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Value of Artificial Nitrogen.
Cor, Country Gentleman.
I have often boen asked and writ
ten to by your readers as to whether
I had changed my views regarding
the. value of artificial nitrogen applied
to grain and grass mips, either as
inorganic nitrogen as ammonia and
nitrates, or organic such as dried
bloo'J, lungs, livers, old leather, Ac;,
which Hooded our markets a few
years ago, perhaps thousands of tons
being sold to farmers as high-grade
fertilizers, and valued accordingly by
the stations, owing to the high price
placed upon nitrogen regardless of its'
source. (It may be proper just here
to say that this price is not regulated
by its intrinsic value, but by the sell
ing price of the commercial com
pounds containing nitrogen. A few
years ago the price lixed by the sta
tions was $.")) a ton; at present it is
Without referring to my own re
sults, 1 give what was told me a few
days ago by Mr. Jones of Sykosville,
Howard county. He said that for
years be had been a weekly reader of
the Country Gentleman, and iifteen
years ago was induced to give up the
use of high-priced ammotiiated ferti
lizers by what he found in your pa
per, and sinco then, by securing a
proper soil, he had seen his land im
prove from year to year. Although
it was then poor, he now has fine
grain, and had just threshed thirty
one bushels of wheat per acre. Since
the time spoken of, he has not used a
pound of high-grade fertilizers, so
called. So I have no reason to change many
views, especially as I can name my
others like Mr. Jones, who have long
since given up purchasing nitrogen
one of the most abundant movable
elements known to science. Yet I
cannot agree with some recent ex
perimenters, who believe that ele
mentary nitrogen or any other ele
ment is appropriated by plants; I
think it must be in a binary forma
tion, such as nitric acid, ammonia,
carbonic acid, phosphate of lime.oxide
The fact that nitrogen, like car
bonic acid and water, is a movable
compound, and reaches the soil with
out the aid of men, has been most
clparly proved the past year on, an
artificial soil prepared for the occa
sion. Four parts of sand and one of
miocene clay, taken some feet below
the surface, was thoroughly mixed
with charcoal and semi carbonized
tine sawdust, secured in a covered
iron pot, along with the ash formed
where the air could get to the dust,
during the slow combustion in which
the usual organic acid is formed from
the oxidation of woody matter, as is
done by turning under a green crop.
It will be observed that little or no
nitiogen could have been in the soil.
On or about Sept. l.'ith wheat grains
were planted six inches apart on a
small island constructed for experi
mental purposes, as safe from intrud
ing cattle, being three feet above the
surrounding tidewater. I have never
seen wheat grow finer, and before the
winter set in the ground was com
pletely covered with the numerous
shoots or branches, averaging from 20
to 31 stems, which in due timo bore
heads of wheat with from 20 to GO
grains each, and maturing some days
before the field wheat of the neigh
borhood. I have repeated the same
experiment this season, securing clay
of a kaolin nature U5 feet below the
surface, from the railroad tunnel now
"being constructed under the streets
and houses of Baltimore to expedite
travel and freight to . New" York.
The mixture of sand and clay was
treated (became as last year, and I
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remove the hair.
For Calc v RITC t KVV H0ST1CK, McJIiimvillo, Tenn.
awiiit with some interest the result.
As many grains of the former ex
J pertinent produced over 800 grains
l for one, it is easy to estimate the pro
duce per acre, provided it were pos
sible for all the grains planted six
inches apart to turn out the same.
Calling six bills per loot and 44,000
feet per acre, would indicate near
300 bushels per acre, assuming that
12,000 grains weigh a pound which
may be considered a fair average for
good wheat and (10 pounds per bush
el. To plant an acre six inches apart
would take less than half a bushel.
A farmer in our county tne past sea
son got 1,000 grains for one. I have
often obtained from (500 to WHf and
more counted grains.
In conclusion, I beg to ask the
question if my artificial soil had no
nitrogen to start with, where did the
abundant nitrogen come from to
help form the wheat, in a soil that
had perfect drainage, as water passed
through it as fast as a moderate rain
fell, it being made so porous by the
sand, charcoal and humus dividing
the particles ol clay.
The present experimental soil is
equally porous, and the w heat is now
six inches nign, alter a very ory
spell since planted, Sept. 20. The
wheat is from our experimental sta
tion, and I regret to say that one
half has failed to germinate; last sea
son not more than ten per cent,
failed, and I have had every grain
perfect. A. 1 Sir. Mil'.
Kent County, Md.
How to Make Farming Pay.
John Dusty in Clurksville Leaf-Chronicle,
The first step in farming is to have
the farm ; let it be large or small
Have the best of land if you can get
it ; if poor take a systematic plan to
make it fertile. This can be done by
converting all stalks into manure
I ill your barn yards two or three
feet deep, and your stables also, with
straw in the fall ; let your stock run
over it all winter and you will have
more manure than you can well get
away with in the spring. Put what
you have on land enough that you
want to cultivate in tobacco to make
it rich. Follow this with wheat and
clover. Take another slip of land ad
joining the first piece manured and
treat it as the former until you get
over your fit Id you want to improve.
Do not scatter your manure all over
the plantation; improve it by sec
tions. The next step is to make your cal
culations as to how much land you
can cultivate well. Do not over-crop
yourself in anything ; one acre well
cultivated will be more profitable
than three half tended.; The two ex
tra acres will be worth more to you
in grass and clover and will be more
beneficial to the land. Have sheds
for your hogs and cows and sheep if
only made from wheat straw.
"The next step and one of the most
important, hire good. hands if vou
have to hire, and, then stay with
them if you want them to make their
wages and board.
You cannot do successful farming
at cross-road stores, or spend two
thirds ot your time in town; stay
with your hands and see that they do
a day's work ; you will be better
satisfied and so will they.
"lie who by the Jilurie would thrive
Hunt tither hold or drive."
The next step, try and make a sur
nlus of everything you raise, that
you may have a little to sell hay,
corn. oats, wheat, hogs, cattle. If
you have to buy anything you can
raise (misfortunes excepted), you are
not thriving at farming. Have such
stock as is profitable for you to keep,
few or many. Let them be good, but
do not go off on, any of the many
crazes that carry away our people
If you have a fine colt sell it to some
one who will give you a fair price
and is in the business of developing
horses ; you have no time for such
business, besides it costs to train
horses. While mos everyone is
raising horses, it might be more
profitable to give more attention io
raising mules. Try and keep out of
everything that is overstocked. II
you wish to prosper, as I have stated,
try and have good stock, especially if
you are hiring hands. You cannot
afford to work broken down teams,
worn out stock, half harnessed ntock.
Will it not pay better to have two
good mules than four worn out ones.
A plow or machine that takes half
your .time at the shop and a quarter
more in going to and from the shot),
is bringing you in debt. Keep your
tools in good fix from your hoe up to
your reaper. Have a place for every
thing, and when you get through
with a tool have it put where It be
longs. Yen will know then where
to get it when needed, and no time
will be lost In looking for them.
I know many will say these things
are easily said, but not so easily done.
It is done, and, I can point out sever
al in my neighborhood, and all are
successlul as farmers, if making mon
ey is counted success. What I have
said applies as well to the small far
mer as the large ; to a renter as well
as an owner. It is said :
"A little farm well tillc.l,
A little lioii.se well filler,
A little wife well willed,"
will make any man happy.
Smut in Wheat.
Smut in wheat is a parasitic fungus
of a low degree. The spores, which
answer the place of seeds in higher
orders of plants, are in the form of a
minute black dust, and these are
scattered over the field in the grass,
straw, chaff, also adhering to the
sound grain after it is gathered and
may be sown with it the following
year; and when conditions are fa
vorable these smut spores germinate,
their threads penetrating all parts of
the growing plant and ultimately
producing smutty wheat again.
Smutty grain may appear in dry as
well as in wet seasons, and the abun
dance of smut in the wheatfields of a
locality may be due to the continu
ous cropping of particular fields with
wheat, oats or some closely allied
grain. To prevent smut a system of
rotation of crops should be adopted
and the seed wheat be soaked for a
few hours in a solution of sulphate of
copper, or in a weak brine made with
common salt, for the purpose of kil
ling any smut spores that may be on
A good way to prepare seed wheat
for sowing is to dissolve one pound
of sulphate of copper in two gallons
of water, or in this proportion for any
quantity required. The wheat should
be placed in tubs or casks, filling up
to within three or four inches of the
top, then pouring in the solution un
til the grain is well covered. The
wheat is then to be stirred thorough
ly, and should any whole smut
grains come to the surface thev have
to be skimmed off. After soaking
for an hour or two the liquor is to be
drained off, the grain spread out on
a floor and and dusted with dry lime
or wood ashes, after which it is to be
sown as usual.
A Flea for the Forest.
The Agricultural Department at
Washington recently published fig
ures which serve to show the impor
tance of our forests to the industry
and business ot the United States
The total annual product of all our
woods is about $1,000,000,000, being
about ten times that of the entire gold
and silver output, three times the
product of all the coal and other min
erals and nearly three times the
value of the wheat crop. It exceeds
the gross income of all the railroads
and other transportation companies
Ten years ago manufactures of al
kinds held the first place of impor
tance as measured by dollars, agricul
ture second and forest products rank
ed third. Since then the lumber in
dustry has enlarged to such an extent
that the forest production now occu
pies the second , if not the first place
With these facts and figures before
us, we can realize to some extent
what a valuable inheritance man has
in the forest pritneal, and the ini
portanee of preserving and perpetu
ating this (Sod-given heritage
Science is teaching us the value and
necesssity of preserving and filtering
tree culture. Their usefulness and
retention of soils, and ns a preventive
against disastrous Hoods, their intlu
ence on the rainfall, and last, though
not loasfc, their hygenie eflVcK It is
well known that in many malarioiH
countries unfit fir the habitation !
man, by planting the uealyptus tire
they have teen made habitable. In
the older States much of the primi
tive forest grandeur has disappeared,
and now we no longer talk of our for
ests, but of our woodlands, and fortu
nate is the owner of a hundred acres
of this primitive inheritance. We
cannot deny the fact that wo have
been careless in the use of the axe,
and, like the reckless spendthrift,
wasted our hard earned patrimony.
The late tobacco planting mania in
the last decade or more in some
States occasioned it most lamentable
destruction of the greater number of
our remaining woodlands.
The question is often asked : Can
dollars and cents compensate the
owner in destroying the most charm
ing feature of his county estate. The
people of the treeless plains of the
West are wide awake to the impor
tance of forest culture, and Arbor day
has become to them the busiest and
most important of the year. It should
be encouraged by the Government,
as in European countries. It is the
nation's interest, and her fostering
care will mark an advanced step to
ward a higher civilization.
How to Preserve Potatoes.
(lenild McCarthy, N. C. Ex. Station.
The French Minister of Agricul
ture publishes the details of the pro
cess in the official Bulletin du Minis
ter de rAgriculture for March, 1801.
The following is a translation of the
essential part of the scheme :
1. The method of preservation con
sists in plunging the tubers before
storing them away, for ten hours in
to a two per cent solution of commer
cial sulphuric acid in water: two
parts of acid to UK) parts of water.
2. The acid penetrates the eyes to
the depth of about one-fortieth inch
(two millimeters,) which serves to
destroy their sprouting power; it
does not have an appreciable effect
upon the skin of the potatoes.
3. After remaining in the liquid
ten hours the tubers must be thor
oughly dried before storing away.
4. The same liquid may be used
any number of times with equally
5. A barrel or tank of any kind
will do for the treatment. The acid
is so dilute it does not affect the
C. Chemical analysis shows that po
tatoes treated by this "process are as
nutritiousand healthful after eighteen
months as when freshly dug.
7. Potatoes thus treated are of
course worthless for planting.
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840 North Cherry St Ntshville, Teaa.
Caveats, and Trade-Marks obtained, and all Pat
ent business conducted for Moocratc Fees.
Oun Orrier is Opposite U. 8. Pstint OFrtce
aud we can secure patent iu leas time than Ihote
remote from Washington.
Hend model, drawing or photo., with descrip
tion. We advise, If patentable or Dot, free of
charge. Our fee not due till patent la secured.
A Pamphlet. "How to Obtain Patents," with
names of actual clients In your State, county, or
town, sent free. Address,
Off. Patent Orrice, Washington, D. C
a yenr In bclnfr mat by John R.
(oodwjn.Troy,N.V.(nt work for ui. header,
you may not nmke aa much, but we ran
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iu a any at me aian, ana mote at you go
America, you ran cnmmvnr ot home, giv
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the work. All It new. Great ay 81 KK f..r
every worker, We atari you, furnlahlnr
Terythtng. ABILY, HI'EKDILY learned.
YA KTlCL'LAltH I-'ltKK. Addreia at once,
BTlNSttM CO. FWITLAM). BA1MC.
Hoth acxf i, an iitm, in any part or
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WHY IS THE
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