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flaraentally, the powers of our govern
For suspending oar own legislatures,
declaring themselves invested with power
\0 legislate for us in all cases whatsoever
He has abdicated government here,
?declaring us out of his protection.
'waging war against us.
He has plundered our seas, rar
?coasts, Lunit our towns, and d?
Jives of our people.
He is, at this time, tr
armies of foreign mere
tlie work of .death, d'
already begun, wif'
city and perGt'
-naries to complete J
J-iolution, and tyranny, I
.h circumstances of cru
y scarcely paralleled in the
,us ages, and totally unworthy
of a civilizod nation.
-.0 has constrained our fellow-citizens,
taken captivc on the high seas, to boar arms
against iheir country, to boconic the exe
cutioners of their friends and brethren, or
to.fall themselves by thc*r hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections
amongst us, and his endeavored to bring
on tlia inhabitants of our frontiers, the
njcrciless Indian savages, whoso known
rule of warfare is an undistinguished de
struction .of all ages, sexe3 aud conditions.
In every stago of thoso oppressions, we
have petitioned for i'odrc3s, in tho most
humble terms; our repeated petitions have
been answered only by repeated injury. A
princo, whose character is thus marked by
every act which iniy defino a tynnt, is un
fit to bo tho rulorof a frco pcoplo.
Nor have wc been wanting in atten
tion to our British brethren. We have
?warned them, from time to time, of at.
tempts made by their legislature to ex
tend an unwara"table jurisdiction over
us. We have reminded them of the
circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. Wo have appealed
to their native justice and magnanimity,
and we have conjured them, by the ties
of our common kindred, to disavow
these usurpations, which would inevita
bly interrupt our connections and cor
respondence. They, too, have been deaf
to the voice of justice and consanguini
ty. Wc must, therefore, acquiesce in tho
necessity which denounces our separa
tion, and hold them, as wo hold the
rest of mankind, enemies in war, in
We, therefore, the representatives of the UNI
TED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL
CONGRESS assembled, appealing to the Su
preme Judge of tho World for the rectitudo of
our intentions, dp^ in the name, aud by the au
Jhority of the good people of these colonies,
?olemnly publish and declare, That these United
Colonies are, and ought to be, FREE AND
INDENT STATES; that they are
red from all allegiance to the British
wn, anil that all political connexion between
.nem antfthe state of Great Britian, is, and
ought totbe, totally dissolved; and that, as
FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES,
they havo full power to levy war, conclude
peace, contract alliances, establish commerce,
and to do all other acts and things which IN
DEPENpENT STABS may of right do. And,
for the support of this declaration, with a firm
reliance on the protection of DIVINE PROVI
DENCE, re mutually pledge to each other, our
liv.-s, our/jrtimea, and our sacred honor.
THE AMERICAN UNION.
M AIITINSBU11G, VA.,
THURSDAY MORNING, JULY 4, 1861.
Names "f the persons conncctrd with
the publication of "The American
Capt. Wm. B. Sipcs, Editor,
Lieut. C. II. Hale, 1st Assistant,
Samuel Vandersloot, 2d do,
L. K. Zuck, 3d do.
Horatio Snyder, Compositor,
George Rudisill, "
George C. Stroman, "
Benj. Daily, "
George W- Bencc, "
John B. Byers, * "
S. A. S to utter, "
John A. Seidors, "
D. C. Martin, "
A. Crist, "
" THE AMERICAN UNION "
In juitica to all engine 1 on this issue of
the best Union paper ever printed in Mar
tinsburg, Virginia, some-expbtmtion should
be undo as to the manner in which the
project originated and was carried out At
dark on tlio evening of t,he 3rd two dis
ciples of Faust came to the writer of these
lines and proposod to get out a uewspapor
for the glorious 4th. The idea was adopted,
was submitted to the high ^authorities and
approved of by them, and volunteer prin
ters were then called for. They stepped
out by dozens, proving the patriotism o'f the
craft, and at ten o'clock the squad of twelve
entered the office of the "Virginia Repub
lican," struck a light, found plenty of paper
ink, &c , and wont to work. The result of
the uights labor is beforoyou, reader, and
under the circumstances we fcAve no apology
to make for its imperfections.
The "Virginia Republican" was a bitter
organ of the secessionists until recently,
when its editor closcd up the concern and
joined the rebel army. The office was
littered with the evidences of treason, and
standing on the press, "locked up" ready
to work, was a form containing several
THE ADVANCE INTO VIRGINIA.
On Tuesday last the army under command at
Major General Pattebsom crossed the Potomac
river from the neighborhood of Williamsport,
Md., and formed upon thi- "sacred soil" of
Virginia. Thn ford of the river was found easy,
and as regiment after regiment entered the li
quid element to the sound of soul-inspiring
music, and marched gaily along, the sight
was most imposing. Such a scene can be wit
nessed but rarely, and the gallant men who
participated in the movement, as well as the
thousands who witnessed it, w'.ll never forget
tlio memorable second. Never was a more gal
JfuU spirit rrinced: never were men more de
termined : Siever did hearts beat more nobly
tban did thofso of the thousands who had ral
lied around tho star spangled banner to defend
the Union of our Revolutionary sires, and pro
tect and perpetuate a Government which tho
oppressed in every land have looked upon for
half n. century as the beacon of liberty.
They anticipated nothing less than an en
gagement with tho soldiers of the self-styled
Southern Confederacy, win had boasted so
loundly of their determination to drive back ev
ery attempt to invade the soil of the secedsd
States, but this anticipation lint'ijO tenors for
them. The cause for which they hod buckled
on their armor ts a holy one, and in support
of it they wore ready to brave ovcry danger?
Tho feeling which animates an invader who
marches tor conquest and plunder was unknown
to them. They inula no war for the purposes
of aggression and aggrandizement; and hetiee
they dreaded not the result That soil which
had been the birthplace of Workington, Jsfler
son, Henr fil lid Leo, and in whose bosom their
hallowed remains rest, was known to hold
thousands of citizers who had no*, forgotten tho
teachings of those apostles of freedom or proved
recreant to the glorious example. The army
marched forth to save those patriots from an
archy and despotism, and in such a cause no
.thing less tlrnn Spartnu courage and endurance
could be evinced.
As soon as the various Brigades had cross
ed fho river, under the command respectively
of Col. Abercrombie, Gens. Wjnkoop, Wil
liams and Negley, and Cols. Thomas and Long
enecker, directed immediately by Maj. Gens.
Cadwallader and Keim, they were formed and
took up tho line of march on the road towards
Martinsburg and the valley of Virginia. Bnp
gage wagons accompanied them, and all the
equipments for the efficiency and comfort of
the soldiers were in the trains. The troops
moved with alacrity to the strains of "Yankee
Doodle" and the "Star Spangled Banner,"
The Wisconsin First, under the comm and of Col
Starkweather, and the Pennsylvania Eleventh.
Col. Jarrett, were fired upon by a large1 body of
Secessionists at Falling Waters, about four
miles from Williamsport, which fire was
promptly returned, causing tho boasted "sons
of chivalry" to scatter like sheep. A run
ning fight then took place?the secession for
ces rapidly retreating and tho Union volun
teers as rapidly pursuing, over a distance of
two miles. On this ground every indication of
actual war was visible. Fences were levelled,
grain was trampled down, trees were tori^'^y
cannon shot, buildings were on fire, th? ro&4