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SOUTHERN STANDARD MCMINNVILLE. TENNESSEE-SATURDAY, NOA. ", 189I.
Present Exigencies ot Agriculture-.
( en-, ('(in n ley Gi'iiiU'iniui.
In nil indtislrinl uH'.iirs old tiling
have pushed nviiy and all tiling liavc
lx.Toim new. Tlio cliano lias l:mi
most woniloi fully rapid and tiprvatl
i nyr. 15ut agriculture 1ms laggoil le
liind, to a laro extent, and in many
respects the old fashions still prevail.
Tin' present more, favorable condition
of things is no renl guide to a just
judgment in this regard, for it is due
to a phenomenal state of a Hairs in all
those countries which are now de
pending on the American farmer for
an adequate supply of food. What
would lie our condition had the
European crops horn up to a fair
average? With our exceedingly pro
lific harvests how would the market
prices compare with those now cur
rent? And where would he the con
gratulatory condition of the farmers
which just now exists? It is quite
sal'i- to say that it is to the actual
-starving state of millions of un
fortunate! people in Murope that we
owe our present prosperity, and the
satisfactory prices of produce that are
expected to free the farmers of their
load of debt and .set them firmly on
Considering this unquestionable
fact, we cannot justly feel that the
American farmer's position is vir
tually or permanently improved, or
that he is no longer under the abso
lute necessity of improving his
methods so as to bring him in line
with the advanced condition of other
industries which have such a close
connection with his prosperity.
When we look over the present con
dition of our agriculture and study
its most pressing needs, we cannot
lose sight of the fact that our methods
stand in need of much change to
bring them into a condition, pari
passu, with all the improvements of
other industries, and by reducing
costs and increasing profits to make
farming in all its branches more
profitable. I wish to point out to
your readers a few things which are
typical of what seem to be pressingly
needful in this direction, as tending
in the direction of improved and
more profitable methods in our prac
tice. And there is no more suitable
time for this than the present when
the expenses of the farmer are such
as to wholly eliminate ia a multitude
of cases, all the profit for the sum
For instance, how many farmers,
and even dairymen, are now feeding
cattle that will cost quite as much as
their value in the spring to carry
them through the winter ? And it is
quite possible so to manage them as
to keep them in profit through the
whole year. It is still too much the
custom to have all the cows go dry at
this time of the year when their pro
duce might be made to support them
profitably, and the prices of dairy
products are the highest. With all
the new appliances of the dairy, but
ter, and even cheese, may be made all
through the year; and in the winter
the skill of the dairyman may make
the actual cost of his product at this
season considerably less, and the la
bor involved also less, than in the
summer. The present demand of the
public is for the highest quality of
dairy products, supplied fresh and
newly made, and presented in the
most acceptable shapo to meet the
higher style of living. And it is
those dairymen who meet this de
mand that are prospering the most
At the present time the supply is ex
cessive in the summer, and then the
market prices necessarily fall below
the profitable margin, while the sur
plus carried over depresses the prices
of the winter make. To equalize the
supply with the demand.and to avoid
the unprofitable feeding of millions of
cows through the winter, is one of
the pressing needs that may be point
Another is the feeding of cuttle and
sheep daring the winter, for the di
rect profit and for the manure made.
It may be that the prices of live-stock
are low, but this is to be met by an
improved way of feeding, by which
severe competition may be met and
tfvWomo. This is not by any
means impossible, now that the
method of ensilaging has been shown
to reduce the cost of feeding more
than one half, and when the value of
tfio iminuro is taken into account. It
will never do to throw up the sponge
as soon as an antagonist appears in
the lield, when one's living depends
iqion a vk'tyry over him; and the
battle is alwajs to the enterprising,
to the man who i- able and ready to
aC5t himself of all opportunities.
Another thing needed is t carry
on business in such a way as to meet
new demands as they arise, and to
create new ones, by which new
markets are opened. Many of your
most interesting correspondents have
given examples of this enterprise,
and have shown the way, in a most
magnanimous and unselfish manner,
how this may be done. Formerly it
was the common advice given to
southern farmers to diversify their
crops, and thus relieve the markets
of surplus products and make new
ones. The youth has found its way
to do this,j uid the southern farmers
are now profiting by (his improved
management of their farms. Few
complaints of the depression of agri
culture come from this quarter, but
most of them from where the one crop
is the main product. The adherence
to the old rotation of crops, too, is
an obstacle to improvement when the
culture of special products has been
found so much more satisfactory.
Virgil praised large fields, but he
said, "cultivate small ones." It is
not the size of the field, however,
that tells. It is the manner of cul
ture. In that day, there was no
machinery for the culture of the land
and the gathering of the harvests;
and the old fashion of small fields,
encumbered with costly fences, is
played out in this age, when we
have all these labor-saving devices.
But we want the small culture,
thorough and perfect, of the small
field, applied to the large one; and
the abolition of the interior fences,
of the farm, so that land may be
saved and the tillage made more
perfect. The small lield is no longer
applicable to our necessities, but the
farm is to be the field, and the cum
bersome fences taken away. This
will give the needed room for the en
silage crops, the summer soiling and
the reduction of the far too costly
In short, this is the age of econo
myeconomy of effort, material and
means. The most must be made
from the least. Tillage must be of
the most perfect kind and confined to
the least possible space, one acre
must be made to produce, the crops of
three, at a similar reduction of cost.
New markets are to be found for new
products, ami these markets are to
bo cultivated in the most assiduous
manner. There are many sugges
tions given weekly in the columns
of the Country Gentleman by aecom
plished and successful practical men,
who relate what they have done in
these respects, which will point out
the way towards these ends, and in
dividual opportunities may easily
provide the rest for the accomplish
merit of the many purposes that will
lead to successful efforts.
The subject is too broad for a com
plete recital of all that may be done,
and the growth of all the needed im
provement must necessarily be slow,
but rightly undertaken it will be
steady, and in the eud our agricul
ture will gradually gain the high p-
sition that will place it abreast of
other industries. II. Stkwakt,
Growing Locust Timber for Posts.
Cor Country Gentleman.
Mr. J. II. Griffith's inquiry, "Is
the Locust Disappearing?" calls at
tention to a matter of great impor
tance, and to an excellent opportuni
ty to make a profitable investment,
by the purchase of cheap lands and
planting them in this quick-growing,
valuable timber. I have been urg
ing the planting of the locust tree as a
profitable investment for more than a
half-score of years. The only serious
drawback Is that occasionally the
borer will destroy a plantation, but
I find that it usually remains in force
but a year or two in any one place,
and if a grove is cut off clean after the
trees are riddled by the borer, it at
once sends up a new nrrd vigorous
growth that is not likely to be trou
bled by this pest.
Within two miles of my farm a
number of groves have been planted
at different dates, the first one as ear
ly as in the thirties, and containing
about twenty acres. Then from 1S"0
to 181)0 a near neighbor planted ten
acres, and during the past twelve
years groves aggregating ten or fif
teen more acres have been set out,
and I have carefully watched the
growth of all of them. During the
past forty years the borers have not
been destructive enough to injure the
plantations seriously, except for three
years, from about 1 sx to is'.t, when
there was an epideniieof them, and
several plantations wen nearly ruin
ed, but for two years past they seem
to have mostly disappeared, and my
last grove, planted in !ss7, lias c-nvap
ed their ravages entirely. The first
grove I set in Is7s' was mo badly used
up that I cut it off clean in the fall of
ls',), and am allowing it to grow up
i again. M-rvntiun, which ex-
tends over a large extent of country,
and many years, does not confirm
Mr. Griffith's opinion that the locust
is "erratic" in its growth, as I find it
nourishing on a great variety of soils,
nnd under varying conditions. I
think a limestone clay suils it best,
but it grows on all the soils of Ohio at
least. One other thing which makes
it valuable, is that blue-grass seems
to grow even better in a closely-shaded
locust grove than in the open field,
and in five years after planting a
grove, you can have a bluegrass
sward that will pay a good interest
on tjie cost of land and timber. All
the locust plantations I am familiar
with are set with a velvet blue grass
turf, which, being protected by the
trees, gives the earliest pasture on
the farm, and then starts with the
fall rains and gives green feed until
the snow flies and the ground freezes.
Du.ing the past few years, many
farms have been soldjin Southwestern
Ohio at from $20 to ?;0 per acre,
which, if planted in locust timber,
would inside of twenty years yield
several hundred dollars an ivre in
)osts, and then make a second
growth much quicker than the first
grew. As an example, a ten-acre
grove, less than a mile from my
house, was cut off and marketed be
tween 1800 and 1X70. The man who
then owned it has long been dead,
uid I cannot ascertain what the posts
brought him, but know it was a
argesum; but in just eleven years
after it was first cut olf, the present
owner began selling posts from it
from the second growth. That was
in 1870, and he has had a regular in
come from it every year since. In
1881, at my request, he examined his
books, and found that in four years
he had cut and sold 0,008 posts and
stakes from the ten acres, which
brought $991.'J0, an average of about
fifteen cents, and every year since he
has cut and sold large quantities of
posts. I know that these ten acres,
most of which is steep hillside unfit
for cultivation, have for twelve years
given more profit than the ninety
level acres of the farm which have
been under cultivation. In 1807, a
near neighbor of mine cut down
row of . '13 locust trees, planted closely
along the north Kne of his farm.
The row was but 20 rods long, and
had been growing about 125 years
and he got from it 400 good posts,
worth 2" cents each; GOO fence stakes,
worth 5 cents each, and enough
wood to pay the cost of cutting and
splitting the posts. From the growth
of this grove, the present owner of
the farm has cut all the posts needed
to keep up the fences on a farm of lot)
acres, and now has 200 posts ricked
up and seasoned for future use. As
these trees occupy only a fourth acre
of land, it is easv to see that it has
been a'very profitable spot.
One of the best things about the
locust, is that one planting answers for
a lifetime, and probably for a century
morore; for just as soon as a grove
is cut off it at once sends up a new
crop, and these having the advantage
of the old roots, grow very rapidly
and will be large enough to cut for
posts some years quicker than you
can grow them from seed. I examin
ed a grove of two acres on which the
trees had been cut eleven years pre
viously, and I found that each stump
had from three to seven sprouts, the
largest of which were then being cut
and this thinning process went on for
several years, until all but one of
these sprouts to each stump was cut
which left enough trees to make j
dense forest. In the -thirteenth year
of its growth there were 400 posts cut
from the two acres.
Butler Co.,0. Waldo F.Bkown.
ABERDEKN, O., July 21, 1891.
Messrs. Lippmax Bros., Savannah, Ga.
Dear Sirs I bought a bottle of your '.
P. P. at Hot Springs Ark., and it has done
me more good than three months' treatment
at the Hot bonnes.
Have you no agents in- this part of the
country, or let ine know now much it will
cost to get three or six bottles from your
city by express.
Aberdeen, Brown Co., O.
Newnansvii.le, Fi.a., June 5, 1891.
Messrs. Lippmax Bros., Savannah, Ga.
Pkar Sirs I wish to give mv testimonia
in regard to kour valuable medicine, P. Pa
P., for the cure of rheuiiiiitisni, neuralgi'l
dvMM'psiit, biliousness,, etc. Jn lsbl 1 was
nttacteil with liilious muscular rheumatism
ami have heen a martyr t it ever since. I
tried all medicines 1 ever heard of, nnd all
doctors in reach, but I found only temporary
relief: the pains were so bail at times that 1
didn't care whether I lived or (lied. My di
gestiou lieeame so impaired that everything
I ate diMigreed with inc. Mv wife also sut
lercd so intensely with dyspepsia that her
life, was a bunb-n to her; she would be con
tiii.-d to her bed for weeks at a time: she also
sntl'ered irrt ntlv from sii!iliiies and loss of
sleep. Some lime in March I was advised
to take 1. I', I'., and before we i mvwifeand
I) had finislinl the second bottle of P. P. P.,
o.:r dL'esiio". hi "-'an to improve. My pains
subsided s.t iir.n-h t!,m I l.a-'e hern able to
work, and am fn lii: like ileitis what I
hevi n't done before in a number of years.
We will eoniiiiue t;:kin P. 1'. P. until we
i-- ii r i -! v i-nr.d, end "ill cheerfully re
"tii. t::--ii'l i( to all su ;!i-riii tr humanity.
Y i - wtv respectfully,
J. s. nurRis.
Why a Bluo Rose is Impossible,
Louis r.i-iu blic.
A florist makes the assertion that
a blue rose is among the impossibili
ties, but, while an explanation of this
curious fact may be equally impossi
ble, he fails to mention a very inter
esting law which governs the coloring
of all flowers. A knowledge of this
law would save many llower-growers
hours of unavailing and foolish hope.
The law is simply this: The three
colors, red, blue nnd yellow, neverall
appear in the same species of flow
ers; any two may exist, but never the
third. Thus we have the red and
yellow roses, hut no blue; red and
blue verbenas, but no yellow; yellow
and blue in the arious members of
the viola family (as pansics, for in
stance,) but no red; red and yellow
gladoli, but no blue, and so on
through a list that would fill this en
tire department of The Republic.
It is sweet to live, but oh ! how bit
ter to be troubled with a cough day
and night. Dr. Bull's Cough Svrup,
however, is a sure remedy.
' cannot sing tonight : My throat
sore." "Of course vou haven't
tried Salvation Oil?" "No," "Then
get it, and you will sing like the
Where They Go.
"What becomes of men who steal,"
asked a Philadelphia Sunday School
teacher of a sharp little boy.
"They go to Canada."
"No, little boy, that is not the
right answer. They ultimately go to
the wicked place."
"Oh, yes, you mean Chicago."
Win. Timmons, Postmaster of Ida-
ville, Ind., writes: "Electric Bitterr
has done more for me than all othes
medicines combined, for that bad
feeling arising from Kidney and
jiver trouble." John Leslie, farmer
and stockman, of same place, says:
"rind Electric Bitters to be the best
Kidney and Liver medicine, made
me feel like a new man." J. W,
Gardner, hardware merchant, same
town, says: "Llectnc Bitters is just
the thing for a man who is all run
down and don't care whether he
lives or dies; he found new strength,
good appetite and felt just like he
iad a new lease on lite. Only 00
ents a bottle, at Ilitchey & Bostick's
Drug Store. 2
If you have headache try Preston's
J. V. Yates, Tullahoma, Tenn.,
writes: "It does me erood to praise
liotanie liioou Halm, it cured me
of an abscess on the lungs and asth
ma that troubled me two years and
that other remedies failed to benefit."
Why suffer? Preston's "llead-Ake"
will cure you.
IF YOU WANT THE BEST,
WlUi tin Wlr Gauzi Ovea Doors.
For sale byMcMinnyille Hardware Co.
A NATURAL REMEDY FOB
Epileptic Fits, Falling Sickness, Hjg
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Diseases sent free to any mldri kk.
piinr I'hii.-mm can also ohtiiiu
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Tills remfdy lins bf i n tirrp.-irril by the P.evor
end Pastor Kuenitf.of Port Wayne, Imi., since WW,
and Is now prepared iinilci- hi.-i direction by tho
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It Tlli'fiC SCROFULA, ULCERS, SALT
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i'rmiuitcs a luxuriant Rrorrt'T.
Wover Fails to Hcstorn Gray
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Curt Ttilp (liKcuwi Si huir .iing.
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' Hy n tliornnh knowledge of the natural
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f i nine." Civil Service, (luzettc, Made simply
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Agents' profits per month. Will
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