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title: 'The Washington times. (Washington, D.C.) 1894-1895, March 18, 1894, Page 7, Image 6',
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THE WASHrtTGTON TIMES, SUNDAY, MABCH 18, 1894.
WOES OF THE SWEAT-SHOP
Rev. Alex. Kent's Powerful Sermon on
the Evils of the Sjstem.
HOW THEY MUST BE REMEDIED
Instructive Description of the Sweating
?mc:js in Yarioni Linei of Business
Disease and Degradation Its Inevitable
Eesults National legislation Alone Can
licet the Necessities of the Case.
In pursuance of the suggestion made by
the Union for practical progress, that the
j ulpit should lift up Its toIco In protestation
against the "sweating" system, which has
clo eloped into so great an evil in our large
cltief Kcv. Alexander Kent, of the People's
church of this city, dellvored last Sunday the
fo.Io-vinj powerfuLsormon on the subject:
isiiAH 58: 111.
Tho Union for Practical l'rogrcss, nn or
pantation recently formed to unito and direct
tho coral forces of the country In efforts for
so'i il improvement, has requested all tho
r-inUters of our larger citiesto glveoneserlco
of this Sunday to 'consideration of tho evil
1 nown .is the "'swelling" system. This may
teem to man people a rather unprofitable
sub-ect for Washington peoplo to consider.
But it need not bo. We aro human, and noth
ing th.it concerns humanity so vitally as this
un bo matter of indifference to us. Besides,
ve shall see, as wo look into tho question,
that even we hno something more than n
general or human interest in the subject.
bile our city is not jot at all largely n m.nn
ufactutlsg uty, it deals quite oxtcn-lvely In
manufactured good, and our people have a
eeiO-h as n ell as n human Interest in tho char
acter of the o goods, as affected by tho condi
tions under which they uro manufactured.
This wjl be, cry obvious as wo learn what
class of gooditnis ' sweating" sjstem most
In considering this subject there are threo
Important questions to which wo should ieek
1. Vi hat Is tho'isw'eatlng" system?
i Whit tub the eils peculiar to this sys
3. How can the3 ovils be remedied?
1. As to the sjMem itself, what Is iU I feel
obliged to answer the question very much as
the Httlo bo did tho question of his Sundij
fcchool teacher us to who was the meekest
woman. "Please, ma'am, there netcr was no
Tho fact is, there is not anj "sweating"
si stem So far as thero Is any svtem it runs
through .nearlynil branches of industry. nnJ
in most tr-nehfcajis generallj recognized as
legitimate. Tho term 'swcitins" Is not ap
plied to it in hee branches. I: is onlj when
ve come tut ha clcthiir iniutrj . cigar-ma-in'-
ulid a tpr minor innustries that tho
term seatlng is npp'Ied to a method or
process common to all branches. In method
or, proce.s is one that sniff rs middle ran to
coiu in between the ir.Enu'aclurer, or tlio
person Tdrittom the goois are to be made,
and the workaicn, or persons reallj m iking
the gooas. It is prcci'clj tho -aim- method
that is used commoulj in uuildmg operations.
Here, for instance, Is a man vho has a rclil.on
of dollars thnt ho proposes to put i.ito a lot
of land and block ol houses. Instead of hiring
men to do tho work and a praetical builder to
su; erintend them, ho Ms the work out in
bulk. ton single contractor, ivho maV.es a
business ox taking such jols. This con
tractor mav cither hire the workmen and
superintend" tho work himself, or hj nny
tub'it the work to other coutra"tors the
ioundations to men who make :. specially of
thiit. the stone work to stono misojs. tho
brick work to bricklayers, the wood work to
ca-penters. etc Ths is, in fi.et, what is
tibuallj done in the construction of largo
1 locks" of tuildings. Yet this method is
netcr spoken of, io far as I know, in ims
connection as a "sweating" iroes3. But
the moment we con.e iato the Uothing in
dustry, wfcero rrtetsidy the same method is
fol'owed the only inference being in the
conditions under which the men do their
work tho system of getting work done
through contractors and subcontractors is
characterized as the "sweating' s:em.
kowlhiveno purpose m these remarks to
make th.s system appear either right or tol
erable, lpnly desire to Lelp jou percene
tint, so i ar as any sj stom linolved, it per
t a'ns to InJustry in gen tjI, ami is not, bj
an mcins. confined to a few brincLos. In
theso few branches, however, tho sweating
pioceas the process by which miudle
men come betwoen the manufacturer.
r p'Tson for Mhom tho 1:00.1b aro
be.ug n ado and tho workmen or persons
naJnjrtLe tooiU thus, it is said, reducing
tje wages, t,l.s precess gei s on uudtr e"ndi
ticjs vry oitureut fromltiosj which chanic
i rize most contract work, aud t is tj tlieco
con 1 1 ons cua'y mat we inut ascribe the
cub of rh"f is called thu "siWeitlug''s-te n
lull clblr..ng Industry and other lndas.nes
to which, the term U applied. This will tu
eviJ Lt 11 we nota tho mtthod pursued In the
mam. aetura 01 cjotmng as coaipaioct with
that pursjed in bull ling, buppose .1 man
. jo has a mil'lon of dollars to Imtst decide
to go into te i lothlng Luslness as a whole
tile ir mn actarcr. Liku tho ranu Investing
in I ulldiiirv. ue concludes to luue I 's work
r one bv contract. Instead of hiring men to
maio Ins carmen 3 under his own supervision
h n rrly craplojs iter: experts to cat these
I cjds rot j f r making nud to lunch th"m
la a--o-lil kinds and sfces ready for delnerj
1 i, oiakar. ntheu Incites bids from eon
t n" inrs vho malta tba mauamcluro of such
J"Li v ma, iu iroin, his own city. They are
. jus a I.fcewWbe from somo other. The
l a hue hoi of.thcir own in which they
pioc ft sgike these garments, or they
irav, iii.c the contractor in building, sublet
the" making 40, scores of s,maller contractors,
Tho havn theai madu In tenement shojis,
w -a they employ an where from Ee to
twei-tv jiqrsons, or the may glvo them out
ti a larger ncrabcr of person, who rrako
tli in in t eir own thing rooms When the
WjrK Jj dueby tho eontractore In their own
shaj s, wl at Is called the sweating ' is
m nurrj tho difference between what the
i-iauu 1 tutcr pajs tho contractorandwh.it
the eo'itni'-ior ;iavs the workmen.
Whm tho work is done in the tenement
B-, eat shop tho sweating is increased b tho
piollts of the suu-conlractor. But this i's en
tirely in lim w.th wbit we have already seen
ta.es p! ice In till building operations. Tho
workmen are "sweated" in precisely tho
samf wjj b the contractors and sub-con-tractofointhH'ihdustry.
What is it. then,
tint makes the difference? Why is tho
nntbod of haling work done by contract and
eu j-co-itrn.-t characterized as sweating in one
ci.se atfcf not in tha other?
Tha reason is probnblj to bo found in
ths different conditions under which the
work Is done. Jo matter who erects the
buildings, t 'a work is to bo done on tho
ground and under the same conditions. Tho
eontrictor can't take a houso homo to build
ii. He can't let out tho various parts otltto
be taken into miserable " tenements. The
w ork must be done in the open air and under
oonditiocs favorable to -cleanliness, decency,
In the second place tho contractors In
building doesn't have to Uguro on the item
of rent. Bat the manufacturer of clothing
does. If ho makes the clothing on his own
premises tho rent will then be many thou
ti.uds of dollars, annually. If he lets the
w rfc oat to contractors who have tho work
com in their own shops, this rent then must
lw Included in the estimates. But right here,
1: Is said, comes tho opportunity of the con
tractor. He may make his bargain with tho
manufacturer to cover thousands of dollars
rent, and then he may have the greater part
of the goods made in tenement sweat shops,
wterc the rent Is paid by the subcontractor
a id workmen. About one-half of the cloth
ing uo! is tmde;ln those miserable places,
and the Inducement to havo it made there
is the desire on the part of contracting par
t'c'3 to get rid of this matter of rent and add
to tnelr own profits. And this brings us to
consider the second question.
fi"hat are the evils peculiar to the subcon
tract or sweating system as seen in the
clothing industry and kindred branches It
is quite common to charge low wages, starva
tion prices, with all their consequents of 'pov
erty and misery, to this sj-stem. Bu,t it Is not
at all clear to my mind that the charge is well
grounded. The evidence seems to show that
where the middle men, the contractors and
subcontractors, aro entirely dropped out,
wages aro no higher, while poTerty and
wretchedness aro in no degree lessened.
When tho manufacturer deals directly with
the workmen and the supply of workmen is
greater than the demand he is just as
ready to tako advantage of their eagerness
for a Job as tho contractor. And they are lust
as ready to underbid each other in their
eagerness for work when dealing with the
manufacturer as when doaling with a con
tractor or subcontractor. The tendency of
tho general competitive system is to force
wages down to the point of subsistence, and
this tendency will become effective wherever
the workmen are too ignorant to combine
ngalnst it It does not matter
greatly, if at all, as to wages, whether the
work Is dona through contractors and ..sub
contractors or given out directly to workmen.
In either event, so long as they compete with
each other for work and do not stand together
in regard to wages it will not bo possible for
the less skillful workmen to rise ranch aboo
subsistence rates. So far. then, as the low
wages and tho poverty and misery are con
cerned, they aro not to b charged to the ac
count of tho creating or subcontract sstem.
They nro tho natural and necessarv results of
the system of Industrial competition, which in
tho very mturo of things enables tho strong
to despoil tho weak and the cunning to defraud
the simple. As long as this sjstem prevails,
as long as tho brains of tho country aro al
lowed to exploit its industries for their own
advantage, regardless of tho general weal,
poverty and misery will bo tl 0 portion of tho
weaker rlasses no matter under what modifi
cations of method their cxplolntion Is carried
on. But there are e lis in the r resent man
agement of the clothing Industry that do not
obtain to anything like tho same extent in
other lines of business.
They nro due to the bad sanitary and h
gienie" conditions under which tho greitor
jiart of tho work done is carried on. About
one-half of the clothing is mado In factories
owned and run by contractors, who get work
wherev cr tie can. Theso factories aro under
Inspection, and sinltnry conJmons, wune lar
from good, are better than la tenement sweat
' shn a
j Here men, women, and children herd1 to
I gether Iiko cattle, cooking, eating, sewing,
I sleeping are all carried on in the same
I rooms, and very frouuenth the clothing on
wh'ch they sew, sixteen hours out of the
twentj-four, constitutes their only bed and
covi ring daring tho brief period they get for
slep. The report of the Congressional com
mittee appointed to Investigate the "sweat
ing" sjstem n report made on! last ear
has tbu following language.
"A t pical and a mo-t general example of
these subcontractors' est iblishments is tb-s
so-called tenement sweatshop, whero the
main workroom is one of tho two larger
rooms of tuo tenement flat, and overflowing
into tuo adja'-ent rooms, is made to accom
modito from six to fifteen, or cen more,
sweiting cmpIoes men, women, nnd chil
drenwhile in tho ether large room ' of the
Hat is the domestic headquarters of the
sweater," his living, sleeping, cooking ar
range n"Ut overflowing Into tho workroom
cmploj es whom ho boirus and w ho eat at
their work and sleep on tho goods, frequently
completing tho intimate connection of living
and manufacturing conditions. Such are
tho circun sliuccs under which protabl moro
than one-fourth of our re.idwmndo and
soincvv hat, though onlv a -mall per cent . of
our custo-n-.aado clothing is made. Tho
people -ni,a:ed 111 the btsoicss aro am-ng
those whose famlli-s .ira mct 1 roiiflo. whose
scn-o of order ..nd clcanlin ss is least de
vclojed, ai.d j whom tho distinctions be
tween liv lug au 1 v-orkrooais Is least com
prehended, not to sy 11 uJ' The pn-triscs
arc genera!! dirt to taft joint of ill.b, and
are genertlly In the most s J.ilid and decsd
populated part- of tho cit
But the re port adds, "this Is not thclo'tom
slcp Arotuer 'onrth o' the clothing is ma !e
by whit are knovra n tLo teuemirt home
worker5. These are heals of femllics lu
ll ilitlng one' cr more r-OTS. nn 1 generally
aceominojHting eith r anotlier family as suL
teuan's or a LuiUerof lu'ecrsor boarders,
riii- houscbo! is in lade .n.m of tho must
wrct hed in which !iuan beings exist amoiig
uu. I he conditions of aqua or i.nd filth aro
such, in n lirge pntiortion of cases, as to
mane civil inspe tioa impossli le except b
ouo haraeued to the irocisS. while the
cju liters toward which t- s work seems to
tend nr. thn edi.i s.nto'vhich seem to have
drifted ths mos wretched and iguotaat of
(Ojiilition, and from whWi aro scattered
much of t'.e cime and more of the di-eass
that lnfes: our largo c t es " la these
wretched ;ilaiis mtn. woaxm.nnd children
work irosi fl teen to eishtccn hours a
mi, and the combined earnings of each
fami! has tnu found to avenge about
. .0 3o .1 w -k. Conta'I us !isc3 aro
very p.evalrnt "Spec ally s arid fever, mea
s.ts. dlp'itheri 1 -and the v,rk on clothing
goes on )L.-t tn same. Th s Is the testimony
of Dr. Iten el before the Congressloml com
mittee 1 stimouy Lasi-d oa notes carefuilj
m ide after an exper.cuce as pbysiclin imoic
thes j people for more than eleven jcars and
sbo snjs tnat this statj of ti ings is not excep
llonal, bat pra ticauy unttfrsal. bhe gives
de.ailed satieties of 15.1 families visited by
her in 1S31-W, in each of which a wo nan
earned the who'e or part of the family In
come In rooiis occupied as family living
rooms. Seventy-seven women, representing
iOJ persons, manuf-ictured some article of
clothing, while aeventv -six, representing 377
poisons, did laundry work.slso in their living
rooms. Among the seventv-seven in not one
icstauco w?s the work interrupted by the ill
ness in the familj. S"vcr.tccn deaths sas
pended tho wo.-.: tfrnporarilv , but in one case,
where a little chil 1 fell irto a tub of scalding
water, tho panta'oon fin shers werj not de
laved a mom nt from the time cf the accident
until tho little bod was taken to the ccnie
t(T. Tic gnattst total income from all
soarc-s of the sc-v eat -sev en women, who sup
ported 03 persons, was 71S sl.44 for each
pei-on ppr week. The total rent was i73o.2j
Children assist in this work either directly
or indirect! , d-mg the housework. carriug
the clothing to tlio contractors, or taking euro
of 0iiuger children.
Ihusa ehillof -J jrars did all the house
work, including washing anl ironing, lor a
family of live. Auotherglrl of 6 jearscnrrieU
throe or four lczn rests at a time up Ilvfj
flights of stejts. and th" mother couldut
understand why iho child was not welk
Among the sevent.v-seveu families foijr
chillrcn, lf-10 ears of ae. 31, 10-14. and
23, 3-lOje-irs of age. aided their mothers at
home. Twent-fsur, bctwecalland 18,workod
in fa tones during the day, man of them
nidirg in the maLufa'turmg at noma in tho
evening. These twei-t-focr earned a total
of $u0 CO pcr'veek. but all th.s remember went
to make up the S74ct b foro mentioned.
Hi" dllllcul v of estimating the work of the
children is illustrated in th cr.sj of n widow
having threj nged, respectively, C. 8, and 12.
Tho mother makes babies lawn dresses, doing
tho buttonholes and finer work herself. The
12- ear-old girl runs the sewing machine,
stitching tho scams and tucting. Tho 8-ycar-old
cuts the cmbroidery.does some basting, and
sews on tho bottoms. Iho mother estimates
that the children earn half the income. It is
common for children of tender ears to sit at
this work all dav , and when work is crowding
up to 10 and 11 0 clock at night. And yet wo
hoist of our Christian civilization and say that
such benevolent nnd philaathrophic institu
tions as we havo in this country aro unknown
in pigan lands. It would bo well to remember
nt the same time that such sacrifice of the
little ones on the altar of Mammon is unknown
But the slavery to which children are sub
jected under these conditions Is not the worst
feature. Most of these tenement-bouse peo
ple, however crowded, seek to add to their
lncomo by taking lodgers or boarders. Lodg
ers pay on nn average of $1.50 a month,
boarders $3 to $12 a month, tho latter an un
usual price. Xo discrimination Is made in
regard to sex all are taken who will come.
Br. Daniels found In 37 families 90 strangers,
1 family of 7 having 15 others. These 22 peo
ple laid in 3 rooms, only ono of which was
light. There was one married couple; the
others were single j oung men and women.
What can be hoped for from children brought
up under such conditions? Have we any
right to expect that virtuo In any of its forms
will survive in such an atmosphere as this?
And jet 1.200,000 of the population of Kew
York live in tenement boues not all as bad
as this, but nearly all unfavorable to healthful,
happy and virtuous homo life.
The sevenry-slx families doing laundry
work only repeat, with, slight ariations, tho
s'ory of the soventy-seveu engaged in the
clothing Industry. The average ".como was
a few cents greater, but the expenses wero
greater also, and tho conditions Involving
moro of discomfort and peril than tho latter.
Laundry work in tenement rooms involves
almost unbearable heat in summer and cold
drafts in winter. Contagious diseases ate
constantly being earned into the families of
laundresses in tho soiled clothing, spreading
through tho tenements in wnich they live.
The children in those families, as inrthe
others, earned a good part of the income,
S230 of tho 6602.50 being tha result of child
labor, the ages of these children ranging irom
10 to 18 years.
Wo have in the average incomo of these
families, not dependent upon, "sweaters,"
confirmation of what I said in the early part
of this address. It is not the subcontract
system that is the root of the trouble, but the
anarchy of competition, under which the
weaker and less skillful are crowded Into con
ditions absolutely fatal to healthful and de
cent living and full of peril, as it ought to be,
to the whole community that suffers such an
injustice and inhumanity to exist.
The specific evils then fostered by existing
methods of conducting the clothing industry
First Permanent Injury to tho hoalth and
S reductive power of all persons working un
er or living in such conditions.
Second The Inevitable mental crippling
and moral degradation of the children exposed
to their Influence.
Third The danger to the wholo community
of infection from diseases earned in clothing
made In these dens of filth nnd contagion.
The latter consideration scorns to mo tho least
of all the one on which we should need to de
pend to secure action In thU matter. No
people making any claim to decency or hu
manity should suffer such fellow-beings to liv 0
for ono day in such conditions as hundreds
of thousands in our large cities aro now sub
jected to without making some serious and
concerted effort to afford relief, even If tho
conditions of filth and micery inv olv ed noth
ing of peril or injury to tho general body.
Our humanity may, tho more common feel
ing that desires to see oven dogs
and horses comfortably housed and
decently providod for should move us to ac
tion In thl3 mnttcr. But I am sorry to say
that not oven this nation, to saj nothing of
Christendom at large, has not jet arrived at
tho point whero considerations of this sort
havo any great weight when they involve
any high degree of self-dening nnd self
sacrlflclng endeavor, even though this denial
and sacrillco bo only of tho lower self and
in the Interest of tho higher. Wo mu.t there
fore mnko our chief appeal to tho lower and
moro obvious interests of men their per
sonal and general safety and health. And
tho argument from this point Is cogent and
As the Congressional report shows nearly,
If not quite, one-half of all the clothing
worn by the majorltv of our people is made
under conditions not merely revolting to
humanity and decency, but such as to endan
ger tho health of tho wearer. Xot merely Is
this work so largely apportioned to nil grades
of clothing that nona can be considered as
exempt, but tho use of ready-made goods has
become so universal that no community and
scarcely nnv family is free from danger. Tho
contagion thus spread is not merely of gen
eral conditions of uncleaune'S and miscella
neous disease germs, but of whooping cough,
diphtheria, scarlet fever, and tphus, from
tho very qu-irters whero at onco they aro
most continuously epidemic, and where are
developing tl e centers of the manufacture
we have investigated. Tho report goes on to
point out that no other material so invites the
use during manufacture that will bring it Into
contact with sickness and disease, and no
other Is so well Tttod to shelter and transport
the germs when once they have found a lodg
ment. That the danger Is not merely theoretical
nor confined to tLo lower clases is abund
antly proven. The daughter of Sir Robert
Peel contra-ted dl-ease from n riding habit
made at the heme of the workman. A small
pox case developed in Dayton, O , from
clothing, infected in Cincinnati. Numerous
scarlet fever cases wore directly traced from
homo tenement work in New York.
The commltteo in tho course of its investi
gation was startled to find tho manufacture
of clothing going on ..t tl esc very houses
whero were signs w nrnlng tho comers of the
presenco or scarlet fever.
Ihu danger, then, is imminent. Doubtless
thousands of aes havo already occurred
vrb rd parties have had no susj iciou of thu
cause, and tho doctor hid no knowledge that
wo lid enablo bim to divine it.
It Is claimed by ininy that tho process of
prssing with a hot iron is a sufflc ent safe
guard, as they bav th.s Is suro to destro all
tne germs. But tho tc-timnny of men expe
r.encod In th b line did not bear out this
claim. On tl.o contrary. 11 was shown that
in many eases It woald on! afford tho needed
warirth to encourage development. Iho
a inger, then. Is real, and thenecess.ty of pre
Third What aro the remedies for theso
evils.' How shall wo remove or les-en them
Let us take tbu hist question first. How shall
v.echo k or lessen them' I pat It this way,
for I do not thlak tae public i ntw for any
a tion more raaic.il tbun ths 'ihereisi.o
real r-medv, in rav uigment, under the pres
eat Sjs'cai of Imlu-trial eo up tltion.
Vi v tnu-t have a sy-tem of industrial and
practical rdm nii'.r.Ulou la ell, state, and
naticu that will care morn 'or ur-n than for
property, nnd that will ue;u nu'V.o and use
prO erty culy for ends of manhood.
But weeuanot wait for this. Wo must do
what wo can undr the present regime to
Its-en and, as far as iK)j3iUe, r,?n ove the evi s
01 which v havo spoken. Attempts havo a'
reaj Leen rae, le to reined taesi ev.ls by
State action, but tht-y L ivn proved nbortlv e.
They have on! resu.ted in driving the manu
facturing business out of the Sato enacting
such laws into other States where they do not
exist. Hie cper.ci ce of Massachusetts proves
conclusively the utter iuadequie of locid or
Stats legislation. It has on! "resulted in
driving a la-go part 01 the business out of tho
btate, and so la robbing its own workmen of
enplorr1nt. Doabtlesssome good hasbfen
accomplished, but the results, on the whole,
are far from what is needed.
Nothing short of national legislation will
mi ct the urgent necessities of the case.
The right of regulation has already been
adiriued and afilrn,el b the passngo o'f btate
enactments. If tho smaller bt-.to ran regu
lnto individual action in mutteis of this sort
in the g ncal Intel est, why may not tho larger
btate the nation? Is it not the province of
the uat oa to do those things which tue gen
eral interests demand, and which can not bo
done, or so well done, b the more local ad
ministrativo bod This is the plain verdict
of common sense nud tho eoncluslon reacoed
by the Congressional committee, and the re
port of tho committee elcsps with 11 recom
mendation that such legisl ition be had by
Congress, as, with Iast interference with the
business of the citizen and h ast exerc'so of
redcral jurisdiction, will effectually prevent
interstate commerce in articles of clothing or
person il wear made under unhealthy condi
tions of manufacture.
Legislation that will effectually accomplish
this will be a great boon to all classes of peo
ple. W o trust it will 1 e had. Tho need for
lt is growing more and moro imperative, as
the evils to be remedied are rapidly
increasing. Tho la'ior bureau of Jlassachu
setts te-tihes that the amount of work sent to
Now iork appears to bo increasing, while
that now sent them wo-ild, under conditions
formerly prevailing, have been done in Bos
ton. And, the report continues, under the
pressure of New lork competition thuten
denc seems to bo tow ard tho industri il con
ditions obtaining then:. The wholesaler or
contractor in Boston 19 subjected b the sani
tary laws of his own State to an unequal com
petition with Now York contractors and the
get the business. The annual output of forty
three establishments in Boston has a quoted
money value of $18,020,3:0. Of this amount
83 97 percent, is mado under tho contract sjs
tem and is freo to go wherever it an Lo
made at lowest cost. It can bo made at low
est money cost where social conditions nro
lowest and whero humanity is most imbruited
The business which most concerns tho bod
ily comfort and health of the whole peoplo of
the land is more and more tending to the very
centers of degradation and of physical and
moral pollution, nnd worst of all is intensify
ing and spreading more widely tho very con
ditions which draw- it to these centers. Tho
marvel to mo is that these poor creatures that
slave for fifteen to twenty hours a day in the
midst of such poverty and misery, nnd for a
pittance barely sufficient to keep soul and
body together, are so patient and so enduring
I don't wonder that thero are tramps and
highwaymen and train-robbers. I only won
der thnt there are not mere.
There must be a great deal of natural good
ness in men of real reluctance to array
themselves against law and order nnd tho
rights of their fellows when they can hold
themselves, under such conditions, to the ter
rible slavery inseparable from their lot.
Surely wo should be glad if any word or ef
fort of ours can do anything whatever to
lighten their burdens or throw a single ray of
sunshlno into the darkness of their lot Let
us hope that the words spoken this day from
hundreds of pulpits and printed to-morrow in
thousands of papers may find a response in
the hearts of the people and rouso to action
that will bring relief. Alexandeb Kent.
Ancnt Recent Trials.
Caller "How is Mr. LIghtout. the embez
Asjlum superintendent "About tho same.
He will not bo likely to improve so long as he
Caller "What does he worry about mostly?'
Asylum superintendent "He worries over
the fact that if he ever becomes sane he will
havo to stand trial." Puck.
(Reported verbatim for Tmt Tins.)
He Oar "proper study" has come to be
that of how much we can believe in our own
She (disdainfully) Tell me again now
that you love me.
He I do love you. You know that I do.
Oh, Helen, you are so beautiful!
(Helps her oft with her "opera cloak, under
which is revealed a wonderful white silk
gown, soft, and clinging lovingly to her
small, slim figure. During the operation he
reverts to his philosophy.)
Willardand Miss Burroughs, whose pre
tenso Is their trade wero the realest peoplo In
the house to-night. I think I liko you
best nt a comedy. When Wlllard de
spaired your oyta shono so sympa
thetically, and when ho carried Miss Bur
roughs in his arms from the hay-field your
smile was delicious, I thought Well, of
course every man thought that who was
with a pretty girl.
Sho (venturing slightly toward danger
under the cover of ignoranco). Thought
Ho Thought I would like to havo you
faint in n hay-field under such pleasing cir
cumstances. Sho But it is winter. (Seats herself and
begins unbuttoning her glove. Ho may
think from tho words if he likes that sho
wishes him to propose a drawing-room as tho
vviatcr substitute for a hay-field, but her un
concerned manner indicates that this Is far,
far from her mind.)
He (seeing her generalship and resolving
not to bo thus tantalized, clasping her hand
with tho pretense of helping her, and then
holding it very tightly for a moment, without
accelerating the removal of the glovo) Paint
right hero, won't jou? I promise jou I will
hold jouvery tightlv.
bhe W by should I? (tuggingsllghtlyat her
He Faint lady no'er failed to win heart.
bhe But I don't want jour heart.
Ho Oivo lt back.theu.
bhe Where is it? I must have misplaced
He Don't tool with me. I remember dis
tinctly when vou stole it
bhe Bah! You said Jfonday night, "When
time vns not still I loved jou so," which dis
tinctly proves that you havo not had jour
heart In this existence. I don't believe you
had one before.
Ho Give mo yours, then.
bhe I cun't pass it around so easily as you
can (feminine disdain for logic.)
Ho I don't wish you to. I will be satisfied
to keep it forev er.
She Tho waj jou do the letters I gave jou
to post forgotten in j our coat pocket There'd
one in It now!
He (making mistake of releasing her hand
to put his own uneasily on the outside of Ins
Inner pocket). Iheros not I carried It in
mv hand to the box. I remember distinctly
tbe look of the box. There's a dab of green
paint on tbe handle of tho slot cover
He I won't. Can't you take my word?
He I won't (puts his hand in his pocket
and withdraws lt quickly).
She And jet vou ask" mo to lovo jou when
you refuse' mo things and when you carry my
forgotten letters around in your pockets
He it Is for jour own good.
bhe (scornfull ) W hlch I won't havo you
dulng things lor in good.
He Both. You wouldnt have mo harm
you I couldn t do that I love ou so. Wh
nineteenth-century lover havo not the
strength to be erne!, oiih to bo kind. Even
wh"n we sco yju going wrong wo nre too
much bewitched by tho way jou do it and too
so t-hearted to nrotcat.
She (half in petulant joking, half in smiling
s2riou3nss) lou do, you know jou do.
You refuse to snow me that letter. But wtnt
are wo talking in this ridicalocs vv ay f or? I
do not Ioveyou; I never can love Ou. Please,
plcasj never spc.i of lt aga'n. (Ihcreisnn
immense seriousness in her voice and face
now.) Y'e-, vou wore right Oh, jou aro
always right We are all shaai. area t we This
afternoon at tho club. Miss Wilson, wuo is so
terribly incirnet atout her eoa-cienec, vou
know, was trying to de.'nnd oerself agalast
herself for having said "net nt hoiro lo
Chnrile Somers when she had curl paiers in
herln'rfqr her pari. I had never thought
of it before, but I almost convinced her that
she was nw.eilly wrong. Isn't it interesting
to sham a bolief until jou almost argue over
oar-clf, and then find pome one on the other
side and work back to snfashammlng ground
He Hcli n. we aro so mueh alike, I do that
all tl.o tiino. too.
Phe Yes, 1 have thought wo aro (hesi
tates) He -Two souls with but a single thought.
bhe Wait I wish to dlscass this nfllnly
of ours logica'l. (Then, as a CO interjec
tion.) You can sav theso things any time.
Ho All tho time.
bhe (Not deigning to heed.) Is it because
we aro brighter than most people that wo
wind them around our fingers in that way?
He We are brignter. But we don't mind
them; they mind us.
He rhey believe, and we don't We aro
wide enough to reflect Loth sides, bat its all
width. Wo aro bright, but awfully shallow.
Wo ure Iiko Honells. Wo see everything and
underhand. They see only one side, and not
all of that, but they believe in it and act. Wo
bhe Oh, but Jack.
bhe But one who is so bright must
Think of our insight into people's motives.
Think of how we read their isces nnd anj n er
their questions before the speak.
He That's all part of mv argument.
He Well, sometimes I think I (assumes a
slightly different timo td hide tho slip)
sometimes I think wo maj be a little leep.
It's our wills our wills and our education.
We cannot concentrate ourselves. Wo are
deep, but wo seo so many things that wo don't
know which to choose." Wo are dilettantes.
We don't choo-o anything.
She (her ejes helping her words) Oh, if
ou don t
He You. Of course I choo-e jou always.
That's a different matter. Thatfs n different
thing entirely. (The pause. Tnern has not
been much warmth in her interjection or In
his own Immensely praiseworthy effort. It is
so unsatlsfing a tiling nt 21 not to end a tetcj-a-tete
b being for u httlo whilo In love.)
He (again, after a moment, nsing) I will
go. (Hesitates.) If jou will sing mo a song
I will go.
She Oh, don't go. It's only (looks nt her
watch) why, it's half-past twelve. (Feels
quite happy becauso tho time has passed so
quickl and they must Lo a little in love.)
Ho Sing for mo a little while. (Iishes
among her music.)
She Well, one song.
Ho (singing in an undertone)" 'Tis tho
Languago of Love." (Brings Marguerite's
song to her, where sho has seated herself at
the piano. She sings passionatel.)
He Oh, Helen! ouare so beautiful. (Sotto
voce) I do lovo her.
She (nsing) Is It not divine.
He Y'es. (He puts on his overcoat.)
Sho (extending her hand) Good night,
Jack, (bhe dwells on his name.)
He Good night. (Ho suddenly bends over
the Httlo white hand in his and touches it
with bis lips. They quickly embrace. It Is
their first kiss. They have been a long time
Ho (again, sotto voce, as he goes out
through the door Into the hall) It was the
song. I was afraid I didn't love her and that
she was tired of me, but I do. Yes, I'm
sure I do. And sho loves me. I'm not all
pretense after all. At least, I hope I'm not
She (sotto voce, too, looking after him)
Oh! I'm so glad I'm In love! I was so afraid
I was cold-heartecL And he loves mo, too;
oh, so dearly; nnd Jack said we wero all pre
tense. It's not; It's not. It can't be.
He (entering again with a glowing, tender
face and hand outstretched) I had to come
back to hope again that jour mother's head
ache will be better in the morning. Please,
Helen, don't be troubled; and you know how
much you have my sympathy, don't jou?
(He has taken her hand. He is sufficiently
on terms of fnendshlp with the conventional
usages. He things she will notice that ho has
not waited for the offer of hers and believe
his action tho result of his intense sympathy.
He does not know how much of lt is real.
Part of it is.)
She You dear boy. (Exit both through
the door into the hall.)
Habbt Chipjias Buiislet.
"Parker loft tho Scaddleberry reception in
a huff." "Did he? What was tho matter?"
"His hat check was number 502. Parker is
one of the 400." Bazar.
MORE WORK FOR A BUREAU
Taxation of Proprietary Articles Will
Call for More Engraving.
FOUR KINDS OP STAMPS IN USE.
In Cass Patent Medicines Are Taxed, What
Stamps Must Be Printed, and What
Privileges Proprietors Hay Be Allowed
as to the Selection and Execution of
Their Own Particular Designs.
If a tax Is put on proprietary articles, as has
been suggested in tho Senate, a new industry
will be opened to thq Bureau of Engraving
and Printing an Industry that was abandoned
eleven years ago, as it was tlfought forever.
So certain was tho chief of the bureau in that
day that the government would never return
to tho old system of taxing proprietary articles
that ho destrojed all of the plates used in
printing tho special stamps. It the now law
should be enacted though, the expense would
all fall on tho manufacturers. So tho officials
of tho Treasury are not worrying about it
Tbe Bureau of Engraving now makes only
four varieties of revenue stamps. They are
for distilled spirits, fermented spirits, tobacco,
and snuff. Theso stamps are of different de
nominations, nnd each denomination has its
own design. But tho tobacco stamp of ono
denomination issued to ono manufacturer is
the fiamo as tho tobacco stamp of the same
denomination issued to another manufacturer.
There is, somo distinction made in the elab
orateness and ornateness of the designs of
theso different stamps. Tho stamp which is
to go on the box of cigars which stands on
your library table Is a little) more plcturesquo
than the stamp which Is used on the strip to
bacco package. Tho bureau concedes so much
The Internal revenuo stamps used to levy a
tax on "patent medicines" were of varied de
sign. There was a common stamp for these
medicines, just as there is for tobacco.
But under the law any manufacturer who
was willing to bear the additional expense of
preparing a special die, and the additional
expense, if anj. of printing stamps after his
own design, could have special stamps
pnated for bim at the bureau. And so many
of the proprietors of well-known proprietary
articles availed themselves of this privilege,
because of the distinction which it carried
that the Bureau of Engraving hod on hand
at tho timo the law taxing these nrticles was
repealed between 200 and 300 dies. All of
these dies had been made In the bureau. No
plate made outsido tho bureau is used there,
and no die ha3 been as jet When tho bureau
takes tbe contrnct for printing tho postage
stamps on tho 1st of July it will use tbe dies
of tbe contractors who nro now doing the
work. These dies wero made bj the en
gravers of this privato concern, but they
were paid for bv the Post Oflleo Department,
and they are the proper! of the govern
ment Not only was tho engraving for the patent
medicine stamps dono in the bureau, but the
elcs.gning of niost of them was done b the
bureau artUts. They were quite as compe
tent to throw a glamor around a littlo liver
pill as a privato workman was. The bureau
was paid lor their work in proportion to tho
elaborateness of tho design. W ithin reason
able bounds, of course, there was no limit on
the siio of tho stamp which could be used.
The pla of the manufacturers was that their
distinctive laoeLs, which had cost a great deal
of meney. would bo spoiled by the imposition
of the little squaro stnirp of faded red which
was issued bj tho government So authority
w as g'ven them to have stamps made to con
form to these labels, and "orno of them went
so far as to have the bureau pnnt the labels
themselves as a part of tho design of tho
stamp. It scrus rather ridiculous for the
government to be printing labels for bottles
of sarsaparllla. but that is what the Trc isury
Department may coma to if the new law is
enacted and the old policy of the govern
ment is carried to a logical conclusion.
The Bureau of Engraving keeps several
thousand dies and plates always on hand,
but whenever It seems probable that one of
them will nut be needed again it is taken to
the Navj Yard, broken up, cost into tho fur
nace and melted. All ot th.s is dono with
due solemnity, in the presence of a commit
tee of Treasury clerks. The "patent medi
cine" dies were destroyed in this way. There
are some pretty shrewd lawyers in Washing
ton, who make a speclalt ot cases against
the government One of these, C. H. Par
sons, fancied that the people who had paid
lor tho special proprietary stamis had a pro
prietary interest in tho dlc3. So he ob
tained "authority from tho medicine makers
and filed a claim with the Treasury Depart
ment for the value of them. The First
Comptroller disallowed the cl dm after it had
ben pending for several years. Only a
short time ago this claim wa3 revived, and
tho Comptroller again disallowed it
Collectors will have somo difficulty in ob
taining copies of tho internal revenue stamps
fro n the bureau If the new law is passed.
Th're has been no difficulty In obtaining
India proofs or specimens of postage stamps
irom tho Post Office Department In the past
But even that may be changed when the
Bureau of Engraving and Printing undertakes
the contract of printing tho postage stamps
next Julv. Tho Solicitor of the Treasury has
made a ruling that it is contrnry to law for
the bureau to giv 0 to anyone specimens of its
work on tho securities of tho government Ho
has rul-nl that the bureau chief who sent spec
lmf ns of tho bonds of the United States to the
office of tho Secretary of tho Treasury vio
lated the law. No one, ho says, has any nght
to issue anything in tho form of an obligation
of the government except by authonty of law;
and thero is no law permitting the bureau to
givo specimens of its work to even tho Secre
tary of tho 1 reasury. There are somo excep
tions to this rulo of tho department. There
are some engravings dono as practice work by
the apprentices in the bureau which are never
used on securities, and of which copies are
sometimes given to visitors as mementoes of
tho big money mill. Then tho practice has
grownup of recent j-ears of giving away
copies of tho portraits of public men w hlch
have been engrav ed for usu on banknotes or
bonds. This practicojs not encouraged, but
it is not forbidden.
The bureau people aro amused at tho propo
sition that they may be prevented bv some
adverse action of the appropriations com
mittee from undertaking the business of pnnt
Ing tho postage stamps. Two of the Pennsyl
vania Representatives In Congress have stated
recently that they would oppose nn appro
priation asked for extending the bureau, on
the ground that the chief had no right to
undertake the stamp contract without author
ity of Congress. The appropriations com
mittee may rofuso to grant this appropriation,
and the bureau people will be very sorry to
seo this done, but the refusal will not affect
the status of the stnmp contract. The bureau
has not asked any appropriation for the pur
pose of carrying out the stamp contract.
That contract carries itself out The general
appropriation for the support of the Post
Office Department provides for the printing
of tho stamps. Tho pay for tho work will
come to tbe bureau not In the Treasury appro
priation but In the Post Office appropriation.
Tho bureau peoplo are also inclined to ridicule
tho claim of tho private bidders for the post
age stamp contract that there are trade secrets
in the making of stamps which they do not
know. They say that if there are any such
secrets the owners of them aro quite welcome
to keen them. The bureau made its bid for
the contract after figuring tho cost of the,
stamps by its own process. 11 us estimates
are correct, it ought to comco ut even on the
contract at tho very worst.
The color work on tho postage stamps will
not be now to tho bureau. In addition to
the work which it has done on proprietary
stamps it has mixed and used every shade of
color in its other work. Brown was used on
the '"brown backs," green on the "green
backs," different blues on customs stamps
,nnd on tue Dacks 01 bonus. Ail 01 tue mix
ing of colors Is done in tho bureau. So if any
complaint is mado ot tho quality ot tho ink
used in the new stamps, as has been done in
some of the ell o-i, thero will bo no diffi
culty la tracing the responsibility.
Geokoe Gttixram Baix.
Is the one condition upon which we treat our patients.
A guarantee that pledges an absolute cure in every
YOU OWE US
CONSULTATION AND C D C C
TRIAL TREATMENT, T 11 C. C.
Diagnose Your Own Case I
KNSWER THESE QUESTIONS:
CATARRH OF HEAD AND THROAT.I CATARRH OF BRONCHIAL TUBES.
This Is the most prevalent form of Catarrh
ana results irom nepiecioa coius.
Is the breath foul
Is the voice husky?
"Do you spit up slime"
Io you ache all over?"
'Is the noso stopped upr
'Do you snore nt night?
"Does your nose dlcnarpe?,
"Does the noe bleed easily"
uIs there tickllne In throat
"Do crusts form In the nose?
"Is the nose sore and tender?"
"Do you sneeze a great deal
"Is this worse toward nlpht?"
"Does the nose Itch and burn"
"Is there pain In front of head"
"Is there pain across the eyes'"
"la there pain in back of head?"
"Is your sense of smell leaving?"
"Do you hawk to clear the throat?"
"Is there a dropping In the throat?"
"Is the throat dry In the morning"
" ro you losing your sense of taste"
'Do you sleep with the mouth open"
"Does the nose stop up toward night?"
DO YOU KNOW TH
MR. J. VV. FARRAR, an employe of the Treasury Department,
and residing at 2307 Washington Circle, says:
"During tho Trinter of 1ST2 1 suffered a very serere attack of pneumonia, which left me
with bronchitis A change of climate was adrised b7 my physician, and I accordingly
ont to California in the hop" of being benefited bnt was disappointed
MIthen made a etudy of throat and lung diseases with especial reference to my own
case, and became conTinced that no cure could be effected without D1KECTLY treating the
diseased parts Through friends I learned of Dr. Kiegel and his new methods, and imme
diately placed myself under his care. lthin one week my acute catarrh was CONE sub
sequent treatment has strengthened my lungs wonderfully, and my bronchitis is now
MR. GEORGE McKENNA, who resides at 1412 Thirty-fourth
street, Georgetown, says:
"About tho middle of December I caught a heavy cold, which settled on my lungs. I
garo it llltle thought, believing it would wear away; but lt was stubborn, and almost be
fore 1 realized it my strength began to falL Then I lOat courage and was preparing for
tho worst, ily father Anally prevailed upon me to visit Dr. Itiegel, and to-day I am Tery
thankful that he did so for I am almost well"
These are but two out of a long list of persons who are now
being treated with splendid results by Dr. Riegel.
The consultation, the medicine, and the treatment are absolutely tit Eli, and will
continue so until you are perfectly satisfied that substantial benefit Is bing de
rived. ow is the accepted time Availyourself of thl3 generous offer one that
has never before been made in Washington.
THEY GO TO SLAVERY WILLINGLY
To Inter a Harem is the Height of a Cir
cassian Girl's Ambition.
F.ir from dreading their salo the clrls of
CIrcas sia look forward to it as the greatest
opportunity of their Ihes. They go to seet
it. says the Topular Science 3Ionthly, ns a
cons"ious jewel might rtart in search of a
costly setting. They show no more reluc
tance than Esther manifested when Mordecai
delivered her over as one of the fair young
virgins gathered from far and near to adorn
tho palace ot Abasuerus. Indeed, the history
of Esther reveals the motives which probably
animate each of the many maidens of Circas
sia, who to this day re-enact the old Biblical
story. Each believes that it is she who may
find grace and favor In the royal crown, and
thus control at will the rise or fall of the
But even if not chosen by royalty those who
purchase the beautiful damsels of Circassia
are tho wealthy nnd titled, and notthe slight
est socitl degradation Is attached to their po
sition even if taken to harems wherein a
Turtish wife may be installed as head of the
household. The common dependence of ail
the inmates of a harem upon the favor ot a
lord who may at any time elevate a Circas
sian lave to the position of a lady fosters a
spirit of equality, ot pure, practical democ
racy, that would bo Inconceivable under any
other circumstances, nnd in our Southern
slave relition to nominal mistress was to
tally undreamed of. As a Turkish lady ex
plained to an astonished English visitor. "X
slavo may become n lady any day, nnd in
treating her ns ono beforehand we tako ofT
much of tho awkwardness which would else
enue." hen we consider that all the chil
dren of slaves are acknowledged as the legiti
mate children of their father, wo must confess
In justice to tho Turk that theirs is a condi
tion in which tho evils of slavery to tho slavo
are reduced to a minimum.
NO FOOL OF A DAY,
April First Changes, Lndcr the Census, In
Personnel and Dl islon Work,
The approaching completion of thewcrk
of tho Eleventh Census is resulting in agrad
uil depletion of tho ranks of employes. The
total number of names borne on tho rolls of
tho Bureau 13 now a Httlo over BOO. At least
Bovcral scoro of theso will bo given notl:o of
dismissal on tho 1st of April, the next pay
day. Conferences between Superintendent Wright
and tho chiefs of divisions ure held nlmost
daily, nnd the chiefs aro frequently qestloned
as to the probability of completing various
branches of tho work In the time estimated by
The expected, dismissals for tho middle of
the month did not materialize, and thealready
selected names n ill probably constitute a largo
portion of the list for dismissals on the 1st ot
It was the intention ot tho officials to let the
insurance, agriculture and transportation di
visions cease lost Thursday, but their discon
tinuance was postponed for a short time.
Expiring Washington Patents.
The list of patents which expires next Tues
day, the regular issue day of tho Patent
Office, Includes the devices ot four inventors
of this city, viz: Patent 188,599, for packag
ing coin, II. Croggon, assignor to self and
George S. Prindell, Qld February 24, 1877;
patent 183,611, safety car trucks, D. E. Dot
row, filed January 29, 1377; patent 188,665.
extension sters ior cars, . w. reruns, niea
February 9, 1877, and patent 188,676, com
pounds for artificial stone, C. Schaeffer,
assignor to George VT. Cook, Hied March 7,
A Great Gucsscr.
Trotter Say, old man, I suppose you can't
lend mo elO. Barlow No, my dtar boy;
but a man with vour capaclty;torfeuessIngtho
rignt tuini? oncnt to no note to win a ionune
down in Wall street." Judge.
The Irish Question.
Tom What is the Irsh question, anyhow?
I would like to know. Jerry I'm not sure,
but I think it is: "Has the registered letter
come from America yet?" Texas Sittings,
When Catarrh of the head and throat Is left
unchecked It extends down the windpioe Into
tbe bronchial tubes and in time attacks the Iunga.
Do you have to sit nj at night to get
"Is there a burning pain In the throat"
"Do you feel you aro growing weaker"
"Have you pain behind breast bone?"
"Is there tickling behind the palate?"
"Is there a ringing In your ears?"
"Havo you a disgust for fatty foods?"
"Do you spit up littlo cheesy lump8?,
"Is your cough short and hacking?"
"Do you cough in the mornings'"
"Do you cough ou going to bed?"
"Do you spit up yellow matter7"
"Do you raise frothy material'"
"Are you low spirited at times'"
"Do you cough until you gag"
'Have you stitches In side'"
"Is your appetite variable"
"Do you take cold easily?"
"Are you Irritable"
"Have you pain In side?"
"Do you cough at night"
"Arerou losing flesh?"
In Diseases of the Eye,
Ear, Nose, Throat, and
1014 15th St. N. W.
IANOS are no
longer articles of
luxury, but neces-
PATTI recommends the
beautiful Haines' Brothers
Uprights above all others
DROOP & SONS carry a
full line in stock at $io down
and $io monthly.
DROOP & SONS.
STORIES OF GENERALS.
After Mr. Sumner had criticised Gen. Grant
savagely, somo ono was talking to Grant
about atheism in Kew England, and re
marked: "Even Sumner docs not believo in tha
"Why should he?" quietly roplied Grant.
"Ho didn't writo it."
When Gen. Sherman wa3 traveling through
Kew Mexico after the civil war he remarked
to a company of friends:
"I always thought tho Mexican war was an
unholy war, but now I would like to fight
When asked why, he replied:
"To make her take back Kew Mexico."
Gen. Mahone was wounded at second Man
assas, and some one, to comfort Mrs. Mahone,
"Oh, don't be uneasy; It's only a flesh
Mrs. Mahone. through her tears, cried out:
"Oh. thnt is impossible; theie is not flesh
enough on him for that."
In 1886 Gen. Sherman, then retired, visited
a military post and was present while the
class was at signal drill. Tho Instruction was
with the heliograph an instrument Invented
since the civil war. Tho general seemed in
terested, but affected not to understand its
uso, and wanted it explained; at tho samo
time he stood so as carefully to intercept with
hi3 person the sun's rajs from the mirror, so
tho signaling ceased.
"Goon with your work, boys; don't stop
for me, I'm a back number," called the gen
eral. "Wo can't, general; you are cutting oft tha
light," replied the operator At tho screen.
Tho general jumped back quickly, apolo
gizing as ho did so.
"Yes, yes; tho world 13 marching on and
we old men havo had our day and are strag
gling behind. Why, in my time wo did this
tort of thing by shaking flags, and wo called
Then he laughed and walked away across
the green parade.
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