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FAIR PLAY. STE. GENEVIEVE, MISSOURI.
SIGNING THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
ttNJAMIN HAWUSON THOMAS JITftRSON ROfttRT LIVINGSTON ,?.t1Ua AD'WS
JOHN ADAI-C BENJAMIN FRANKLIN LEWIS MORRIS ........... MEN,y , ,
K JOHN HANCOCK ROCER. SHERMAN -..tj RICHARD HENRY III W
JOSIAH 8ARTLETT MJ UVINCSTON
HOMAS JEFFEItSON wrote
the Declaration of Independ
once. And congress signed
it. And the Liberty Bell rang
forth the glnd tidings, pro
claiming liberty In the land.
And George Washington be-
.;an to fight the British
This Is about the way the average
;-fichoolboy not to say s'orno oldeiA
;Americans thinks the Declaration of
Independence came into existence, the
'Independence of the United States of
. America was secured and the Fourth
jof July became a national holiday.
; AVhlle some of the details concern
ing the Declaration of Independence.
Vill always bo a matter of argument
'among historians, the sequence of
-events is clear and runs like this:
Fighting between tho Americans and
the British began April 19, 1775, at
Xexlngton. Even after the fighting
was on It was some time before the
movement for Independence gained
much headway in the public mind.
-ITebruary 13, 1770, a committee ap
pointed to prepare an address to the
country presented its report to con
igress. This report reads in part:
"We have been accused of enrrying
on tho war for tho purpose of estab
lishing an empire. We disavow the In
tention. We declare that what wo
aimed at and what we are entrusted
lby you to pursue Is the defense and
Te-establishmcnt of tho constitutional
Tights of the colonies."
It wn3 not until Juno 7, 1770, that
Itlchard Henry Leo of Virginia intro
duced a resolution which was to be
como only less fnmlllar than tho Dec
laration itself. This resolution con
tains tho famous sentence: "That
these United States are and of right
ought to be free and independent
states; that they are absolved from
all nlleglanco to tho British crown,
and that nil political connection be
tween them and the state of Great
Britain Is and ought to bo dissolved."
This resolution was debated many
times by congress. The chief speak
ers for separation wero John Adams,
Ills cousin, Samuel Adams; Hogcr
Sherman, Oliver Olcott, Klehard Henry
Lee and George Wythe. John Dick
inson of Pennsylvania led tho opposi
tion for delay, prominent among his
fpllowors being John Jay, James Wil
son, James Duano, Edward Ilutlodge
and Itobert It. Livingston, but it was
evident from tho beginning that they
were in tho minority.
To save time n committee was ap
pointed on Juno 11 to frame the Dec
laration of Independence. Strange to
say, Itlchard Ilenry Lee, who was the
father of tho resolution, and by par
liamentary right should have had the
chairmanship of tho committee, was
left out of It. Tho reasons for this
omission huvo been variously ex
plained. It la n fact that ho was ab
sent when tho' committee was named,
having been called homo by tho Illness
of his wife.
The flvo members wore Thomas Jef
ferson of Virginia, John Adams of
Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of
Pennsylvania, Koger Sherman of Con
necticut and Itobert It. Livingston of
New York. All flvo wero prominent
in tho congress.nnd In national affairs.
Koger Shermon Is unlquo In American
history as a signer of tho four great
documents: tho Articles of Associa
tion, tho Declaration of Independence,
THAT DREADED SPRING DOSE
Who of Middle Aoe Forgets tho Brim
stone and Treacle of Hl Youth.
It stood on tho kitchen Clipboard, n
fcowl of yellow pottery containing n
etlcky mass of tho samo color nnd
strangely familiar. Could It bo tho
spring doso of her childhood? It was!
Sulphur and molasses 1 And tho mid.
Victorian woman had mixed it for her
grandchild, remarks the Now York
Hun.. "You take It threo days running,
the Articles of Confederation and the
Constitution all of which ho was In
strumental In preparing.
Tho committee elected Jefferson
chainnnn and Instructed him to make
a draft of a declaration. Tho com
mittee submitted Us first draft Juno 23.
July 2 the congress adopted the res
olution presented by Leo nnd resolved
to take further consideration on the
morrow. On the third the committee
had not finished its labors, but on July
1 It presented a completed draft to the
body, and after n long debate, which
continued until tho night, the con
gress adopted tho Declaration of In
dependence. After the committee of
the whoe had debated the paper for
hours Benjamin Harrison reported to
congress that the Declaration of Inde
pendence had been ngrccd to by tho
committee of tho whole. Tho paper
was again read and ordered printed.
The Declaration was committed to
tho printer, Dunlap, immediately, nnd
tho broadside wns ready on tho fol
lowing day, July 5, when it received
the signatures of John Hancock and
of Charles Thomson, president and
secretary of congress, respectively, au
thenticating the copy to bo forwarded
to tho governments of the thirteen
states. The signatures wero followed
by the words: "By Order nnd In Be
half of the Congress."
Copies of the broadside wero sent
to the various states nnd to tho com
manding ofilcers of tho continental
troops. It Is not certain that each of
these bore the signatures of tho pres
ident and the secretary.
On July 19 It was ordered that the
Dccloratlon "passed on the fourth,
should bo fnlrly engrossed on parch
ment with tho title and stylo of 'The
Unanimous Declaration of tho Thir
teen Unitel States of America,' nnd
that tho same, when engrossed, be
signed by every member of congress."
On August '2 the journal records
that "Tho Declaration of Independ
ence, being engrossed, nnfl compared
at the table, was signed by tho mem
bers." As to the signatures to the Decla
ration, a volume might be written.
The common understanding is that the
fifty-five men whoso names are ap
pended wero present in congress on
July 4, 1770, nnd assenting to the
Declaration. This understanding is
far from the truth.
Signatures appear on the document
of men who were not members of the
congress at tho time tho Declaration
wns agreed on. It has been suggested
that tho proper interpretation of tho
orders of congress to have the docu
mont signed byjovery member, wns la
tended to Include those who became
members nbout this time.
But Ilenry WIsner of New York,
who voted for Independence, did not
sign, and Itobert Morris, who did not
cast his voto for tho Declaration, did.
WIsner was absent in New York on
August 2 to attend tho provincial con
gress, to which ho hud been elected,
and evidently never had an opportu
nity to affix his signature to tho doc
There was n reason for the delny in
appending tho signatures apart from
the time necessary to havo tho docu
ment engrossed. It wns Intended to
havo tho Declaration go out to tho
world as tho unanimous declaration of
nil tho colonies, and on July Fourth,
n tablespoonful beforo breakfast, and
then omit It for threo dnys, then tako
It again, nnd so on until you havo re
peated this Ihrco times," tho creator
of tho doso explained. "No need to
tell me j I was brought up on It," tho
visitor suid. "V.kiiuut it I bhould
never hnvo been nblo to uudci'Htnnd tho
feeling of the poor wrotches of Dothe
boys Hall when Mrs. Squeers fed thoin
brimstone and treacle. Our was mlxod
In tho same sort of bowl nnd mother
always set It on tho sideboard, lest
1770, the delegates from New York
felt some dlfildence In voting, ns they
had no Instructions. WIsner, however,
did cast a vote in favor of Independ
ence, and before August 2 New York
had instructed her delegation to agree
to tho Declaration.
There wns a hearty response when
It became known that signatures were
to be appended to the document Sam
uel Chase of Maryland was absent
from congress on July 4 nnd the next
day he wroto from Annnpolls to John
Adams, "How shall I transmit to pos
terity thnt I gave my assent?" On
tho ninth Adams replied, "As soon as
nn American seal is prepnred I con
jecture the Declaration will be sub
scribed to by all the members, which
will give you tho opportunity you wlsfc.
for of transmitting your nam- ninoua
the votaries of independence."
Elbrldgo Gerry of New York .had to
leave Philadelphia two weeks after
the Declaration had been ndopted, and
he wroto to John and to Samuel Ad
ams. "Pray subscribe for me ye Dec
laration of Independence if ye same Is
to bo signed as proposed. I think wo
ought to have yo privilege when neces
sarily absent of voting and signing by
Of tho signers who did not voto for
the Declaration because they were not
members at that time William AMI
linms of Connecticut was not elected
until July 11; Bush, Ciymer, Smith,
Taylor and Boss of Pensylvnnia wero
not elected until July 20. Charles Car.
roll of Carrollton, as well ns Chnsc,
was attending a meeting of tho Mary
land convention on July 4. George
Wytho of Virginia on the same day
was chairman of tho committee of tho
whole of the Virginia convention, and
Itlchard Henry Lee wns In tho conven
tion, hnvlng been compelled to return
from Philadelphia on nccount of sick
ness in his family, having left on Juno
13. William Hooper of North Caro
lina was absent from Philadelphia at
least as lote ns July 8. Yet all of thes
members signed the Declaration, al
though some of them, It has been
shown, wero not even-members at that
time, and four members wero absent.
Thomas McLean of Delaware was
tho last to sign and did not do so until
flvo years after the adoption of tho
Declaration and nt a time when the
war vlrtunlly was at an end. It wns
through no fault of McLean. Ills namo
was omitted from tho printed copy In
tho Journal. ""
Tho popular, traditional Idea of tho
signing of tho Declaration of Inde
pendence presents It ns a graceful and
formal function taking place July 4,
1770, In n largo, handsomely furnished
chamber In Independence hall, Phila
delphia. To give tho necessary touch
of vivacity to tho plcturo there Is tho
sceno of tho small boy darting from
tho door ns tho last signer sots his
autograph to tho parchment nnd dash
ing down tho street, calling to his
grandfather to "Itlng! Oh, ring for
As n matter of fact tho Declaration
of Independence wns signed behind
locked doors. The city wns not brenth
lossly awaiting tho event outside, nor
did tho Liberty Bell penl forth on thnt
day tho triumphal noto cf freedom.
From those facts It appears that tho
"Fourth of July" might with good rea
son havo fallen upon either July 2 or
August 2 Instead of upon July 4.
And she shuddered as sho spoke. Bu
oven at thnt sho know thnt tho shudder
was for effect. So strong Is tho forco
of trndltlon thnt sho went home thnt
very day nnd mixed herself tho child
hood dose, deciding thnt If thero wero
any vlrtuo In tho comhlnntion of
spring and n blood purifier sho might
as well benefit by It, At nil events It
could not hurt her.
ino middleman hhould not bo eclN
cpntered nnd content to do mldrllln
Care and Responsibility.
THE responsibility attached to tho preparing of a remedy for infants and children
is undoubtedly greater than that imposed upon the manufacturer of remedies
for adults whose system is sufficiently strong to counteract, for a time at least, any
injurious drug. It is well to observe that Oastoria is prepared today, as it has been
for the past 40 years, under the personal supervision of Mr. Chas. H. Fletcher,
What have makers of imitations and substitutes at stake? What are their
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Could each mother see the painstaking care with which the prescription for
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irrramrS PER QEHT.
Dliuumui." - - '. mm
neither Opto m,MqlW
a trM-lshness ana. I
lOSS OF SLEEP J
Exact Copy of Wrapper.
Crawfish Decide to iVllgrate.
Passengers arriving In Now Orleans
on n recent Sunday evening by the
r,(flilsvllle & Nashville railroad said
the tracks were swarming with craw
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tween Mlchoud nnd Chef Menteur.
Hundreds were walking along gath
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crawfish wero brought In by scores of
persons. Expert fishermen said the
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Victim "But have you drilled any
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NR Tablets tone and strengthen
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fR Tonight, Tomorrow Alright
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It improves the appetite, you will then
appreciate its true tonic value.
QROVE'S TASTELESS Chlil TONIC
is not a patent medicine, it Is simply
IKON and QUININE suspended in Syrup.
5o pleasant even children llko it The
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The Strength-Creatlng Power of GROVE'S
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iiIMIW Hi n WIJIH J If
A Word About Truth.
Testament, yet it Is equally true to-day. Truth Bhows no favors,
fears no enemies. " -
From the inception of Fletcher's Castoria, Truth has been tho
vratchword, and to the conscientious adherence to this motto in the
preparation of Fletcher's Castoria as weU as in its advertising is du
the secret of its popular demand.
All imitations, all substitutes, all just-as-good preparations lack
the element of Truth, lack the righteousness of being, lack aU sem
blance even in the words of those who would deceive.
And you! Mothers, mothers with the fate of the "World in your
hands, can you be deceived? Certainly not. - i$j-
Fletcher's Castoria is prepared for Infants and Children. It is
distinctly a remedy for the little-ones. The BABY'S need for a med
icine to take the place of Castor Oil, Paregoric and Soothing Syrups
was the sole thought that led to its discovery. Never try to correct
BABY'S troubles with a medicine that you would use for yourself.
MOTHERS SHOULD READ THE BOOKLET THAT IS AROUND EVERY BOTTLE OF FLETCHERS CASTORIA
. GENUSNE CASTOR! ALWAYS
HAVE KEEN SENSE OF BEAUTY
Writer Asserts Soldiers Are by No
Means Lacking in Appreciation
of Fine Literature.
I wns asked the other day, writes "S"
In the Manchester Guardian, tho
Inevitable question whether, in my
opinion, the experiences of the war had
made soldiers more religious. At any
rate, I have come across not n few
cases In which an appreciation of fine
and Immaterial things has appeareil in
unexpected places. Notably thero wns
the Instance of John Drinkwatcr's
readings of poetry to the troops. Al
lowance must bo made for an un
usual personality and n remarkablo
voice; but, after every allowance has
been made, It Is a tribute to the power
of abstract bontily that the mixed
crowd In a Y. M. C. A. hut should sit
and listen spellbound for an hour to
tho purest things In our language.
Then again I remember it man a
"regular" with no slightest pretense to
culture who used to read day after
day a little slip of paper. I askod him
nt last what It was. IIo said he didn't
know, but lie "liked it." I read It and
found It was a beautiful extract pure
beauty and no "moral !" from one of
William Sharp's essays.
On another occasion talk had got on
to the subject of prayer. "I never
pray," said one man, "but I read this
every morning." "This" was Itobert
Louis Stevenson's morning prayer be
ginning "Tho day returns."
How to Dislodge Dust In Camera.
Dust Is the hnnd-enmera uinn's con
stant enemy. Dust out tho Inside of
your camera at full bellows extension
at frequent Intervals, nnd pay all plate
holders the same attention. After a
rail or cycle Journey or tramp on foot
there Is alwnys a likely chance that
some dust particles may have got
shaken up nnd found their way onto
the first plato of a magazine changer
or changing box, or any other contriv
ance wherein a plate Is uncovered.
Therefore, If a good subject turns up.
It may well bo worth while to nssume
that tho first plate may bo dusty, nnd
therefore the subject may Justify a
second plate. If the plntes are In hold
ers It Is a good plnn to tako n holder
In one hand and give Its lower edge a
good Miarp bang on tho palm of the
other hand, ho as-to dislodge (If for
tune fnvors us) any dust particles rest
ing on tho film surface. Tho holder Is
held In the vertical piano during tho
banging process, and with the snmo
edge lowest which will como lowest
wheu In tho camera.
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