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SOUTHERN STANDARD-MCMINNVILLE. TENNESSEE-SATURDAY, NOA- 2,,i8oi..
Observations in Road Making.
Cor. Country fjtiitif niRii.
I read T. B. Urooks' article on road
making with interest, and consider
the subject one of such importance us
to justify any one who knows or
thinks he knows anything about it,
in having "6ay" on the 6ubject.
It is onlv necessary to observe u
few points to make a good and per-
inaneht rod, and tho first of these is
the grading. The road must not only
be thrown up as to be high above the
Cater which may gather in the
ditches at the sides, but there must
be provision for drawing this water
oil bo that it shall not stand and soft
en the fill on which the road is made.
Tho grading of the road should be
done in the early part of the season,
not later than July, so that it can he
settled and compacted before the
"metal" is applied. It will always
bo necessary to regrade a few weeks
after the first grading, as some parts
of the road will settle more than
others, leaving depressions and ine
qualities which must be remedied.
I am quite sure that it is an expen
sive mistake to make to put on a large
amount of metal at once. I have
een 15 to 18 inches of gravel put on
a road at first, and after the surface is
packed solid, if you will dig down
you will find that underneath it there
is several inches of cravel Ktill loose
and unpacked. This holds enough
water to make the road spouty at
times during the winter and spring
when h 6udden thaw takes all the
frost out, and the road cuts through
much sooner than it would with a
third less metal if it had been put on
at three different times, a few inches
nt once, and each coating packed sol
id before the next one was applied.
The first coat of metal may be coarser
than those used subsequently, but if
flat stone or boulders are used there
must be but u single layer of them,
and enough gravel or finely broken
stone top of them to keep them in
place, for if a double layer of coarse
(tone is used the top ones will work
to the surface.
After there is once a fairly good
foundation for a road, I would never
apply more than 2 inches of gravel at
once. This amount will . all pack
solid without a strata of loose gravel
between the surface and foundation,
as will be the case if, as I have often
seen. 8 or 10 inches deep is put on at
once. I have watched this particular
point in road-making, and feel sure
that a large saving in cost can be
made in this WBy and a better road.
No other work in road-making
counts for so much as a little attention
to it while it is being packed. Ruts
will open in the soft gravel and hold
the water. Some one should go over
the road once a week with a garden
rake and drag the pebbles and loose
gravel into the ruts until, when it is
finally solid, there are no depressions
to hold the water, for water standing
on it is what ruins a road.
Where there Is a long slope, small
side-drains should be made every
hundred feet to turn the water off in
' to the side ditches. If these are made
close together, it will not be necessa
ry to throw up a high mound to turn
the water into the ditch, as this will
be unpleasant to drive over at -a
full trot, but a slight depression and
bank below it will catch the water.
I think there should be laws passed
allowing the road-master to prohibit
the drawing yf heavy loads for a' few
days in the spring after the frost
comes out of the ground, or until the
roads settle. Often one day's work
with a four-horse team and heavy
load will cut up a road and damage
it to the amount of many dollars a
mile, when by waiting a few days, it
MOST WONDERFUL BLEMISH
1 -Mrmii i 1
Cures tnd removes all Hard, Soft or Calloused Lumps and Blemishes from
horses, such as Blood Spavin, Curbs, Splints, Rins-bone, Callous Swellings, Lame
?rf 8r5m Sprains or Eheumatiam, Stifles, Sweeney, Shoulder-Jam, Collar Boils,
Wind OaJs, Enlargement of Glands from Distemper, Sore Throat, Hackina
Coufrh, Heaves, Founder, Etc.
It wiU always cure Bone Spavin and Pole Evil when used in the early stages
of these complaints. Save $50.00 by usa of one bottle. .Tt will not stain or
remove tho hair.
For sal l.y Uiuhrv & Hostirk, McMisinvtliV, Trim.
would settle an as not to lie damaged
There is much work wasted on the
roads by patching, here a little and
there a little, graveling a patch here
and there without properly grading.
The bent way is to begin at the vil
lage or railroad station and build and
complete a good solid road as. far as
you go; then every one who goes to
town or station gets the benefit of the
road, while if you begin at the end
farthest from town, no man gets
much benefit from it till it passes his
house. It will encourage those Ins
terested in the line of road to push It
rapidly to completion when they see
tfte difference between the good solid
end of the road and the muddy end.
I live on n free turnpike four miles
long that was built under the free
turnpike law of Ohio, and a tax ot 80
cents on each one hundred dollars of
real estate and personal property for
three years enabled us to grade the
road-bed and put the first coat of
metal on it, and 30 cents on tho hun
dred dollars for three years more
completed it. This road was built
about twenty-five years ago, and has
been kept in excellent repair by it
tax of from 10 to 20 cents on the
hundred dollars and tho poll tax of
$2.50, which every ablo-bodied man
between the ages of 21 and 55 years
pays for road purposes. About
once in five years we find,
after the tax is applied, that more
work is needed, and each farmer
along the line of the road is invited
to give one or two days' work with
his team, and most of them respond
cheerfully. Nearly all the farmers
worked out the tax to build this road.
We put in good, faithful work, and
I am sure that not a man who helped
build it would take the cash for all
the tax he has ever paid on the road
and do without it.
The subject of roads would be an
excellent one to discuss at the farm
ers' institutes the coming winter, for
the first step in making a good road
Is to call the attention of the farmers
to it and get them Interested.
Waldo F. Browx.
Butler Co., O.
Cor. Itural New Yorker.
About four times as much
carried on a good macadam
on an ordinary dirt road.
It is a ereat waste to keep up the
system of letting the roads alone ex
ceDt once n vear, or when they be
American roads are far below the
average; they certainly are among
the worst in the civilized world and
always have been. Col. A. A. Pope
It is sometimes stated that it is
easier work for a horae to travel over
an undulating road than over a level
one, but there is no reasonable foun
dation for this statement.
In the majority of instances the
men who hava charge of the making
and improving of roads kno w nothing
about the science of road making.and
tho business is a science.
A farm lying five miles from mar
ket connected by a bad road, i.s of
less value than an equally good farm
lying ten miles away from market
connected by a good road. Col. A.
To keep from having ruts upon
roads wagons should be made with
the tires at least one-third wider
than they are now, and so that the
hind wheels shall not track in the
width of their own tires.
Good roads are in general worth
more to farmers than the railways.
With poor roads it may cost more to
get the farm products to the station
than from the station to the market.
An eminent writer says: "The
road is that physical sign or symbol
by which you will best understand
any age or people, n they have no
"f PaMIV HPm BWWaJamVasssBB-
fag f ataassV'Y aaaWaJ
roads they are savages, for the road
is the creation of man and the type of
Without good roads the home life
and social condition of farmers can
never be raised to that point where
the occupnuts of firms will bo non
equality with other classes who , en
joy easier and freer contact with
their fellows and the world. . . :
.,; Every wheel that does not track
rolls down and makes the road hard
er, but when the wheels do track and
have gone over the road the first
time the first wheel makes a mark;
It rolls down the road, in fact; the
hind wheel following it rolls it a lit
tle deeper, and so on.
Few people have any definite idea
of how to make a good road". Sim
ply elevating the middle of a road
wav is not road making. Such work
will make the centre dryer under cer
tain comparatively .mild conditions;
but when the conditions are the worst,
as theyare in the spring and during
open winters, the road might as well
be level, for it is impassible anyhow
and it could not he worse if it was
level. Western Rural.
The road question in our township
is quieter than it has been for years
before. We have a road machine
and it does the roadwork for town
ship at a fair price. The roads are in
better shape than they ever were
before and there is more general sat
isfaction all aronnd. Far better
than. "loafing out taxes on the road."
A Farmer's Confession of Faith.
The following confession of agri
cultural faith was adopted at a recent
meeting of Canadian Farmers:
"We believe in small farms and
thorough cultivation; we- believe
that the soil lives to eut, as well as
the owner, and ought therefore be
well manured; we believe in going to
the bottom of things, and therefore
deep plowing and enough of it all
the better if it be a sub soil plow: we
believe in large crops which leave
the land better than they found it,
making both the farm and the far
mer richer at once; we believe that
every farm should own . a good
farmer; we believe the best fertilizer
of any soil is the spirit of industry,
enterprise and intelligence without
these, lime, gypsum and guano would
be of little) use; we believe in good
fences, good farm houses, good
orchards and good children enough
to gainer uie iruit; we believe in a
clean kitchen, a neat wife in it, a
clean dairy and a clean conscience.
nt. i j
we oenevo to asK a man's advice is
not stooping, but of much benefit;
we believe that to keep a place for
everything and everything in its
place saves many a step, and it is
sure to lead to good tools and keep
ing them in order; we believe kind'
. . A 1 1 I .
ness xo siock, iikc good shelter, is a
saving of fodder; we believe that it is
a good ining 10 Keep an eye on ex
periment, and note all, good and bad;
we believe it is a good rule to sell
grain when it is ready; we believe
in producing the butter and the
cheese, and marketing it when it is
ready." . ; ; ; ; .
A Saint on a Gridiron.
RaKg Queer missionary they sent out
to the Cannibal Islands last month.
onouia mins; iney wouia send a peacea
Bagg What was the matter with
Itagg-'-Got into a broil with the na
tives very first thing.
Pretty Certain .
A well known Detroit millionaire ' was
saying to his confidential clerk the other
11 T T .a
aay: -jow i ve arranged tnoee papers
for my wife and children all right so that
if I die "
"If you die, " interrupted the secretary,
"say when you die; there's no if about
Tso Much for the Moon.
She wore her bathing dress one night.
Far from the madding crowd,
The moon was f nil, but when she came
It went behind a aloud.
Lady of the House No ; you don't an
swer the requirements of my advertise
ment. Area t you r tramp ?
Lady of the Houso Not a tramp, eh ?
Tramp No'm. On the contrary, I lead
a very sedentary me in the park. Judge,
Won't Clo Till She lias To.
After being at the Faris exposition. 1
don't suppose you will care to go to the
next world's fair, Miss Juracigh'r"
Well, no; even if I was sure there
would be a fair in the next world lam in
no social hurry to go there. "
Preparing for It.
"They tell me you are laying by jvist
lots of money, Longlocks. What arc von
"Well, to tell the truth, old fellow, I've
tu'Cidcd on being a poet. "
An Adnmlrss Eden.
"Tis on' opinion tlmt fairyland
lt"jiloil only by women lair;
Tho reason is easy to iiiHicr-taucl.
F.eciiiie, n-.i know, there arc t;inii"
An Impraapta f crap.
v . r-i fry S
Min Mountmorria (of Harlem, taking
her morning constitutional) For mercy's
take! There goes my new Bird of Para
diso lint over that horrid fence!
Shaughnessy's Shanghai I never saw
one exactly like you before, but I'll take
a fall out of you, just for luck I
To Fly on a Pretty Girl's Cheek.
Oh, fly I
Will yon but speak
And tell me why
You sit upon her cheek 1
Upon her cheek bo white and pink,
And there you seem to drink and drink
The sweetness of the roa in,
As if it were no sin; -
Oh, fly I
Would scarcely dara
To touch so filr
Though I might speak
And say in truthful meter
That nothing on earth was sweeter.
Ah, would that I
Were more fly 1
Athletes say it is easier to jump a
board fence than & board bill. Texas
Sif tings. '
It is astonishing how Innocent a police
man can look when he if on parade.
Columbus l ost.
Assignment is the moral anaesthetic
that relieves a man from payin'. Wash
The small boy can't get away from the
green apple by doubling on his track.
v aBhington fetar.
Oho hundred and fifty (150) worms
from two dose of Dr. Jt enner a l'leHS-
ant Worm .Syrup. Bee his circular
Money refunded if sutlsfactiou not
triven. tor sale by J. v. rate s to.
1 ZW Vl
tvnd prfi-ribe It with grut latdfurtlon for tbi enre of all
I'lrmi Rim impM 01 rnmnrv, nwTKiarv ftDfl inrtHrv
BvphUla. bVDiiliaio Kljeumaliim. hcroU
Soreia Glandular Bwfllipit. nbeumatlim.
Chrortle Utt-ara that have reiun, sji treat meat, Calanh,
bi.n i)ttaantK Kczema, Ci.niii; l-uiala Couipiamtt, Mr-
ran all roitOO, lttwr. CHaja tlMLO, tie., etc.
r. P. P. ( a nowrful tonte, and an nirllent bp
vi j.i-s-aw. s s ii vnmiM ,tmm aww
salJi,iiut ud Uia valcui raiMdiv.
Ladltiwhoia lytutnt art poUontd and whoia blood la la
an Imnnra eoridUion, dnt to nifrti'mul trrintlaritlM. are
LIPP1IAN B?vCS., ProtrlctorD,
DrupLta, Lippnian's Clock, B.VAKUAH, G As
'1. . -- . J. . . ,
M.l.rll. o rl
ue a 9 1 e
pvuii:triy ittiirlitcu ly Uiv wuime rlnl U tn- ai d bloi
eUaming tiroprllot uf l ?. V.( L'r..kl Ahf iVk.a Uot t
. A-,s - - J
k mj tta for W. I,. Doaglaa Rhoaa.
If not for
dnlr la Rend for en
not tor aaia la your
place anil yaar
agency, and gel theni fur yon.
ogne, ace ore I bo
W. L. DOUGLAS
S3 SHOE ccatf&i EN
THE BEST SHOE IN THE WORLD FOR THE MONEY?
It Is a seamless shoo, wltU no tacks or wax thread
to hurt tue feet; mailo ot Uie best line calf, styllsb
and easy, and becauee toe make more ehoee of thit
grade thanavy other manufacturer, It equal! baud
sewed shoe costing from $4.00 to $5.(10.
CI It OOUeaulne llaml-srwril, the finest calf
1Ji sboe ever offered for $.V0U equal) breucli
Imported shoes which cost from $S.0O to $12.00.
fCA 00 llanrt-Hewed Welt hhur. fine calf.
PT stylish, comfortable and durable. The best
shoe ever offered at this price i same grade as cus-
aauesnoeicosiing rrora gii.cu w fji.uu. Sn
50 Police Hhoei Farmers, KallroarMen
w and LcttcrCarrlvrsall wear them i flue calf,
i'h smooin insula, Heavy
is, smooth Inside,
e. One pair will wear a
i0 fine en If i no better
line, neavv mree soles, axieu
sion euKe. uds pair win wear ayear.
bp. One pair will
50 fine en If no better shoe ever offered at
this price i one trial will convince those
who want a shoe for comfort and service.
P.O !i and 8'J.OO Worklni
J St arc, verv strouir and riiirnh
Me. Those who
have given them a trial will wear do other make.
FlrtVC' ' ami el. 7a scnooi snoes arc.
Uwl O worn bvthe bo vseverv where: thevsell
on their merits, ns the Increasing sales show.
I nrllae N.VU llnnu-eewea snoe. oesi
SUUIt9 LM.iHolft, vt
, verv stylish;
om gl.OU to 6
III) and 81
Imported shoes costlnir from 14.1)0 to 6.(
.adlea' 'i.SO, K'i.00 and 81.75 shoe for
, Ulssesnre the best fine Dongola, Stylish aud durable.
Caution. See that W. L. Douulas' namo and
Drive are (lamped on the bottom of each shoe.
n. j lkjuui.. urocwon, iiasi.
foil t.u; r.v
J.C M. ROSS & SON,
k TIIIS rroparjflon. with-
Vf" injury, removes
wcul Freckle. Uver-Molcs.
Pimples, Black-IIeis, Sunburn
ind Tan. A lew applications will ren
ter the most stubbornly red nkin eoft
smooth and white. A'iola Cream y
aot a paint or powder to cover defects,
ut a remedy to cure. It u superior to
all other preparations, and is guaranteed
jo pivo satisfaction. At druggists, or mail-
id lor OU cents. iTcparcd by ,
oledo. Ohio. C. C. HITT5TEK &. CO.
Private & Sexual Diseases
WE TREAT and CURE
STRICTURE, r ,
THE BOOK Or LITE.
DR. PARKER & CO.
340 North Cherry St Jftshrille, Tenn.
e's, and Trado-Marks obtained, and all Paty
i : : Dullness conducted for Moderatc Tecs.
. " O'ricr is Opposite U.8. PTi!NTOrrie
" : we cni frcure patent iu leas time tlua thosu
ii -ioto from Washington.
:end model, drawing or photo., with descrlp
i.ui. We advise, if patentable or not, free of
t'uurge. Oar fee not due till patent is secured.
A Pamphlet, "now to Obtain Patents." with
' names of actual clients in your State, couiitT, or'
town, sent iree. Auuress, . -
Opp. Patent Office, Washinoton, D. C-
ffKMtO.Ml a TrT ! hrinw made by John Tt.
Goodwin,! roy,N.Y.,at work dr u. Kcadtr.
you may not make at much, but wa can
tearh you quirk ly how to earn from f ft to
41V a day at the atari, and more ai you go
on. uoiu teiei, an aa-i. in any part or
Araerira, you can eoniuine at home, aHv
ina; all your tlme.or auare momenu onlr to
Uia work. All It new. Grrat y 8LKK for
Tery worker. W atart tou, fumUhlnr
trarythtna;. KA8II.Y, Hl'F.V.PILy lamed.
1'AltlH'lLAltH Hi KB. Addreaaatonre,
8T1.NHU.N CO., fUHTUNIi, HAIMl.
OP TflE .
TAKE THE '
CALL GIT IIDAIJIST TICE;
. W. KNOX, Ti. k.t A-ei..-i
L. DAN! I 'i
t.. I'. ,v 1.
I I . T,.
. '.Ml Vl
AlJCll 1 . .' 1 O.'.i luu Vliic
rr 1 71