been in his present business thirty
years and has been successful, and is
considered a shrewd business man.
He is a subscriber to both Dun's and
Bradstreet's commercial agencles,and
he does not give credit without an
investigation of his own. Certainly
few will have fewer bad debts or less
trouble and expense in collecting.
Yet he loses about eight per cent, of
his total sales, and the expense of his
collection department 13 fully as
much. It is time that a note for 100
be paid. It is sent to a bank 500
miles away, near the maker of the
note. The bank fails to collect. The
note is put in the hands of an attor
ney, who will charge at least ten per
cent, if he collect without suit. Per
haps suit must be brought,and when,
after months, the note is collected,
the manufacturer gets for his share
perhaps half of it. During these
months he is out the use of his mon
ey and at the expense of frequent cor
respondence with his attorney. And
every sale made on credit makes ad'
ditional bookkeeping necessary.
It will be hard for readers of such a
paper as this, who pay cash or meet
their obligations promptly, to believe
to what expense and loss manu
facturers are put by the credit system
I have a friend whose business it is to
collect claims of distant manufacturers
of farm machiuery. He makes $4,000
per year clear; the manufacturers
get about $10,000; his expenses are
$2,000, and court costs $1,500, while
$5,000 is non-collectible.
Perhaps now the reader will bo
nble to perceive enough of the inside
workings of the farm-machinery
trade to see that between cash and
credit there is a difference of nearly
20 per cent, of total sales worth of
money, bad debts and expenses of
collection Who pays this 20 per
cent.? The farmers. It is added to
the price they pay; and the trouble
is that the manufacturer, jobber or
State agent cannot discriminate be
tween the farmer that pays cash and
the one that does not, and both alike
pay the added 20 per cent. You, who
pay casn, pay a share 01 the expense
and loss occasioned by your neighboi
who buys on time.
Frequently the credit system adds
more than 20 per cent, to the price
you pay. The local agent meets with
bad debts, and is put to an expense
to collect. He must add to the price
enough to cover this. The county
agent meets with bad debts and is
put to expense to collect. He must
add to his price enough to cover this.
So with the State agent and the job
ber, and the expense of evry one of
them for book-keeping, correspon
deuce and stationery is multiplied
by the credit system. When all
have mado their addition to the
price, it has swelled mightily.
The credit system and its effects
are not confined to the farm-machin
ery trade; they appear in the trade
of nearly everything that we buy.
You doubtless pay cash for the gro
ceries and other things that you buy
at the village store, but your neigh
nor does not. isy ins action he adds
to the price you must pay. Nearly
everything we purchase is thus af
fected. Twenty or even ten per cent
01 our yearly purchases would be a
handsome saving; hence we may
well be deeply interested in a remedy
for the effects of the credit system,
whether we buy for cash or not.
John M. St a hi..
for myself and wife. Then we have
our bread and meat, our butter, milk,
eggs and cheese, our fruit, our pota
toes and vegetables. There is not a
day after lettuce is large enough to
eat, but what some one goes to the
garden or fruit yard for something
for the table. My grocery bill
amounts to about $75 a year. Taxes
and insurance are $50. I work my
farm on a fixed plan. I know in
what fields the different crops will
grow next year; seed grain is now se
lected for the different fields. I keep
as much stock as I can feed with
profit, having an eye to drouth next
year. 1 milk six cows, and raise
cream on the Cooley plan; the Cream
ery company takes my cream three
times a week, make and sell my but
ter, and I get my money once a
month. I sell a few veal calves in
spring. I have my own way of rais
ing pork. I start in early spring
with eight or ten pigs of the best
bred varieties. I crowd them as fast
as it is safe until the weather is cool
enough to keep fresh meat. I
slaughter them on the farm; my cus
tomers are my old and long-time ac
quaintances, and they know my
pork is fatted on the purest of feed
grass, milk and corn through the
summer and they well know that
there are never any cesspools or car
rinn left around for them to have ac
cess to. So my pork is of the purest
kind, and my customers are willing
to pay 50c. to $1 more for what they
know to be pure and healthful."
"Do you always buy the highest
"Not always; the highest-priced
articles are not invariably the best.
buy on the rule that the best is the
"You always seem to have money
to pay as you buy?"
"Yes, and always have something
to sell. Mixed farming explains all
"You appear to be remarkably
healthy for persons of your age. Al
low me to ask the age of yourself and
"I am 75 past, and my wife is 74
past. That i3 all accounted for by
having well cooked. wholesome
food, and never indulging in over
eating. Our diet is more vegetable
than meat. We dress warm, and
keep the house well ventilated. That
sort of living, with a clear conscience,
will give a person health and length
of days. Since my earliest recollec
tion I have never seen a day that
could not walk out in the fresh air.
"You have two sons and three
daughters. Would it not be better to
have one of your sons with you in
your old age."
"As to that I cannot say. It would
be pleasanter. They are largo, stout
young men, and can do for them
selves better than I can do for them
Their absence verifies the remark
the old Dutchman, who said: "Bring
up a boy and away he goes."
"You seem to be very happy
your pleasant home and small sur
roundings. Good day, sir."
"Good day; call again."
A Talk on Hard Times. How
Farmer Avoids Them.
Cor. Country Gentleman.
It is raining this morning. A
neighbor comes in for a social chat.
After touching on politics a little, my
friend asks: "How is it you prosper
so well on a hundred-acre farm in
these hard times?"
. "I know nothing of hard times. I
see them chorused by the political
papers, and have looked around to
find them, but in vain. If the poli
ticians would confine their anxiety to
looking after their office-seekers, and
not worry so much about the farmers,
they would enjoy more peace of
"Your expenses must be quite large.
You pay a man $200 a year and
board him, which is wortli $150, and
then extra help in haying and liar
vest, with board, must lie more
And then you have a girl in the
house at $2 a week for eight months,
$ts, and board, which is at least $50
more, amounting in all for help to
1 es, sir; your hgurcs are very
correct. The item of board is easily
disposed of. With the exception of
groceries, my man raises the board,
not only for himself and the girl, but
FALL AND WINTER DRY GOODS,
Dress Goods, Shoes, Notions, Sc.
"Our New Fall Stock is now open and ready for the
trade, and is complete in every particular. We have
an unusually iarge and varied line of Dress Goods, in the
atest fabrics and not :itl.inl!( ihsiUt. full stock
of Zeiglers's Shoes, and other popular makes for men,
women and children. Everything in Staple and Fancy
Dry Goods, Notions, Ready-made Clothing, Furnishing
Goods for ladies and gents, Hats, etc.
OUR GROCERY ROOM
Is now in charge of MR. WATSON CANTRELL.
who invites a call from all of his friends in this and ad
joining counties. This department will be kept fully
stocked with the best and freshest Family Groceries at
all times. Country Produce bought and sold.
" W. C. &B. F. WOMACK,
Opposite Warren House McMINNVILLE, TENN.
41- The Cream of Them All! !
Revised and Enlarged.
1288 Pages, Nearly 1000 Illustrations, 6000
Some of the Good Points of the New Dixie :
It contaius iI00 pages wore than Practical Housekeeping.
It contains u bill of fare for every meal of the year, directions for every article t'l ! i
bills of fare being given in recipes in this book.
It is full of practical and ecouoii'ical recipes.
It helps housekeepers who need to look after their expenditures.
It gives directions in every department of housekeeping. y
It tells how to give dinners and refreshments for receptions and parties.
It mukef a dollar bring its full value in comforts and luxuries.
It tells eveiything worth knowing about washing and ironing.
It tells how to buy economically and with good judgment in the market.
It makes war hu waste in every department of the household.
It tells how to cut up and cure all kinds of meats. The recipe for brine for corned
beef is worth the price of the book.
It tells young husbands how to carve game, poultry and meats.
It makes everything so plain that any girl old enough to uudcrtaml English can cook
It has a full department in regard to care of babies and children, with simple treatment
for simple ailments.
It is illustrated on nearly tvery page, the illustrations helping to explain thiugs other
wise hard to understand.
It contains many new things uot in anv other cook book.
Its article on dress and dress making is practical, and will save reudeis many dollars.
Its medical department alone is worth the price of the book.
It gives remedies and treatment for every disease which i safe to treat with home
remedies. Its medical department is safe to follow and is free from quackery.
It tells hnw to keep well and gives a full chapter to health hints.
It contains a variety of ways for preparing every article of food iu every day use,
In the head
Is a constitutional
Disease, and requires
A constitutional remedy
Like Hood's Sarsaparilla,
Which purifies the blood,
Makes the weak strong,
Try it now.
Patient: "Do cucumbers distress all
people, doctor!" Doctor: "No, sir,
only those who eat them."
Catarrh Can Be Cured.
Catarrh can never be cured by oint
ments and other local applications,
but there is one remedy tht can
permanently remove the cause.
It has cured cases where the dis
charge was so copious and offensive
that it felt as if the whole head was a
mass of corruption. Other cases in
dicated by an irresistible desire to
hawk and spit the phlegm collecting
in 0 tough mass behind the soft pal
ate. In other cases where the mat
ter dried up in such large lumps as to
fairly close up the nostrils and pre
vent nasal respiration. In other
cases where tho breath was so offen
sively revolting and fetid that the
person became a disgusting object in
society. Other cases wherein com
plaint was made of a distressful feel
ing above and below the eyes and
where the sense of smell was entirely
lost. Other cases where the drop
pings fell into the throat and the
voice became husky, and caused a
troublesome cough. Oh ! you want
to know the name of the medicine?
It is called Dr. .lohn Hull's Sarsapa
rilla. It ran be bought ot any drug-Kit.
Sold Only y Subscription,
Active Agents Wanted temwes1ee
R. M. REAMS, Manager
Tennessee General Agency,
. McMinnville, Tenn.
W. H. MOORE, M. D.
DRUGGIST f APOTHECARY,
Viola, Tenn ,
Keeps on hand a full stock of
Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals,
PAINTS, OILS, EXTRACTS, DYE STUFFS,
COMPOUNDED, j m DRUGGISTS' SUNDRIES.
The Peoples national Bank of McMinnville
AUTHORIZED DEPOSITORY OF STATE FUNDS.
OVlITLT, - - 55,000.00.
.7. F. MORFORI), S. L. (OLYILLF,
J. C. UII.KS, .1. CM. ROSS.
W! C. WOMACK. J. A. 110SS.
J. F. MORFORD Vresident.
.J.C. IULF.S Vice President.
FRANK COLVII.LK, Cashier.
C. M. MOP. FORD, Assistant Cushier.
Does a General Banking Business, Deposits Solicited
BRYANT & STRATTON Business College
HookKerpinQ,ShortUand,Pmman3hip.&c.M f9IOll I f? If f
Write for Catalogue and full infurmtttion.