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THE "WASHINGTON TIMES, SUNDAY, APKEL 8, 1894.
fAn open letter to Senator Voorhecs.
Hon. D. W. Voobhees, V. S. Senate,:
Dear Sib: It was -with much pleasure that
I listened to the closing part of your very abln
nnd timely speech ot April 2 on the. tnnll and
income tax. I also heard with unbounded
tntlsfnctlou your magnificent mention of ono
of our greatest ot statesmen, Thomas Jeffer
son, in the following words:
Sir. this is the birthday of Thomas Jefferson.
Ono hsndre J and fifty year ago tc3ay he came
Into the world the greatest omancipator of
thought, philosopher of liberty, and teacher of
natural rights of man ever known inhuman
liibUry. rlhe blows bo struck for freedom,
Justice, and equality in government are yet re
bounding throughout the earth, and they will
never ceaee to be heard until the last shacklo of
privilege and tyranny is broken. Ten days be
fore his soul took Sight from bis mountain borne
be wrote his parting words to his own country
men and to all the races of mankind. With this
great dying message before us, and in its spirit,
we take new courage and goon with our work.
"All eyes are open, or opening," he said, "to the
richts of man. The general spread of the light
of sclenco has already laid open to every Mew
the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind
has not been born with the saddles on their
backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred,
ready to ride them legitimately by the grace of
Hod." liatl, mighty message, and hall its speedy
end certain f ulllllmentl All hail the counsels of
Thomas Jefferson in this hour of caste based on
wealth, of privilege granted by law, and of mo
nopoly fastened on the slavery of labor! Ap
plause in the galleries.
Now, my dear sir, believing that so appreci
ative and magnificent a statement of historio
truth should not be tinctured with the least
sbado of error. I call attention to the fact
that Thomas Jefferson was not born on the
day which wo now call the second day of
April, but eleven days later.
I have before me a letter written by Abra
ham Lincoln to a committee of gentlemen in
Boston, beginning as follows:
BnxOFiELD, 111., April 6.JS39.
Gentlemen: Your kind note, inviting mo to at
:end a festival in lloston on the 13ih Inst, in
aonorof the birthday of Thomas Jefferson, was
luly received. My engagements are such that
I cannot attend, etc. .ow the facts of the case
are these: Jefferson was bom April S, 1743, old
style, or April IS, 1743, new style.
'the books usually follow the old stylo (April
2) as to birth, but not as to his death (July 4).
lie died July 4, 1S20, new style. So his true age
was eleven days less than the old style birthday
Then, to state his age correctly, we should
jtate the dates of his death and birth in the same
Ityle or calendar.
ITiat is, April 13. new style, and July 4, new
style, or April 2, old style, and June 3, old style.
To state it the usual way is to mix the Julian
and Gregorian calendars, and to perjietuate an
error of eleven days as to his age.
As no one would bo willing to sacrifice the sa
cred and beautiful historic coincidence of the
deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams on
the anniversary or American Independence, it
would seem that April 13 for Jeffei son's birth
day would bo the better date, as stated in Mr.
Lincoln's letter, and it would possos the great
merit of being the exact truth.
Georce Washiugtcn was born February 11, old
stvlo; l'cbruary 22, new style.
Wo celebrate the new style date (February
2) and thus avoid all error as to age. Then why
not celebrate the new stylo date (April 13) for
Jlr.Jeffctsnn, as mentioned by Mr. Lincoln and
tho liostouians. nnd thus avoid mixing cal
endars nnd perpetuating an error of eleven days
in Mr. Jefferson's ago? The change from the old
style (Julian Calendar) to tho new style (drego
rian Calendar) was by Engl sh statute in 173L
To show the importance of chronological ac
curacy in historic matters like this, I beg to call
your attention to the following consideration. In
3 our speech of April 2, you say:
"Mr. this Is the birthday of Thomas Jefferson.
One hundred and flfty-ono years ago tu-day bo
came into the world the greatest emancipator of
the ught. philosopher of llberty.and teacher of the
natural rights of man ever known in human his
tory." ow, I beg to say that: "One hundred and
fifty-one years' prior to the date of your speech,
the results of the natal day of Thomas Jefferson
were in the future, and were utterly unknown.
It was not then known whether the world was to
Lava a 1 nomas Jefferson, capable of writing the
declaration of independence, and destined to
jdace his name high up among the famous men
of nistcry; or, only a Mis3 Tanny Jefferson, to be
classed politically by American law, among
Idiots, lunatics, and criminals, as a mere female
thing, taxablo and bangablo under statutes
which she was to have no voice In framing. This
consideration, in ray mind, is very important
I now dslre to ear. in closing, that vnnrMeh
nppreclatlon of Mr. Jefferson reminds me of the
closing paragraph over Mr. Lincoln's name In
the lottcr before me. Mr. Lincoln said:
"All honor to Jefferson to the man who, in
tho concrete pressuro of a struggle for national
mdependonce by a single people, had the cool
ness, forecast, and capacity, to Introduce into a
merely revolutionary document nn abstract
truth, applicable, to all men and to all times,
and so to embalm it thero that to-day and in
nil coming days It Bhall be a rebuke and stum
bling Week to the harbingers of reappearing
tyranny and oppression. Your obedient
servant. &. Lincoln."
I place this as a companion piece to your
fine or.itorial statement when the discrepency
of dates has been reconciled. Yours, respect
fully, Jons Davis.
.Millions Seeking .Millions.
Sax rcANCisco, April 7. The Examiner says
that the engagement of Gcorgo Crocker, son
of the late Charles Crocker, and Mrs Elma II.
Itutberford is announced. It is expected that
the wedding will take place In Xew York In
July. Mrs. Rutherford is at present in New
York with her three children. Mr. Crocker is
In San Francisco. George Crocker is one of
the heirs to the Crocker millions, and Mrs.
Ilutherford is also very wealthy. Her hus
band, Alex Ilutherford, was a well-known
mining man, and died in 1893.
Odd Items from All About.
There is one divorce to every 479 marriages
In tuo United States.
No part of Greeco is forty miles from the
tea cor ten miles from bills.
Ireland has n greater oronortlon of unmar
ried women than any other country.
An edict against the marriage of men over
GO nnd women over 50 was ouce made by Em
peror Tiberius, hut so strenuous were the ob
jections of widowers and widows that tho law
was soon reoealed.
In 18S7 the Berlin bureau of statistics esti
mated that the steam engineers then at work
In the wj.-ld represented approximately
1,000 00o,000 men. or three times tho working
populati.n of thn'earth.
In ancient Rome a mr rrled man having
three children was entitled to a better seat in
tho theater han less fortunate benedicts. A
married min ha ing tweive chiluren was en
titled ' a robe of honor and a pension.
Saginaw (Mich.') pillce have received strict
orders to keep a'l young girlr off the street
nfter dark. They are net to arrest those who
BjHear. bui ot.I. to take their .'nines and re
poit them to their parents for discipline.
If presenter' at our
store on Tuesday will
entitle you to a pair of
I $1 Gloves
I For 79c
These Glove-shave 4
large pearl buttons and
are shown in lielio- SS
ss trope, tan,reseda, mode,
ss green, navy, ox blood,
magenta, brown, black, SS
SS white, and yellow.
314 and 316 7th St.
STRUGGLE FOR CHEAPER GAS
Boston's Municipal Crusade in 1892
Against Costly Illumination.
THE COST IN FOREIGN CITIES
The Per "housan" Ta-iff in England il
About Two-Thirds or Less tio. the Aver
age Sate in . raorica Different Prices in
Different City Sections.
Bostos, April 7. A Boston newspaper be
gan the war for 1 gas in its city. hat was
in Ju .e, 1892. It devoted ninety-flve col
umns of space to the fight, and almost a ycai
was required to force the issue. The fight of
the newspaper wa3 kept up seven months,
and then Mayor Matthews took a part in the
proceedings. Ho was the only ono who
could make a petition to tho gas commission
to reduce tho price of gas, and tho mayor
made that petition on January SO, 1S93. Tho
fight for cheaper ga3 began in earnest then,
for the mayor meant business from the start.
ne employed Hon. G eorge Frederick Williams
for counsel, nnd began a-rigid examination.
Then, in the latter part of March, an order
for investigation was introduced into the
llouso of Representatives. On April 5 tho
first hearing was held, and from then until
June 10 there was very little delay about
pushing tho investigation, bills introduced,
etc., to n Hnal issue. Result: Boston has 61
gas in many sections of tho city, and much
cheaper gas in all sections of tho city.
The fight for cheaper gas in Boston re
vealed some startling secrets of the methods
of making gas, and mnking it pay. Now that
all has boon exposed, it scem3 a wonder that
.Boston people were so long ignorant of tho
real stato of affairs. As tho investigation re
vealed, however, some of tho men whom tho
commonwealth elected to look after her inter
ests in the matter of gas companies and their
way of doing business wero content to pleaso
tho gas makers at tho expense of the consum
ers. If the gas companies saw fit to chatgo
from S1.S0 to $1.C0 per 1,000 feet fortheirgas,
and their books looked very well kept, it was
not much their affair if tremendous dividends
were made at tho expense of the gas consum
ers of Boston.
When tho newspaper fight had been waged
for some time ono of tho first things that
opened Mayor Matthews' eyes was the offer of
the Brookline (a suburb) Gaslight Company
to do the lighting for the city of Boston.
'Mayor Matthews had made a petition to the
legislature asking permission for the cityto
light its own streets, and that lighting com
panion bo obliged to furnish gas at cost. Bids
wero asked fo-, and tho Brookline company
offered to light the southern part of the city
proper and lioxbury for 70 cents per 1,000
feet, nnd it further offered to furnish gas to
the general consumer for SI Der 1,000 feet
It was also discovered about that time that
for several months the large hotels had been
getting good gas for 51 per 1,000 feet.
When tho investigation began at tho stato
house there were some stormy scenes. The gas
syndicate was trapped, and tho men who eon
trolled it made tremendous efforts to get out
of tho clutches of tho mayor ot Boston and
those he had employed to help him in the in
vestigation. Ono of tho first facts that ap
peared lo tho public was tho substantial
charge of Mr. Williams, that when he went to
the gas commissioner's offlco and asked for
full reports of tho doings of the gas com
panies Mr. Baker, one of the commissioners,
tore out one of the leaves in tho book of re
ports as he handed it to Mr. Williams. Tbi3
leaf was found to contain tho computations,
showing tho costs, profits, etc., of the com
panies, which had always been kept from the
public and from tho mayor himself.
What the mayor himself said at the hear
ing when this fact was revealed gies a pretty
clear idea of tho manner in which tho affairs
of the gas companies wero being concealed
from tho people of Boston. Said he: "I want
to tell this committeowhat attitude this board
of gas commissioners took when the mayor
of tho city of Boston made application to tho
board to reduce the price of gas charged by
the Bay Stato Gas Company to the Boston
"The committee are well aware that there
is only oao person in tho commonwealth that
can bring that petition, and he is the mayor
of the city of Boston, and it they don't havo
twenty customers, the s.dtuto fortunately
provides that tho mayor can make applica
tion. The application was made, and there
upon the corporation counsel ol the city of
Boston sent a formal request to be allowed to
Inspect those returns, in order to be able to
show tho commissioners what the cost was to
tho Bay Stato Gas Company of manufactur
ing gas. out that permission wa3 denied.
"We tried that case without information,
and wo argued it. We put in our evidence,
the other side put in none. The evidence
was closed and tho arguments made, and that
commission sat thero for two days listening
to those arguments and the evidence and
never said a word to indicate that they had
made tho compilation which shows that it
cost the Bay State Gas Company only 40 cents
per 1,000 cubic feet to manufacture and sell
gas. Do you suppose that if wo had had that
information we would have rested our case
where we did without suggesting to the
board any particular price at which it was
fair for the Bay State to sell its gas to the
"Why, If we had had that information, we
would have asked them to add a sufficient
price to pay the interest on tho capital in
vested, and to pass an order reducing the
price of gas to forty-five cents per 1,000 cubic
feet from SI, which was the price
they were charging. Now, one gentleman
a3ked Mr. Barker what there was in these re
turns except what was required by statute.
There was that page, and that page was the
reason Mr. Barker did not dare to give us
Then, as the hearings proceeded from day
to day, tho whole history of the gas trut came
to light. That history was all the legislature
required to take prompt action for tne good
of the people, and enact laws that practically
"squelched" the gas trut, Tho story of the
methods of the Boston gas trust, of which Mr.
J. Edward Addicks, of Delaware, was the
cuici manipulator, is a very long one ii told in
detail, but a concise review of the facts that
were brought out by tho stubborn fight of
Mayor Matthews for SI gas shows verv olninlr
the possibilities for fraud in the manufacture
ot gas, wmcn should bo ample excuse for anv
other city in the United States making a simi
lar investigation to mat oi tne mayor of Bos
ton. In tho year 1881 thero wero eight gas com
panies doing business in Boston. They were
nil incorporated by special acts of the legis
lature. The earliest was the Boston Gas
light Company, in 1822, and tho latest was
the Dorchester Gaslight Company in 1854.
Those eight companies had a total capital
stock outstanding nt that time of 55,210,000.
The total capacity of their works was 8,E0U
000 cubic feet per day. Their total 'out
put as represented by sales was about 1,400 -000,000
cubic feet per, annum. They ha'd
from 300 to 350 miles of pipe in the streets of
Boston. They were managed in a conserva
tive, old-fashioned manner, manufacturing
coal gas cxclulvelyt vigorously, and un
wisely, as it seems, objecting to the Introduc
tion of water gas, paying for extensions nnd
Improvements out of surplus earnings, and
content to distribute among their" stock
holders dividends ranging from 6 to 10 per
cent, upon the enpital invested and repre
sented by the stock.
You cannot examine the reports of the
Massachusetts gas commission without
reaching the conclusion that the city of Bos
ton, or at least its central part, was a won
derfully profitable field for the manufacture
and sale of gas. It was considered such by
gas financiers and manufacturers nil over the
country. It was considered that the cost ot
gas as then manufactured in Boston could bo
reuueeu, ana mat ii competition were allowed
such competition would result not only in
profit to those who should undertake the
enterprise and promote competition, but also
In profit to tho people in lower prices to be
charged for gas.
Accordingly, the year 18S4 witnessed a se
ries of nttempts by various promoters and seta
of promoters to invado the Held of the Boston
Gaslight Company. The first to make ap
plication was Mr. J. Coleman Drayton of
New York, who organized a company in Bos
ton under the title of the Consumers' Gas
Company, in July, 1834. The corporation
wa organized under the general laws; It had
n capital of 500,000, the maximum amount
allowed by law; it applied to the board of al
dermen for a location; it received it on the
17th of November, 1884, and the order was
vetoed by the mayor, then Mr. Martin.
Tho action of the board of aldermen in "
1834 in allowing a new corporation to oome
into the city of Boston and compete with the
old ones encouraged others to make appli
cation. Then it was that J. Edward Addicks,
of Delaware, tamed up in December, 1834,
He organized under tho general laws ot
Massachusetts the Bay State Gas Company,
with the maximum capital allowed, 8500,000.
They applied early in 18S5to the board of
aldermen for a laticn. They got a report
i from the committee to which their petition
was referred, setting forth the benefits ot the
contrition and the gain to the community
in cheaper prices, which it was expected
would come from the competition ot this new
concern. Influenced by these reasons, appa
rently, the board of aldermen granted a loca
tion on February 9, which was signed by
Mayor O'Brien on February 16. Ono of the
important conditions upon which this new
company was allowed to locate in Boston was
that it should compete literally nnd honestly
with every other company, and that it should
at once lay pipes in every street, lane, and
highway ol tho city in which pipes were then
The Boston Gaslight Company fought the
now company bitterly, but Addicks won the
battle and got tho Boston Gaslight Company
iust where he wanted it. After location had
icon established, one of the first things that
the new Bay Stato Company attempted to i'o
was to increase its capital. The legislature
tailed to seo that it was necessary to increase
the capital, so Mr. Addick went to work im
mediately upon other schemes. Tho provis
ions upon which the Bay State had obtained
a foothold in Boston was that it should imme
diately construct its plant, lay pipes, etc.
Mr. Addicks had no idea of constructing
works, it seems, from the beginning, but he
made a good pretense towards doing so.
Finding that tho legislature would not grant
an increase of capital, he mado a contract
with the Bay State ComDany to construct the
works promised himself." In other words, he
made a contract with himself, for he was al
most the sole stockholder in tho Bay State
Company. Then he went to Philadelphia
and organized tho Beacon Construction Com
pany. Ho was also the virtual whole of the
Beacon Construction Company. So ho made
another contract with himself, and thnt was
to have tho Beacon Construction Company
carry out the contract he made with tho Bay
State Gas Company to erect its works, lay its
Notwithstanding that tho contract of the
Bay Stato Gas Company with the city of Bos
ton called for about 350 miles of pipe, the con
struction contract of Mr. Addicks called for
such length of pipo as Mr. Addicks saw fit to
loy; nnd as a matter of fact, Mr. Addicks saw
fit to lay about fifteen miles of pipe only, and
the whole works.whlch should havo cost about
5,000,000, were neer erected.
Mr. Addicks didn't intend to erect works.
IIo simply manufactured stock to ralso monoy.
Tho terms of tho contract which Mr. Ad
dicks, of the Beacon Construction Company,
mado with Mr. Addicks, of tho Bay State Gas
Company, was that the Bay State Gas Com
pany should pay $450,000 in cash, and a bond,
or a note, or something which cannot be
accurately described by any words in the Eng
lish language, was tho remainder of the con
sideration agreed upon. This promise or
"obligation," as it was called, was payable
ninety-nine yeurs from date, and wa3 to bear
Intel est at a rate which should le equal to
0 per cent! of the net earnings of the
Bay State Gas Company.
Two ears after the completion of what
little work the Buy Stato Gas Company had
done there was still very littlo gas mado by
tho Bay State Gas Company. That was in
1889. But during those two years Mr. Ad
dicks made up his mind that he must get con
trol of the four large gas companies of Bos
ton. So be, with four other men, formed the
Boston Gas Syndicate some time in 1S37, nnd
the syndicate got control of tne Boston Gas
light Company, tho South Boston company,
tho'Roxbury company, and the Dorchester
company. The syndicate bought up tho stock
of these companies nt enormous prices per
share. This accomplished tho Bay State
company of Massachusetts proceeded to enter
into business on a largo scile not tho busi
ness of selling gas to tho inhabitants of Bos
ton in competition with theso other com
panies, but the business of selling to the other
companies of gas at a profit of about 140 per
Atthe time of the Investigation by Mayor
Matthews this Bay State company was mak
ing half of the gas sold by tho combination.
All mat time no contract for tho cash pay
ment and for the bond of 54,500,000 bad been
carried out; but the earnings ot oil theso four
companies went largely to pay the Interest on
that bond, and the reports of tho companies
showed they could pay only about 8 per
cent., while as a matter of fact they were
earning 18rper cent. The peoplo of Boston
were paying for the extra 10 per cent, on a
bond which was practically fictitious.
While all this was going on Mr. Addicks
organized the Bay Stato Gas Company of
Delaware. The formation of this Delaware
company was the crowning effort of Mr. Ad
dicts, which seems to have been his idea in
the beginning. When ho had formed the
Delaware company ho nt once made over the
famous $4,500,000 bond to that corporation,
and then the real function of this bond was
to act as conduit pipe, conveyilng away from
tho Massachusetts corporations the surplus
proms of me gas trust into me treasury of
the Bay State Gas Company of Delaware,
there to bo peddled out. It was tho longest
gaspipe this corporation ever laid. It began
in Massachusetts and it reached all the way
to Delaware. The Interest on the bond had
amounted In 1892 to nearly 5800,000.
But when tho investigations had closed,
the Bay State Gas Company of Boston and
tho gas trust had closed, nil by reason of
laws enacted as an outcome of the investiga
tion, and to-dny Boston has 51 gas. The
whole city of Boston does not havo dollar gas
because it costs much more to make gas for
some sections than others. But there has
been a big reduction, as, for instance, Dor
chester citizens are paying now about 51.00
per 1,000 feet, whereas before the reduction
they wele paying 51.59. Roxbury people pay
Americans are paying high prices for their
gas as compared with what tho people of
Great Britain pay. The following figures
show the rates In some of the principal cities
of Great Britain:
Manchester, 65; Liverpool, Go; Dublin, 83;
Portsmouth, 63: Plymouth. 44; Newcastle, 48;
Sheffield, 44; Gloucester, CO; Leeds, 62; Edin-
The Treatment of Burns.
In these days ot experiment, when, as an
eminent surgeon recently remarked, "the
profession seems mainly Interested in trying
to see how much of tho human frnmo they
can cut away and still have tho victim live,"
it is interesting to record an instance wherein
doctors have been willing to depart slightly
from the scientific and try the efficacy of what
some of their contemporaries contemptuously
call "old woman's remedies."
A young woman, aged 18 years, was burned
by the Igniting of a quantity of gasoline. The
arms, face, neck, shoulders, and the inside ot
tho mouth and throat wero badly burned, the
hands especially being so charred that tho
flesh crumbled into black powder upon being
touched. The treatment consisted of applica
tions of soft paste mado of lard and flour.
This was renewed as fast as the flour became
dried and crumbly by the absorption of the
Upon the first application there was a de
cided sense of relief, which was increased by
the free use of opiates. No other remedy was
used, and the bums, although very deep in
some places, involving not less than half nn
inch of the flesh, healed without 43cilr- In
this cose on extremely serious state
of things ensued in the way of
an obstinate cough and the raising
of a quantity of thin, white, filmy membrane,
which was pronounced the coating of the
throat and the air passages of tho upper part
of the lungs. In her fright the young woman
had evidently drawn the flamo into the
lungs in sufficient quantity to blister
some portion of them. Iler recovery
was rapid, considering the gravity
of tho case, she being confined to her room
but about five weeks. When the bandagts
were removed from the burned surfaces they
were kept thoroughly softened with lard, and
the drawlng-up and disfigurement usually
accompanying such injuries was entirely
absent. This is in striking contrast to the
ordinary lime-watorlmd linseed-oil treatment
which has induced spontaneous combustion,
and the zinc and other washes that
have produced nausea and hemorrhages of
the stomach, with fatal terminations. Per
fectly clean, homo-rendered lard may be ob
tained by almost anyone, and forms the basis
of a course of treatment that will, if properly
managed and persistently applied, save the
lives of eight cases out of ten and prevent all
Pat Brillontinc on de Hinge.
Ban1 Eagges-Dey tell me yer gittin' ter
be a wuss dood dan ever, Tatts.
Tramping Tatters Who's been givin yer
Rural Baggcs All of do boys. Dey say yer
put briUantlne on de fringe o' yer pants.
How I Wrote
Edward Bellamy In Ladles' Home Journal
Up to the age of eighteen I had lived almost
continuously in a thriving Tillage ot New
England, where thero were no very rich and
few very poor, and everybody who was willing
to work was sure of a fair living. At that
time I visited Europo and spent a year there
in travel and study. It was in the grout cities
of England, Europe, and among tho hovels ot
the peasantry that my eyes were fully opened
to the extent and consequences of man's in-'
humanity to man.
I well remember in those days of European
travel how much more deeply that black
background of misery impressed me than the
palaces and cathedrals in relief against It. I
distinctly recall the innumerable debates,
suggested by the piteous sights about us,
which I had with a dear companion of my
journey, as to the possibility ot finding soma
great remedy for poverty, somo plan for
equalizing human conditions. Our discus
sions usually brought up ugalnst the same
old stump: who would do the dirty work?
Wo did not realize, as probably few do who
lightly dismiss tho subject of social reform
with the same query, that its logic Implies
the condonation of nil forms of slavery. Not
until w nil acknowledge the world's "dirty
work" as our common nnd equal responsi
bility snail wo bo in a position intelligently
to consider, or have the disposition seriously
to seek a just and reasonable way ot distrib
uting and adjusting the burden.
So it was that I returned homo, for the first
time aroused to the existeneo and urgency of
the social problem, but without as yet seeing
any way out. Although it had required tho
sights of Europo to startle me to a vivid real
ization of the inferno of poverty beneath our
civilization, my eyes having once been opened
I had now no difficulty in recognizing in
America, and even in my own comparatively
prosperous vlllago, the same conditions in
course of progress! development.
The other day rummaging among old
papers I was much interested by tho discover-
of some writings indicative of my stato of
mind nt that period. If the reader will glance
over tho following extracts from the manu
script of an address which it appears I deliv
ered before the Chicor ee Falls Villngo Lyceum
along in 1871 or 1872 he will probably admit
thnt their youthiul author was quite likely to
attempt something in the lino of "Looking
Backward" if ho only lived long enough.
The subject of this address was "Tho Bar
barism of Society." the barbarism being held
to consist in and result from inequality in the
distribution ot wealth. From numerous
equally radical expressions I excerrt these
Enragraphs: "The great reforms of the world
ave hitherto been political rather than social.
In their progress classes privileged by title
have been swept away, but classes privileged
by wealth remain. A nominal aristocracy is
ceasing to exist, but the actual aristocracy of
wealth tho world over is every day becoming
more and more powerful.
The Idea that men can derive a right from
birth or name to dispose of the destinies of
their fellows is exploded, but the world thinks
not yet of denying thnt gold confers a power
upon its possessor to domineer over their
equals ami enforce from tbem a life's painful
labor at tho price ot a bare subsistence. I
would not have indignation blind my eyes or
confuso my reason in the contemplation of
this injustice, but I ask you what is the
name of an Institution by which
men control tbo labor of other men, and
out of tho abundance created by that
labor, having doled out to the laborers suchn
pittance, ns may barely support llfo and sus
tain strength for added tasks, reserve to them
selves the vast surplus for the support of a
life of ease and splendor? This, gentlemen,
is slavery a slavery whoso prison la tho
world, whose shackles ami fetters aro tho
unyielding frame of society, whose lash i3
hunger, whoso taskmasters are those bodily
necessities for whoso support the rich,
who hold the keys of the world's
granaries must be appealed to. and
the, necks of the needy bowed to their yoke
as the price of tho boon of life.
Consjder a moment tho condition of that clas3
of society by whose unremitting toll the
ascendancy of man over the material universe
is maintained and his existence rendered pos
sible on earth, remembering, also, that this
class comprises the vast majority or the race.
Born, of parents whom brute passion impelled
q the propagation of their kind; bred in
penury nnd the utter lackof all those luxuries
and amenities ot Ufa which go so far to mnko
existence tolerable; their intellectual faculties
neglected and an unnatural nnd forced devel
opment given to their basest instincts; their
childhood, the sweet vacation of life, saddened
and deadened by the pinching of poverty,
and then, long before the Immature frame
could support tho severity of labor, forced
from the playground into tbo factory or field!
Then begins the obscure, uninteresting drama
of a laborer's life; an unending procession of
toilsomo days relieved by brief and rare holi
days and harassed by constant anxiety lest
bo loso all ho claims from tho world, a placo
He feels, in some dumb, unreasoning way,
oppressed by tho frame of society, but it is too
heavy for him to lift. The institutions that
crush him down assume to bis dulled brain
the inevitable and irresistible aspect ot nat
ural laws. And so, with only that dim sense
of injustice which no subtlety of reasoning, no
array of argument can banish from the hu
man soul when it feels itself oppressed, no
bows his head to his fate.
"Let not any ono falsely reply that I am
dreaming of n happiness without toll, of
abundance without labor. Labor is tho nec
essary condition, not only of abundance but
of existence upon earth. I ask only that
none labor beyond measure that others may
bo idle, that there bo ne more masters ami
no more slaves among men. Is this too
much? Does any fearful soul exclaim, im
possible, that this hope has been the dream of
men in all ages, a shadowy and Utopian
reverie ot a divine fruition which the earth
can never bear? That the few must revel
and the many toil: the few waste, the manv
want; the few be masters, the many servo; tho
toilers of tho earth be the poor and tho
Idlers the rich, and that this must go on for
ever? "Ah, no; has the world dreamed In vain?
Havo tho ardent longings of tho lovers of
men been toward an unattainable felicity? Aro
tho aspirations after liberty, equality, and
happiness implanted in the very core of our
hearts for nothing?
"Not so, for nothing that is unjust can be
eternal, and nothing that is just can be impos
sible." Sinco I came across the echo of my youth
and recalled tho half-forgotten exercises of
mind it testifies to I have been wondering,
not why I wroto "Looking Backward," but
whyl did not write it, or try to, twenty years
Like most men, nowever, I was under the
sordid and selfish necessity of solving tho
economical problem in its personal bearings
before I could give much time to tho case of
society in general. I had, Hko others, to
fight my way to a place at the world's work
bench, where I could make a living. For a
dozen or fifteen years I followed journalism,
doing, in a desultory way, as opportunity of
fered, a good deal of magazine and book
writing. In none of the writings
of this period did I touch on the
social question, but not the less all the while
it wa3 In my mind, as a problem not by any
means given up. how poverty might be nbol
Ished and tho economic equality of all citi
zens of the republic be made ns much a mat
ter of course as their political equality. I
had always the purpose, some time when I
had sufficient leisure, to give myself earnestly
to the examination of this great problem, but
meanwhile kept postponing it, giving my
time and thoughts to easier tasks.
Possibly I never should have mustered up
courage tor an undertaking so difficult, and
Indeed so presumptuous, but for events which
gave the problem of life a new and more sol
emn meaning to me. I refer to tho birth of
I confess I cannot understand the mental
operations of good men or women who from
the moment they ore parents do not become
intensely interested In the social question.
That an unmarried man or even a man child
less, though married, should concern him
self little about the future of a race in which
be may argue that he will have no personal
stake is conceivable, though such indiff erenco
is not morally edifying.
Prom the time their children are born It be
comes the great problem with parents how to
provide for and safeguard their future when
they themselves shall no longer bo on earth.
To this end they painfully spare and save and
plot and plan to secure for their offspring all
the advantages that may give them a better
chance than other men's children In the strug
gle for existence.
They do this, knowing sadly well the while
from observation and experience, how vain
all such safeguards may prove, bow impossi
ble it is for even the wisest and wealthiest of
fathers to make sure that the cherished child
'ho leaves behind may not be glad to earn his
bread as a servant to the children ot his
father's servants. Still the parent tolls and
saves, feeling that this is the best and all he
can do for bis offspring, littlo though it be.
But is It? Surely a moment's thought will
show tb&t this is a wholly unscientific way of
going about the work ot providing for the
future of one's children.
This is the problem of all problems to which
the individualistic) method is most inapplica
ble, tho problem before all others of which the
only adequate solution must necessarily be a
social solution. Your fear for your child is
that he may fall into the ditch of poverty or
be waylaid by robbers. So you give him a
lantern and provide him with arms. That
would be all very well it you could not "do
better, but would It not be nn Infinitely wiser
and more efficient method to join bands with
all the other equally anxious parents nnd
fill up the ditch and exterminate tho robbers,
so that safety might be a matter of course for
all? However high, however wise, however
rich you are, tho only way you can safeguard
your child from hunger, cold and wretched
ness, and oil the deprivations, degradations,
and Indignities which poverty Implies, is by n
plan that will equally safeguard ail men's
children. This principle once recognized,
the solution of the social problem becomes n
simple matter. Until it Is, no solution is pos
sible. According to my best recollection it wn3 in
tho Full oj Winter of 1880 that I sat down to
my desk with tbo definite purpose of trying
to reason out a method of economic organi
zation by which the republic might
guarantee tho livelihood and material
welfare of its citizens on a basis
of equality corresponding to and supplement
ing their political equality. There wa3 no
doubt in my mind that the proposed study
should bo in tho form of a story. This was
not merely because that was a treatment
which would command greater popular atten
tion than others. Inadventuring in any new
and difficult field ot speculation I believe that
the student oiten cannot do better
than to nso tho literary form
of fiction. Nothing outside of tho
exact sciences has to be so logical as the
thread of a story' it It is to be acceptable.
Toere Is no such test of a false and absurd
Idea as trying to fit it into a story. You may
mako a sermon or an essay or a philosophical
treatise as illogical as you please and no ono
know the difference, but all the world is a
good critic of a story, for it has to conform to
the laws ot ordinary probability and com
monly observed sequence, ot which we are
The stories that I had written before
"Looking Backward" were largely of one
sort, namely, the working out of problems,
that is to say. nttempts to trace the logical
consequences of certain assumed conditions.
It was natural, therefore, that In this form the
plan of "Looking Backward" should present
Itself to my mind. Given the UnltedStates, a
republic based upon the equality of all men
and conducted by their equal voice, what
would the natural and logical way be by
which to go about the work of guaranteeing
an economic equality to Its citizens corre
sponding with their political equality, but
without the present unjust discrimination on
account of sex? From the moment the prob
lem first clearly presented itself to my mind
in this way, the writing of the booE was the
simplest thing in the world.
"Looking Backward" has been frequently
called a ''fanciful" production. Of course,
the notion of a man's being rusticated after a
century's sleep is fanciful, and so, of course,
are the various other whimsies about life In
the year 2,000 necessarily Inserted to give
color to the picture. The argument of the
book is, however, about as littlo fanciful as
possible. It is, as I have said, an attempt to
work out logically the results of regulating
the national system of production and distri
bution by tho democratic principle of the
equal rights of all, determined by the
equal voice of all. I defend as material no
feature of the plan which cannot be shown to
bo in accord with that method.
' Many excellent persons, not without
fiympnthy with the Idea of a somewhat more
equal distribution of this world's wealth,
have objected to the principle of absolute and
Invariable economic equality underlying the
plan developed in "Looking Backward."
Many have seemed to think that here was an
arbitrary detail that might just as well have
been modified by admitting economio in
equalltyn proportion to unequal values of In
dustrial Service. So it might have been if the
plan had been the fanciful theory they sup
posed it, but regarding it as tbo result of a
rigid application ot the democratic idea to
the economic system, no feature ot the whole
plan is more absolutely a matter of course, u
more logical necessity than just that.
Political equality, which gives all citizens
an equal voice in government, without re
gard to the great differences between men as
to intelligence, public service, personal worth
and wealth, is the recognition that the essen
tial dignity ot human nature is ot an import
ance transcending nil personal attributes and
accidents, and is, therefore, not to be limited
by them. In applying the democratic Idea to
the economic organization, economic equal
ity, without regard to differences of industrial
rlogic which justifies political equality. The
two idea are ono anu stana or lau together.
Nor is economic equality any more an ethi
cal than a necessary physical consequence of
democratic rule extended to tho productive
and distributive system. Political equals will
never legislate economio inequality. Nor
should they do so. Self-preservntion forbids
It, for economio Inequality presently under
mines and nullifies political equality and
every other form of equality as well.
Morcoer, under any system proportioning
wealth.dlstribution to Industrial performance,
how could women be assured an Indefeasible
equality with men and their yoke of economic
dependence upon the other sex, with all Its
related and implied subserviences, be finally
broken? Surely no social solution not se
curely guaranteeing thnt result could claim
to bo adequate.
I have stopped by tbo way to say these few
words about the plan of "Looking Backward"
ds tho result of the rigid application ot the
democratic formula to tho social problem, and
concerning the feature of absolute economio
equality as a necessary effect of that method,
because it is In these points and their implica
tions that nationalism, as suggested by
"Looking Backward," is, perhaps, most
strongly differentiated from some other so
As to the form of the story, my first notion
was, whilo keeping the resuscitated man as a
lluk between the two centuries, not to make
him the narn-tor or to writo chiefly
from his point of view, but rather
from that of tho twentieth century. This
would havo admitted of somo very interesting
effects and about half tho story was at first
written on that Hup. But as I became con
vinced of the practical availability of the
social solution I was studying "it became my
n!m to snenflce all other effects, to the method
which would enable mo to explain Its features
most fully, which was manifestly that of
I presenting everything from the point of view
ui iuq tcpicscuiuiivn vi mo uineieeniu
I hae been very frequently asked if I an
ticipated any considerable effect from tbo
publication of "Looking Backward," and
whether I was not very much surprised at
the sensation it produced. I cannot say that
I was surprised. If it be asked what was the
basis of my expectations, I answer the effect
ot the writing ot the book upon
mself. When I flrit undertook to work
out the results ot a democratic organ
ization of production and distribution based
on tho recognition of an equal duty of indi
vidual service by nil citizens and an equal
share by all in the result, nccording to the
analogies of military service and taxation
and oil other relations between the state and
the citizen, I believed, indeed, it might be
possible on this line to mako some valuable
suggestions upon tho social problem, but
It was only ns I proceeded with the inquiry
that I became fully convinced of the entire
adeauacy ot tho principle as n social solution,
nnd, moreover, that the achievement ot this
solution was to be the next great step in
human evolution. It would, indeed, be a
most Impassive person in whose mind so
mighty a hope could grow without producing
Knowing that "as face nnswereth to face in
water, so the"heart of man to man," I could
not doubt that the hope that moved me must
needs, in like manner, move all who should
come even in part to share it.
As well as I con remember "Looking Back
ward" began in earnest to be written in tho
Fall or Winter of 1886, and was substantially
finished in the following six or eight months,
although rewriting and revising took up the
following Spring and Summer. It went to
the publishers in August or September, 1S87,
and although promptly accepted did not ap
pear until January, 1888. Although it made
a stir among tne critics, up to the close of
1883 the sales had not exceeded, 10,000, after
which they leaped Into the hundred thousands.
THE DEATH PENALTV
Argument Both for and Against tbo Aboli
tion of Executions.
I present these arguments, in the produc
tion nnd presentation of which but little orig
inality is claimed, says the Elmlra Monthly
Summary, ns the strongest that have come
before my notice either for or against the
abolition of the death penalty. My intention
is not to advocate either side of the question,
but to present such arguments as will enable
any one to formulate his own judgment.
I. Arguments in favor of retaining the
1. The death penalty has always and every
where prevailed down to recent times. Its
antiquity and universality attest the estab
lished and undoubted conviction of mankind
for ages, that it was right and expedient.
This throws the burden ot proof on those arbo
contend that It is wrong and harmful.
2. The Scriptures declare that "whose shefl
deth man's blood, by man shall his blood be
shed." Somo say that this Is a command by
divine authority, others that It Is a prediction
of the treatment mankind bos actually given
to tbo slayers of their kind. It is contended
under this head that tho abolition of the
death penalty would violate a divine com
mand or seek to defeat a divine prediction.
3. It Is the right and duty ot every one to
defend himself against violence "Not to
resist violence is in some respect to bo its
accomplice." Society equally has the right
and the duty of dofendlmg itself by the death
penalty. A man may put to death another
when this is necessary to prevent tho other
from talking bis life. A murderer is every
where, whether In prison or at large, a men
ace to life. Society may and should protect
itself by tho death of this dangerous man.
It should do this without revenge and solely
for its own protection.
4. Society, by the death penalty, secures it
self against further harm from the murderer
and deters those who otherwise might Imi
tate his violence. It could kill him if it
caught him In the murderous act; what right
to lifo does ho gain by not being caught until
his deed has been done?
5. Most men tear death more than anything
else. The dread of death is) often stronger
than the desire of life. The greatest deterrent
should be used ngalnst the greatest crime,
and that Is the death penalty.
6. It there Is no death penalty to fulfill tho
public conviction that a murderer deserves to
die, the law will make life seem less eacred
and crime less heinous "in the statute books
than it is in the natural conscience." This
will either weaken tho public regard for
human life or furnish occasions and justifica
tion for summary vengeance on murderers by
7. The death penalty Is by Its nature a
finality. Society is fully protected against
each victim. Ho will no more endanger
others. The deterrent Influence, is not weak
ened by any hopes of clemency and escape.
8. The vast majority ot all the kings, states
men, governors, lawmakers, judges, generals,
clergymen, and even men of practical affairs
in all civilized countries to-day still firmly
believe in the retention of the death penalty
as just to the murderer, deterrent upon others,
and protection to society.
II. Arguments in favor ot abolishing the
1. Tho antiquity of the death penalty
should excite suspicion against it as a sur
viving relic of barbarous ages. Slavery and
polygamy the twin relics of barbarism,
equally old and general as social institu
tions were recently just as well established.
The death penalty had its origin In the rude
life of primitive times; tbis raises a presump
tion against its propriety for a time of higher
civilization and gentler manners.
2. The death penalty, first, Is not com
manded by divine authority as a duty. The
passage usually quoted as such a command
simply predicts that murder will beget mur
der. Secondly, the precepts ot Christianity
oppose it. The New Testament says tho law
of retaliation was allowed on account of the
hardness of men's hearts, and this was to
prevent greater revenge, but now even the
wrongdoer Is to receive only that which will
do him good. This may be suffering, but
3. Repugnance to the Infliction of this pen
alty makes It less certain and less deterrent
than other penalties. Extreme severity pre
vents convictions, but does not prevent crime.
During tho last ten years only two murderers
out ot every hundred have suffered tho death
penalty, and homicidal crimes In that time
nave increased twenty times as rapidly as the
4. The infiuenco of tho death nenaltvon
public morals Is injurious. Whenever in
flicted it is the violent taking of a human
life. This is a conspicuous object lesson by
the public in what when done by the individ
ual is the greatest of crimes. One English
clergyman visited 167 convicts under sen
tence ot death, and of these 164 had wit
5. All human judgments are liable to error.
Hundreds of men have been put to death for
crimes they never committed: the certain
proofs ot their innocence came too late! For
this reason no Irremediable penalty should
ev er be Inflicted.
Middlemen Replaced by Idle Men.
Mason A. Green in April Donabne's.
Loss of confidence in the soundness of busi
ness makes credits high. The banks become
nervous. For example, three years ago
ready-made clothing dealers with fair ratings
could secure accommodation nt the Boston
bank6. To-day. unless the security is "gilt
edge," the retailer gives his note to the whole
saler, the wholesaler indorses it nnd passes it
on to the manufacturer, and the manufacturer
indorses it and gets it discounted at the
Tbis chaining ot trade to the banks is again
a premium on fear; and we find that In the
stress ot business the manufacturers have this
Winter been opening retail departments, just
as the coal-carrying railroads are establish
ing coal pockets In various parts of the coun
try, and forcing the coal dealers to shut up
their places or accept salaries or commis
sions. It requires no powers of prophecy to
foretell the extermination of the middlemen
in the ready-made clothing trade and a new
crop of idle men
Abont the .Meanest Man.
There is n man in Newaygo, Mich, who
sneered at a poor, paralyzed, and blind Union
veteran, who had to be carried to the polls in
a wagon on Spring election day.
A Earned (Wis.) man bought his wife an
alarm clock for a birthday present, so that
thero wouldn't be any mistake about her get
ting up enrly in the morning to build tho fire
and get his breakfast.
The fellow who set fire to the hat of a
drunken man who was reposing peacefully In
a gin-mill chair at Clluton, Wis., was mean
enough to kick when the drunkard compelled
him to pay 550 in cash in settlement.
A Goshen man bad two little girls, to each
of whom he gave two cents for going to bed
without their suppers. After they had fallen
nsleep ha entered their sleeping-room and
stole the four cents from under their pillows
nnd whipped them in the morning for losing
THE LITTLE YV1UEGRASS BELLE.
She. hTwinsome and fair as the blackberry spray.
Or the crabapple blossoms that spicily spray
And lure the wild bees in the delL
Tho wild honeysuckles proclaim her their sister
I know by her breath that the Jasmines have
The gay littlo wlreerass belle.
With quaint little arts and innocent wiles
Sho witches a bosonwhenever sho smUes
As pure as a pearl in its ghelL
But far from the world and Its fever and passion
Alas for her gowns! They hro guiltless ot
The dear littlo wiresrass beUe.
Yet when she comes up to the cross-road church
Sho looks so entrancing that were you to search
The globe from Peru to Fall Mall
You'd And graceful women, but none who could
Iler tiny feet rival tho feet ot Calypso
The sweet little wlregrass nolle.
The hearts that adore her not even she knows;
They Butter before her wherevor she goes.
In flames that no mortal can quelL
She la kind as she's fair, but her kindness Is
To the flame that she kindles her smiles are as
The shy little wlregrass belle.
If lonely you long for a wee bonny bride,
A blossom to bloom at your own fireside;
A blessing wherever you dwell;
Though a thousand to one the coquette will re
You'll be a proud man it she chances to choose
The gay little wlregrass belle!
Samcil jlnoxBa Pkx.
Or SOFT HAT all Summer, because
you'eannot wear a Straw In damp
weather, on excursions and such oc
casions. Get the Hat now and enjoy the full
benefit of Its us.
You can pay much or little hers.
$2.50 to $4.00
The best quality you'll buy Jr jour
Loeb & Hirst,
Men's Hatters and Outfitters,
912 F Street N. W.
The Julius LansbUrgh
Furniture and Carpet
THE RIRK. THE RINK.
N.Y. Avc.Bet. 13th and 14th Sts
Special offerings for one week, commencing
MONDAY MORNING, APKIL 8,
SATURDAY, APRIL It
CASH OR CREDIT.
6 Parlor Saltea.5 pieces, conslitlngot Sofa, An
Cbalr.2 bide Chairs, and Corner Chair, upho.
stered in silk brocatelle or Wilton rugs. Pile
for one week,
S22.50, Cash or Credit.
I Solid Oak Chamber Snite. with Six30-incr
French beveled mirror in Dresser and large
Wasbstand. This week,
$16.75, Cash or Credit.
1 lot Solid Oak Sideboards, with French plate
beveled mirror, 1 larpeand 2 small drawers, dou
ble closet. Worth Sit For one week,
S9.25, Cash or Credit.
1 lot 6-foot Oak Dining Table. Regular prlc?
18. This sale,
53.90, Cash or Credit.
1 lot Solid Oak Dining Chairs, highly polished.
Worth tl.. For one week at
78c, Cash or Credit.
6 Solid Quartered Oak Ilat Racks, with French
plate beveled mirror. Regular price, 5. This
S16.7S, Cash or Credit.
SXIYRXA HUGS. ----- SMYRNA BUGS
Smyrna Rugs, 4 ft by 7 ft Regular price,
flaw. This sale, S.90.
Smyrna Rugs, 3 ft. by 6 ft. Regular price
J&SO. This sale, ?3.8S.
Smyrna Rugs. 5 fL by 2 ft 6 in. Regular price
i. This sale.fiK.
Smyrna Mats. Regular price, Sl.Ml This sale,
Cash or Credit.
1 lot Chenille Portieres, S4 yard3 lone, Reg
ular price, 23 per pair. This sale, HSj,
Cash or Credit.
100 pair Lace Curtains, SH yards long. Wortt
$2 pair. This sale, JL10.
Cash or Credit.
THE JULIUS LANSBURGH
Furniture and Carpet Co.
THE RINK. THE IjNK.
There Arc Already 0 er 5,000,000 of Them
In the World.
Tive millions of postage stamp collectors,
among whom are their Royal Highnesses tho
Duke of York and the Dukeot Soxe-Coburg,
have caused philately to advance in popular
favor by leaps and bounds, says the London
Telegraph. So great Is the competition for
rare issues that 310 have been paid for a
single specimen. Postage stamp collecting is
no longer a mere pastime or bobby; it is a
science, as philatelists say, and, at all events,
they make of it a very serious pursuit.
There are still people who hold to tbo belief
that the passion for preserving postage stamps
Is nothing but a mania, excn'able anting boy
hood, for it is supposed to be useful in teach
ing lads geography and the extent of the
British empire; out when men devote their
time to collecting foreign, colonial, or English
issues, they aro frequently looked upon as
harmlest lunatics, to whom the old adage may
be applied. "Fools and their money are soon
parted." Philatelists, however, are possessed
of considerable common sense, and much
method underlies their madness. In truth,
stamp collecting has developed on Important
feature, for, as a correspondent points out, it
has become the recognized medium of invest
ment on the part of thousands of professional
and business men, who are content to forego
Immediate dividends upon their capital in
order to realize compound Interest at a high
Members 'of tho stock exchange from a
love of speculation barristers, doctors, army
officers very largely, and the clergy to some
extent, are to be found gravely and systematic
ally collecting stamps to-day. Many of them
possess collections numbering tens of thou
sands of specimens, and some of these ore ot
great value, and are duly Insured at Lloyd's.
It is probable, however, that no British
philatelist can vie with Yon Ferrarv, of Paris,
whose treasures are said to be worth .100.000.
Important collections havo been made In Aus
tralia, and It is stated that during the late
bank crisis more than one house of business
saved its mercantile credit br raising money
on rare postage stamps which, were held by
How very extensive the Interests of stamp
collectors have become In London Is demon
strated by the fact that there are nearly forty
firms engaged as dealers in the pity and wes't
end. Last season two auctioneers in. the
metropolis turned over nearly 15,000, and a
third firm is supposed to have dealt with
stamps to the value of about 10,000 more at
public sole. These figures are significant
when it is recollected that stamp auction sales
are comparatively of recent introduction, and
that they are entirely supplementary to tho
methods of distribution and exchange willed
have been in operation since stamp collecting
first became a fashionable hobby in 1SG1.
In Ohio a divorce was recently granted
because "the defendant pulled the plaintiff
out ot bed by the whiskers."
A Virginia wife was set free because "tho
defendant does not come borne until 1 p. m.,
and then keeps this plaintiff awake talking."
A Tennesseo court liberated a wife becauss
"the defendant does not wash himself, thereby
causing the plaintiff great mental anguish!"
A Kew Jersey wife got a divorce because
"the defendant, the husband, sleeps with a
razor under his pillow to frighten this
A Connecticut man got a divorce becnuso
"the defendant would not get up In the morn
lng, nor call tho plaintiff, nor do anything
she was told."
In Illinois a decree was obtained by a long
suffering husband because "during the post
year the defendant struck this plaintiff re
peatedly with pokers, flatlrons, and other
A Michigan wife was released because the
husband did not provide the necessaries of
life, saying "he would not work his toenails
off for any woman."
A Kew York wife tu granted a divorce be
cause her husband threw the baby at her
when she hit him with the coal bucket for
spitting on tho stove.
A Missouri divorce was once granted be
cause "the defendant goes gadding about,
leaving this plaintiff supperiess; or it be gets
any he has to cook it himself."
In Pennsylvania a hen-pecked husbaad
was relieved from the yoke of matrimony bo
cause "the defendant struck this plsJaUff a
violent blow with her bustle "