Newspaper Page Text
southern sta;sDard-m;mi:;nvillk. te:;
in) AY, MAY 30, 1891.
James 1). Thompson, Farmers' Advocate.
Subject : "Farm fences desira
bility or otherwise of doing away
with them or lessening their num
Fencing Is one of the most costly
necessities of the farm. Then when
you build a fence be very sure you
need it, and remove all fences that
are not really necessary. If you
riave crooked fences make them
straight, and save timber, time, land
and money, and crowd out weeds,
thistles and briars from useless fence
corners. As timber grows scarcer
fences become more costly.
The crooked rail, or snake fence
takes up from twelve to fourteen
feet, allowing room for whjffletrees
to pass corners. That fence straight
ened would only take up about five
feet. Vhen mowing or reaping one
can cut clean, and no fence corners to
haggle at with the old scythe and
waste time in the busiest season of
the year. Doing away with fence
corners shuts out Canada thistles
largely, because if they grow to per
fection more one place than another
it is in a corner. I don't want this
tles in a corner, nor a "corner in
thistles." Its a poor-crooked fence
that will not make a good straight
one and leave quite a pile of summer
wood "to boot." In straightening
use cedar posts, as they are best, put
as far apart as length of rails will al
low, and put posts at least three feet
iq the ground. If you have plenty
of rails a stake set in tho ground be
side the post and two wires, lower
one six or eight inches from the
ground (never use a block at the bot
torn), and upper wire two or three
rails from top. Give posts a little
slant from side rails are on, to allow
it you are snort 01 rails you can
make a neat looking and substantial
fence by using posts and lour rails
fastened to posts by wire looped
across face side of post and fastened
in centre of loop (figure eight) with
small staple. Banking at bottom al
lows of putting rails closer together,
making it nog tignt. i 111.3 lence is
covered by a $5 patent. A good
board fence can be made three boards
high by banking each side. In dig- I
ging holes use what is called a dig
geran auger is no use on hard,
strong soils. The digger is made like
a pair of tongs, with long handles,
greatly reducing labor, which is real
ly the reason, together with costs of
good posts, why we see so many pa
tent "make-shifts" called fences
throughout the country. Beware of
straight fences set on top of the
ground; they blow down with every
wind storm, and in the long run posts
will be found cheaper.
For the front road fence I prefer a
board fence four boards high, with
one on top of posts which have been
sawed off slanting. Beside the fence
plant a row of maples about twenty
feet apart, which not only serve as a
wind break and beautifier of the farm,
but to a great extent prevent posts
from heaving; a shovel of sand or
loamy earth also helps to prevent it;
another preventative is a ditch put
parallel with the fence. If lumber is
not prcurable a wire fence is perhaps
the next best, using cedar posts and
banting well at bottom each side.
Put a good tamarack pole, bark
peeled off, or strong scantling an top,
so that stock can see it, the great oh
jection to barbed wire fences being
the frequent and serious injury in
rlictcd upon animals. Brace the end
posts firmly, and if the fence is long,
braces are needed about halfway
The average farm in this county
(Middlesex) has about twice as muchj
lence as is necessary, and the smaller
the farm the more fence you usually
see. The average snake fence takes
up about eight feet of land, not count
ing space for passing; a straight
rail one and a half feet, a difference
of 6ix and a half feet, which in a rod
amounts to a nine over iw square
foet, in 100 rods to 10,000 square feet,
or nearly quarter of an acre. I know
two fifty-acre farms on each of which
the land unnecessarily taken up with
snake lences amounts to nearly one
and a half acres. In most cases no
crop but weeds grows on all this
valuable land, "fence-corner hay,"
as a rule being wiry, uselees stuff.
So far as I have seen hedges have
not proved their utility at a farm in
this country. As feeding soiling
crops and ensilage, less pasturing
will be done, and fields under crop
made larger. The more fields on the
farm the more costly gates must be
built and maintained; opened and
Having made the road fence at
tractive, the line fences straight and
strong, lay out the fields as uniform
in size as possible, and gradually dis
place the old "snake" and "stake and
rider" fences with straight ones as
described, which is an economical
way, and will enable the farmer,
with less trouble, labor, and expense
to grow more crops, and perhaps
save the outlay of buying more land.
I might add, in conclusion, that
the only fence which the law re
quires the farmer to maintain is that
between his farm and adjacent property.
The Wheat Area and Supply.
Private Allen's Only Lie.
St. Paul Pioneer Press.
No question of recent discussion has
excited more general interest than the
startling conclusions of Mr. C. Wood
Davis, recently summarized by the
Fioneer Press, drawn from a com
prehensive survey of the productive
powers and requirements of the
world, that the consumption of wheat
has-already overtaken and surpassed
production; that the annually in
creasing deficiency of the European
supply will become so great by 1895
that the production of the world will
fall short of filling it by 108,000,000
bushels, and by that time the con
sumption of wheat in the United
States will have so far outrun its
homo production that it will have
ceased to export wheat ; that conse
quently we are entering upon an era
of high prices for wheat and to lesser
extent of other food products to which
consumption must now be diverted
by the necessity of the case. We
have already published interviews
with Mr. Chailes A. Pillsbury, of
Minneapolis, who may be regarded
as a leading practical expert in sta
tistics of wheat supply and demand,
and who coincides entirely with the
views of Mr. Davis as to the growing
defiency in the world's supply of
wheat, but holds that the natural
tendency to higher prices are neutral
ized and overborne by the specula
tors of the Boards of Trade operating
with purely fictitious supplies ot
wheat. Mr. S. W. Dusen, whose po
sition at the head of the elevator
syndicate may be presumed to have
afforded the opportunity for forming
sound views upon the question, also
concurred, without any qualification,
in the conclusions of Mr. Davis.
It is difficult to estimate the
extent of lands in the Western
States, or in the Canadian North
west, which are avilable for the ex
pansion of wheat culture and for other
just as necessary crops. But is safe
to say that within fifteen years at
farthest the progress of wheat culture
in these United States will have
reached the limit of the lands which
can be employed for that purpose.
And it mayreaeh that limit in half
the time. For the fact is unquestion
able that the average production of
the world is now less by many mil
lion bushels than its average con
sumption ; that this deficiency is in
creasing annually ; that to meet
these growing requirements larger
additions to our wheat areas will be
needed in the years to come than
ever before ; that the progress of set
tlement has already reached the geo
graphical limit of the arable areas of
this continent ; that new wheat lands
cannot bo found to any considerable
extent beyond the ninetieth merid
ian, and that desirable lands for' this
purpose must be sought almost whol
ly within the limits of the Western
States. Of the precise quantity of
of such lands which can be had for
this purpose we can give no reliable
estimate, but we know that it is so
limited that it cannot be many years
before it will become a serious ques
tion where land can be obtained for
the additional areas neccessary to
meet the constantly growing demand
for new and larger wheat fields.
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At one of the recent seances in the
eloak room "Private" John Allen, of
Mississippi, had the floor. "You
know I never told but one lie in my
life," said the Mississippian.
"That cured me. It was buck in
1SG2, a day or two after the second
battle of Manassas. I was a small,
bare-footed soldier boy about fifteen
years old, marching with Lee's army
toward Maryland. My fqet became
so sore from marching over the rocks
that I had to fall out of line and be
came separated from my command,
and, consequently, from all commis
sary stores on which I could draw.
"The country had been so often
raided by both armies tint it was
difficult to get anything to eat. I
was very hungry, and thought I
would starve, when I suddenly spied
a house away from the road which
seemed to have been missed bv the
solders. .The family were just sit
ting down to a good dinner, and at
my special request they invited me
in. I do not remember ever to have
enjoyed a dinner so much, and not
knowing when I would get anything
more, I tried myself, and ate a very
big dinner. In fact, I took on about
three days' rations.
"I left this house and had gone
about a half a mile when I saw some
nice looking ladies going toward a
hospital with a covered basket. I
was sure they had something for the
sick soldiers, and, while I did not
feel that I could eat anything more
then, I thought I had better make
some provisions for the future, and
that I might get something to take
along in my haversack. I was small
for'my age, and a rather hard looking
specimen. You would never have
supposed I would have developed in
to the specimen of manly beauty
you now see before you. I approach
ed these kind-hearted ladies, and put
ting on ray hungriest and most piti
ful look, said :
"Ladies, can't you tell me where
a poor soldier buy, who has hot had
a mouthful to eat for three days, can
get something to keep him from
"You should have seen the look of
sympathy on their faces as they said
'"We must not let this poor boy
starve,' and opening their baskets, in
which they had two pitchers of gruel,
they begun to feed me on gruel out
of a spoon. Now when I was 1
child they used to feed me on grue
when I was sick, and I disliked it
above all things eatable, but, having
told the story about my hunger,
1 J A A 1 1 T-
naaioeat u. wen, 1 never was so
punished for a story as I was by hav
ing to eat that gruel on my dinner.
But 1 have often thought that may
ne it was a lortunate thing lor me
It broke mo from telling stories.
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A Baboon Switchman.
A baboon is a well known charac
ter in the Cape County, but more
particularly in the neighborhood of
Port Elizabeth. The history attach
ing to him is a curious and probably
unique one. The signal-man, his
owner, was through no fault of his
own, run over by a passing train,
and had to have both legs amputated,
which would naturally incapacitate
him from work, but the idea struck
him to secure a baboon and train
him to do his work. This he has suc
cessfully accomplished, and for many
years the one in question has regu
larly looked after the levers and done
the hard work of his afflicted master.
The animal ispossessed of extraordi
nary intelligence, and has never
made a mistake. Of course, the hu
man servant works the telegraphs,
and the baboon the levers, according
to instructions; and taking into con
sideration the fact that at the station
in question, uitenhage Junction,
and about 120 miles from Port Eliza
beth, there is a large volume of traf
fic, the sagacity of the creature is
really wonderful. At first passen
gers raised a strong protest against
the employment of the animal on
the score of risk of accident, but the
baboon has never yet failed, during
his many years of work, and more
than one occasion has acted 111 a
manner simply astounding to those
who never had personal experience
of the intelligence of these brutes.
One of his most noteworthy perfor
mances was the correct switching
of an announced special train on its
correct line in the absence of the
signal man. The latter lives about
a mile up the line, and the baboon
pushes him out and home, morning
and night, and is the sole companion
of his legless master.
If you have hctdaehc try Preston's
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East Tennessee, Virginia Si flecrpt i
NEW TIMi: TO i'l.OKIUA.
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