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SOUT HERN STAN DARD - Mi:M 1 N NVILLE. TENN ESS EE; SATURDAY,' AUGUST 8,-isoi.
Drawbacks of Farming at the South.
Cor. Country Gentleman.
During the year I receive many
letters from people who nsk : "What
are the drawbacks of tho South?"
They correctly figure that as all Bec
tionsof the country have some draw
back or other, the South is not an ex
ception .to the rule, and 'therefore,
there must be some serious drawback
as a cause for its poor agricultural de
velopment. The question is hard to answer.
Ifcalledupontogotothe bottom of
things, I should say that the greatest
drawback to farming interests Jn the
South is simply this : The farms are
too large. , The system of slavery
tended to large estates. There were
many laborers and they could cover a
large amount of land. Trior to the
war, 11 any ianu was ouereu ior saie,
in nine cases out of ten the farmer
who owned the adjoining land bought
it and added it to his already large
farm. The importance of the indi
vidual was too often determined by
the, number of slaves he owned, and
the number of acres in his planta
tion. Therefore, when slavery was
done away with, it left the South
practically all in large old estates or
plantations. A gentleman was talk
ing to me the other day about his
farm. He had 15,000 acres of land.
Of this large amount he had only
about one-tenth in cultivation, and
his statement was that it kept him
busy to make his living and pay
his taxes. "Why not cut it up and
sell it?". I suggested. "Well, I
would be glad to cut it into 500 acre
tracts and sell," he replied. The idea
occurred to me what can a man do
with 500 acres of land? Most men
can make more money from 50 acres
thau from 500.' Some men aro capa
ble of handling an army capable
of being generals such men" perhaps
could handle a 500-acre farm to ad
vantage. The ordinary man, or
the man of fair average ability,
can successfully handle and profit
ably cultivate, say 5 iacres of
land. All over the South "50-acre
men" arespreading themselves over
100 to 500 acres.
rnis spreading process results in
poor farming and poorer returns. It
gives the whole face of the country
a bad appearance. It allows weeds
and brush to encroach on the plow
land. It allows the fences to go down
It shortens the yield and reduces the
quality of the crops. In the truck
ing ueit, near JNorioiK, i see every
day the benefit of the "small farm
well tilled" in the shape of small
well cultivated truck farms. Such
farms pay better than the large one
every time. The western wheat or
corn grower may be justified in
spreading himself, in his special line
of business, over as many acres as he
can; but the southern farmer who
has a long growing season, and who
can grow two or more crops a year
from the same land, should reduce
his acreage and cultivate more
thoroughly. If the farms of the
South, at the close of the war, had
been as small as at the North, the
South to-day would be far ahead of
any other section of the Union in
the race for agricultural supremacy
As it is, these large old estates must
be cut up and pass into the hand3
of small holders. This is now being
done, but at a slow rate.
Of course there are drawbacks of
minor importance. For example,
the eouthern farmer must keep his
land employed in growing crops or it
soon runs to weeds, vines and shrubs.
Old winter does not ring down the
curtain in Octeber and hold it there
until the following April, but things
continue to grow from one end of
the year to the other. It is truly
said that "an idle mind is the devil's
workshop," and we may add idle
land on the farm in the South breeds
much trouble for the farmer. In
stead of lying idle, it should go down
in grass and be grazed by sheep, cat
tie and horses. This leads to
the statement that another great
drawback to the southern farm
ing is the effort to farm without
live stock. Too little live-stock is
raised. Cotton, tobacco, rice, corn,
peanuts, Ac, are raised in largo
quantities, but there is little stable
manure used, as it is not to bo had
Now farming without live-stock is
too much like managing a boat with
out a rudder, or without ballast.
The gentleman previously mentioned
as having 15,000 acres of land, has but
little live-stock. That which he has
runs at larpe all the year. It has no
food except that provided by the
bountiful hand of nature. Thereis,
therefore, no benefit to the soil from
keeping such live-stock that is to
say.there is no manure to be used,and
it does not mean meadow land and
pasture land, where the land would
be improving in strength and fertili
ty. The cattle run in Jhe woods and
subsist entirly on the natural grazing.
Another reason why the South
lags in agricultural matters is the fact
that she lacks in small as well as. in
large manufacturing establishments,
which utilize the raw material and
make a market-for the produce of
the farm. This, however, is being
rapidly eraedied, as the South . Is,
andhasbeeu for sometime, advano.
ing in manufacturing matters more
rapidly than any other section of the
Union. This Is going to make a
demand and e market for various
farm products, such as butter, cheese,
poultry, eggs and all kinds of small
fruits and vegetables. This is going
to encourage mixed, farming, or, a3 it
Is termed, "diversified industries'! on
the farm. Any one at all familiar
with the tendency of manufacturing
establishments during the past ten
years will see at a glance that the
entire South is to become a "hive of
In 1889 a great upward movement
began, the exportation doubling that
of the year immediately precedinc
and rising to nearly 295,000 head.
For last year, 1890, the official returns
of the cattle trade show that Ameri
can exports amounted to 481,010 cut,
tie and 3,901 sheep. The exporta
tion of sheep from the United States
and Canada, it is worth noting, has
constantly declined. Thia falling off,
however, is being more than covered,
so far as England is affected, by the
remarkably increasing trade in these
animals carried on by the Argentine
Republic. Buenos Ayres last year
shipped to England only G50 head of
cattle, but more than 22,000 sheep
reached the port of Liverpool from
the River Plate.
At the beginning of this transatlan
tic trade in runiiuating animals, laws
were framed so as to compel, as far as
posssible, such care and treatment of
the beasts a3 would insure their safe
and healthful transit by sea and dur
ing embarkation and debarkation.
These laws were English, the trade
being carried exclusively in English
supervision should be exercised iu
requiring that passage-ways, stalls,
ventilation, water, food and attend
ance be the very best that can be pro
cured. As has been told, much has
already been done; no better evi
dence of this can be given than that
which is supported by official figures.
hese in 1878 gave 8.45 as the per
centage of loss of cattle, while for 1890
lis percentage was reduced to but
.72; and as each future year sees an
ncrease in the number of cattle and
tie number of ships on the Atlantic,
so will each year see the steady im
provement in conditions.
TERRY f.VFG CO., nashvillejenh.
industry," and that the wilderness is ships, and the benefit accruing being
destined to "blossom as the rose."
Agricultural matters around Nor-
forlk, Va.i are in good shape, simply
because of the ease and tho cheapness
with which all the great variety of
farm products from this section are
placed before about twenty million
consumers, at the North, East and
West.' Now, as regards natural
drawbacks such, for example, as
connot bo remedied by the hand of
man they are hard to find. It is
true that thre are; sections poorly
supplied with transportation facili
ties, but as a whole, the South has
fewer formidable drawbacks than
anyotherVortion of the Union.
The colored laborer 13 with some a
drawback, but we could not get
along without him.. ' He is really
preferable to the raw material from
the old world. The heat is a . "bug
bear" with some, bui except in a few
localities at the far South, the heat is
not so oppressive and objectionable
as at the North or West. The South
lacks in many places in the matter
of school facilities equal to those of
the other sections of the Union. This
is also an outgrowth of the "large
farms" of the South, and is being bet
tered as tho years roll by. In regard
to social matters, the large farms
interfere again, as neighbors are
farther apart in many sections of the
South than thos3 of other parts of
the United States. These minor mat
ters are all in process of adjusting
themselves. In the trucking section
around Norfolk and similar points in
the South, the farms have already
been cut up into tracts ranging from
20 to 100 acres each. Wherever this
has been done, the lesser drawbacks
have all disappeared; therefore I hold
that the greatest, and in fact almost
the only, drawback of the South, is
that the farms are too large. Remedy
this and all the minor drawbacks fall
to the ground. A. Jeffers.
Norfolk County, Va.
OUR CATTLE SENT ABROAD.
Growth of the Translantic Live Stock
A somewhat elaborate article on
this subject was lately published in
tneJNevv x one Times, and we copy
below the portion of greatest interest
to our readers :
The shipment of live cattle and
sheep from the eastern seaboard of
the United States to Great Britain is
one of the recent modern industries in
which our business men have taken
a profitable lead.
Twenty years ago whatever live
stock England received was sent
there from the continent of Europe.
Only as far back as 1875 did the Unit
ed States enter into the business of
sending abroad cattle and sheep.
Canada was first in this field, but
even with her this trade was in its
infancy, having liecn started only a
year or two before. The official fig
ures obtainable for 1875 show that for
that year Canada exported 1,200 head
of cattle, and the United States only
300. From this time each succeeding
year showed that a constantly-increasing
number of animal3 was be
ing transported. Two years later,
1S77-8, the number of cattle, export
ed principally from New York, was
no less than 11,500, clearly indicating
tho rapid progress that has been
made and that in all likelihood would
be made in tho development of an
The year 1SS0 was one of the most
successful in the cattle business, the
United States shipping to Great Brit
ain 150, 190 oxen, and 27,210 sheep.
Though these figures remained un
equalled for nearly ten years yet their
diminution was so slight as to be
scarcely of any importance.
largely confined to Englishmen. The
orders and regulations established
provided for the confining of the cat
tle in pens of certain dimensions on
board ship, for the proper Ventilation
of these pens, for the necessary sup
ply of food and water at sea, and for
the inspection and disposal of the car
go upon arrival.
The expansion of the business and
the benefit arising therefiom to stock
raisers in the United States, induced
the lawmakers of our country to
frame a code for the benefit of all con
cerned, especially of the poor cattle.
Under these laws there is required
careful veterinary inspection of all
cattle and sheep for exportation to
Great Britain and Irelaud, which in
spection must be made first at all the
stock yards in Kansas City, Chicago,
Buffalo and Pittsburg, and secondly
at the following ports of export,
namely : New York, Boston,- Phila
delphia, Baltimore, Norfolk and
JSewport JNews. All cattle that pass
inspection at the' yards are tagged,
and then shipped through in clean
well-ventilated cars to the places of
embarkation, where after a re-inspec
tion, they are taken aboard ship
One of the best acts of the last Con
gress was the law of March, 1891,
providing for the safe transport and
humane treatment of export cattle
from the United States to foreign
countries by which the supervision
of the trade and the administration
of the laws were given to the Secre
tary of Agriculture.
Liverpool takes the largest share of
the Atlantic cattle trade, though
Glasgow, Southampton, London
Cardiff, and one or two other places
share in it. For supplying these
ports in the year 1889, more than 200
steamers were employed; the ton
nage, gross, of these vessels exceed
ed 430,000: the number of voyages
made aggregated over 8G0, and the
number of cattle transported was
greater than 3S0.0OO.
A variety of ships is employed for
the transaction of this large freight
business. Some of them are special
ly designed and built for -the carry
ing of the cattle, many others have
been altered expressly for the pur
pose, some ships are chartered as the
occasion demands, ana finally some
tramp ships are used.
The value of these vessels as cattle
carriers decreases in the order above
given. For instance, the chartered
steamer is not likely to be so desira
ble as the altered steamer, because
her accommodations, ventilation
etc., will not compare favorably with
those specially built and specially fit
led ; neither will her officeis and men
have the necessary experience
Tramp steamers regularly employe
are not objectionable; they run on
regular routes like all the other
steamers, and are not needlessly Ion
on the voyage ; but it is against sue
tramps as are only casually employ
ed and that go seeking cargoes in any
direction, that much of the outcry
has been raised by humane persons
as to the suffering and loss of cattle
on board ship.
Notwithstanding all the drawbacks
to the proper and remunerative traf
fic in shippinc live cattle across the
Atlantic, in both the quiet season of
summer and the tempestuous one of
winter, the trade has steadily en
larged the treatment of the animals
has unquestionably advanced in the
right direction, and the cargo facili
ties have greatly improved. And
all these ends tending to the ameli
oration of the condition of the cattle
at sea and in land transit, have been
brought about by committee recom
mendations which have been taken
cognizance of by the governments of
the two countries. Much still re
mains to be done. Greater powers of
A SEASOXABLE LYRIC.
un is clirabin' mighty high,
In the middle of the sky; ,'
Birds a re singin' by the brakes,
Fish are bitin in the lakes,
Berries blask and cherries red,
All their juicy sweetness shed;
But the thing that strikes me best,
When the sun slopes to the west,
Is that melon, round and greeu,
In the cool fence-corner seen. '
Smack your lips an' whet' your knife
Tlinnk the Lord for health an' life!
p... " " .....t, . ,
A horde of rats eat as much as a
horse. ; A barrel set here and there
filled half full of water by oat or
wheat chaff will catch hundreds.
kl t .J .
-lasier oi pans mixed with nour or
meal and left where they can get it
win give a iew me stomacn acne so
the rest will clear out.
"Just as Good,"
r it . .
&ay some cieaiers wno try to sen a
substitute preparation when a custo
mer calls for Hood's Sarsaparilla.
Do not allow any such false state
ments as this induce you to buy what
you do not want. ' Remember that
the only reason for making it is that
a few cents more profit will be made
on the substitute. Insist upon hav
ing the best medicine Hood's Sar
saparilla. It is Peculiar lo Itself.
If you want timber to be durable
cut it this month. Felled now. even
f time to trim it out is not available,
tne timber win outlast by many
years that from trees cut in fall, win
ter or spring. The tree of whatever
kind is now at its best of all the year.
OCR VERY BEST PEOPLE
Lonnrm our statement when we say
that Dr. Acker's English liemedy is
in every way superior to any and all
other preparations for the Throat and
Lungs. In Whooping Cough and
Croup, it is magic and relieves at
once. We offer you a sample bottle
free. Remember, this Remedy is
sold on a positive guarantee. For
eale by W. II. Fleming.
The interior of Labrador is said to
be the largest unexplored area on the
continent, and has a waterfall with a
6heer descent of 2,000 feet.
Answer This Question.
Why do so many people we see
around us seem to preler to suffer and
be made miserable by indigestion
Constipation, Dizziness, Loss of Ap
detite, Coming Up of the Food, Yet
low Skin, when for 75 cents we wil
sell them Shiloh's System Vitalizer
guaranteed to cure them. Sold by
W. II. Fleming. 2
In the animal market at Hamburg,
in Germany, giraffes sell at $7,000
pair, chimpanzees $suu a piece, and
select lots of Sumatra monkeys at
As a general liniment lor sprains
and bruises or for rheumatism, lame
back, deep seated or muscular pains
Chamberlains rain Balm is unnva
ed. For sale by Ritchey & Bostick
Druesrists. McMinnville, Tennessee
Poultry vermin detest cedar trees
The branches will be useful in the
runs and yards both for their grate
ful shade and protection against lice
One hundred and fifty (150) worms
from two doses of Dr. Fenner's Pleas
ant Worm Syrup. See his circular
Money refunded if satisfaction not
given. For sale by J. D. TateA Co.
Caveats, ana Trade-Marks obtained, and all Pat
ent business Conducted for Moocratc Fit.
Oun Orrict it Onwosncu. 3. Patent Orrice
and we can socuro patent lu le time than those
mimic irum v niiin(;lon.
Send model, drawing or rhoto.,wlth descrip
tion. We advlaa. if nlti'nllhla n. nnl ft
charge. Oiur fee not dne till patent la ecured.
Pa pm lit. " How to Obtain Patents," with
names of actual clients In your State, comity, or
town, sent Iree. Address,
Opp. Patcnt Orricc. Washington. D. C.
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Arkansas, Texas and California,
Parlor Coaches, Pullinnn Reclining
Chnirnnd Buffet Sleeping Cars, Kan-
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. ley and Cotton Bolt Soute.
DOUBLE DAILY TRAINS betwi.Rn LIT.
TLEfcOCKancl MEMPHIS, making close
connection at Memphis with daily line ot
To New York
Via LOUISVILLE and CIXCINNATL n.?
with Through Pullman Sleepers to
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Via CHATTANOOGA and BltlSrOL.
Woodruff a Pullman JBuffct SltophiL'
Cars on nil nigbt trains between Mem
phis nd Litlle Itock,
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from all South-eastern points to the cMp.
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Excursion Tickets on Sale the Year
For further information address,
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II. U. MORKISOX,
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the inner ones turned back, and the
silks carefiiily pulled off. Then re
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tie the ends together, and boil half
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Cures in fifteen minutes ;. Preston's
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THROUGH CAR ARRANGEMENTS.
Vi. 6 .-Arties Pullman IlufTet Sitrpinff Cr Cineiniut! tc
No nrarries ru.lm.m IlufTet flcepinff C Chattanooga V
N . it. r-irri Pnllm.ir. Buffet Slwinir Or Ciattjino (- W
fc".wi, ia4 l'u!iman CoiiMuirtmeni Atlanta tv Urunj-lf
D. W. WRENN,
General Pass. Si Jku Atfl
AXAKXSIS (rives Ins tnnt
rplM t and is an inlu lilt o
Cure for I'll. Prirofl. Ity
1 )nii:t-iftHor num. Nunphs
3 S rn,.A(llrr-w,tAAKtsN,'
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