OCR Interpretation


The Washington times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1901-1902, June 30, 1901, Second Part., Image 15

Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87062245/1901-06-30/ed-1/seq-15/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for 3

t
YOUNG ENGINEERS IK CAIP
Harvards Summer School in the
New Hampshire Hills
The InrchnHen n Tract of
Fonr Hundred Acre With Henutl
fill nnil Historic SiirroumlliiK
The for tlic Coming Course
BOSTON June 29 190L On the cistern
chore of Squam Lake still the
Squam of the ioet Whit
tles amidst a wilderness of New Hamp
sire mountains among which Choeurua
majestically visible toward the northeast
is perhaps the best known Harvard Uni
versity has this year established a sum
mer school of engineering which unlike
most summer schools is regularly con
nected with the courses of instruction
that occupy the winter terms The little
colony which comprises ninety four stu
dents from the Lawrence Scientific School
with their instructors and camp follow
ers marks the first real settlement of this
particular spot since thr defeat of the
Pemlgewasset Indians hi Bakers Rangers
In 1712 and the removal of the tribe itself
to Canada The permanence of the new
settlement tho Harvard Engineering
Camp as it will henceforth be called is
assured by the fact that the university
has purchased 400 acres of land adjoining
the lake and Is erecting substantial camp
buildings large enough to accommodate
100 students
The tract itself heavily wooded in part
and Including one small hill and a portion
of another extends back from the waters
edge toward Red Hill about 2000 feet
high and well known both for the beauty
of its view and the Important scientific
Information that modern geology has
gathered from it gray sienlte ledges It
Is surrounded by thousands of acres of
unoccupied country through which one
can go for twenty miles without seeing
either a dwelling or a cultivated field The
character of the country is thus particu
larly fitted for its new uses Mount Israel
crowned with a beacon of the United
States Coast Survey is a prominent land
mark en the north on the west Mount
Morgan and Mount Prescott are conspicu
ous and High Haith jutting out into the
lake and cutting in two the southern view
combines with the Squam mountains and
the Other lesser peaks to increase still
further the value of what might be called
a natural laboratory for the study at first
hand of the varied problems of the sur
veyor the railroad engineer and the geo
detlst
The movement which has thus turned
the spot where the Canadian Indians fre
quently camped on their way to attack
the early settlers of New England into a
permanent modern camp for the advance
rrTit of one of the most clvillzilng pro
fessions has been almost six years in de
veloping and is due to the policy of the
engineering department at Harvard be
ing the outcome of the belief that all in
struction In the more practical courses
should be given where the actual applica
tion of abstract principles can be made
Immediately and where the student may
come In direct personal contact with the
natural obstacles which theoretically he
Is learning to overcome A beginning was
made six summers ago at Marthas Vine
yard where a few students went for a
Ehort course in practical surveying Grad
ually more summer work was attempted
larger parties sent out and this year the
metamorphosis Is complete In fact all
the future Instruction of the University in
field engineering Is to be given during the
umnicr months of June July and Au
gust In this natural workshop in the New
Hampshire hills
The government of the cams Is in the
hands of Mr Daniel L Turner instructor
In surveying who has already had the
management of the smaller parties which
began the movement While he may be
called the principal of the summer school
of engineering or to be more exact the
diehlef engineer In charge of the survey he
Is in fact the governor of a lively wide
awaW and vigorous colony though less
difficult to manage than one might ot first
cuppose since Its members are at work
eight hours a day and the course is not
one that appeals to idlers As hlslleuten
ants Mr Turner has four recent gradu
ates of the engineering course assistant
engineers in charge of different corps to
use the phraseology of a practical sur
vey These men like Mr Turner himself
have had previous experience in the act
ualities of a camping expedition and have
under them a steward and a corps of
helpers to prepare the camp mess and
look after the outfit no small matter
when one considers the number of knives
forks spoons kettles blankets and other
Impedimenta needed by ninety odd men
who are roughing it in the woods
As a rule the members of this unique
surveying party with the exception of
the chief and assistant engineers have
had no previous Instructions In survey
ing going into camp only with the mathe
matical knowledge necessary to fit them
for the oourse Once in camp however
they liv with the regularity of soldiers
on camp lgn or to use n more fitting fig
ure of a genuine survey preparing the
way for a great railroad or Government
enterprise The arangement of their
work is nn excellent example of the sys
tem under which such enterprises are
regularly conducted The ninety four stu
dents are divided into parties of four or
five each with one member in charge as
transitmun or lcvelman and with the
others acting as linesmen rodmen and
chnlnmen as the case may be This is
the unit of the system and as In an actual
-working survey each assistant engineer
has under his direction a corps consisting
of three or four of these smaller parties
and communicates the instructions of the
chief engineer Mr Turner to their sev
eral heads or captains In the smaller
parties there is a constant rotation of offi
cers so that euch man gets personal ex
perience in all the branches of the work
keeping his own field note book working
up his own notes and doing his own plot
ting in fguring the results
The working day begins at 730 break
fast being af 630 and continues until 4 in
the afternoon Half an hour is allowed
for luncheon and tho individual student
who has fallen behind his comrades in
the days work makes up the loss during
the recreation hours Recreation itself is
not a difficult problem for the region
labout Squam Lake has all the outdoor at
tractions that make camping expeditions
so popular a method of spending the sum
mer months rind -with so large a body of
college undergraduates camped together
there is no lack of material for any form
of outdoor sports
The beginning of tho summers work is
of course elementary- Whep the camp Is
opened the students start together at the
very beginning of their profession mas
tering first the details of pacing and
chaining the simplest problems in short
in establishing tho initial data for engin
eering work and so on by degrees to the
uso of the different field instruments
such as the compass transit level sex
tant and theodolite In the second month
foundation work in geodesy or roughly
speaking the measurement of the earths
surface whether from one corner of a field
to another or from one mountain peak to
a second will be undertaken including
base line measurements with the steel
tape angle observations astronomical ob
servations in determining latitude and
longitude with the computation and map
ping of triangulatlons The higher prob
lem of measuring the earths surface
however Is not undertaken the geodetic
work being confined to the needs of the
practicr engineer
The last month of the course promises
to be in many ways the most picturesque
of any It will devoted to the study of
railroad field engineering and will include
the laying out of a prospective railroad
system connecting various points in the
great outdoor -workshop and presenting a
series of real and difficult problems Here
the students will make practical prelimi
narysurveys for railroads between such
points as the instructors designate work
ing up their field notes and making com
plete estimates of the amount ot filling
and cutting necessary to establish the
straight and level bed of the proposed
Tailroad how many bridges and culverts
would be necessary to overcome the natu
ral obstacles in its course and the other
technical data upon which a contractor
could in turn base his own estimate for
the actual building of the road
Although the camp itself will be main
tained as such the university has under
taken the construction of several two
story buildings with work roomB dining
rooms a kitchen and sleeping rooms The
largest of these buildings will be seventy
feet in length and will contain a living
room with a greijt fireplace for comfort on
rainy evenings This season as the build
ings are not all completed the students
will have the novel experience of unadul
terated tent life living except that they
will sleep without fear of possible Indian
attacks much -the fane rough and ready
yet disciplined as was led
by the great survey that some forty
years ago first carried railroading and
all that followed It across the ranges of
the Rockies
FRESH WATER PEARLS
Valuable Genm Found In tlic Strenms
Of TeilllCMMCC
H E Staley -with a number f hands
left here this morning for east Tennessee
on a pearling expedition They expect to
be gone until fall The pearl Industry at
this place has grown to be the greatest
source of revenue thousands of dollars
worth being handled every year W B
Foster and J H WIngham are now in
New York with about J1O0O0 worth of
pearls which they will place on the mar
ket There are several other dealers here
who are doing a thriving business Smlth
vllle has gained the reputation of being
one of the highest pearl markets in tho
United States pearls being sent here
from all quarters One pearl sold here a
few weeks ago for 950 Smlthville
Tenn corespondence of the Nashville
American
The Two Tramps
They were crossing the bay when the
accident occurred and the young skipper
dug his heels very angrily into the deck
planks of the bridge and listened to the
adorned tale of the engineer with a super
abundance of patience The surplus ex
pression of Mr Jamieson was at limes
particularly appalling and covered more
than half of the story The pith of it was
this The crank shaft of the tramp Tudor
had long since seen and ended its better
days and having lately been severely
worked by the hard driven engnes had
from bheer and utter weariness of an
overtaxed old age fallen Into sections on
the flooring of the engine room
When the expansive account was finish
ed Captain Bennet put a question to the
enrlneer
Can you fix her up and how long will
he Job take
The engineer thoughtfully applied a wad
of greate black waste to his perspiring
forehead to awaken his Intellect leaving
a beautiful coal colorod mark where he
had rubbed and then answered
Impossible to say how long the Job
would take to fix
Then well need to look out for a tow
asked the captain and raised his eyes en
quiringly around the horizon In search of
any steamer that it seemed probable they
would have to rail upon for assistance
Thats what youd better do answered
the engineer surlily and he shaded his
eyes and gazed into the far off afternoon
sunlight seeing the word sack written
large over his Job in the Tudor Ive
done the best I can he added after a
pause Ive driven her a clean ten knots
right through from Jaffa and confonud
It Id have done it all the way to Liver
pool but for that lazy lump of a second
WeJI its not earthly use crying over
spilled milk tald the philosophical tramp
skipper
Spilled machlneryi you mean growled
the irate Jamieson
He seated himself on the casing of a
steam winch pipe to consider the situa
tion and stared gloomily Into the depths
of purple that ran In swollen periods
across the bay while Bennet paced the
tramps deck forward of the chartroom
fuming at the fate that had brought his
ship to a standstill and waiting for a defi
nite decision from the engineer
Look here sir said that worthy me
chanic I might get her to go under one
engine It has been known to be done
Only once she started shed have to keep
on going and you couldnt go astern
xD
Stop her and wed be long enough in
starting her afresh
And If you cant manage the one en
gine business enquired Bennet
Wed have to fit another shaft We
have a spare one In the No 3 hold
Goaheid then Mr Jamieson thats
the tune Try her at that
Then the engineer strode away and
Bennet mounted to the upper bridge and
while below the levers and machinery
worked to the Jerk of hissing steam and
much personal enunciation floated up to
the captains ears he watched anxiously
for any solitary puff of smoke or sign of
a steamer In front of the foremast head
he liad hoisted two cork fenders as inti
mation to vessels that his ship was not
under though Indeed no vessels
came their way For two hours the fend
ers had swung lazily to the heave or the
Tudor when Jamieson came onthe bridge
and delivered his verdict In a rusty voice
and Bennet listened with the feeling
of despair that comes to a man who sees
his only means of livelihood flylnt from
him
Its no use said the engineer We
cant get the cylinder to work -Well
have to mend the Job Id like nil hands
If I can have them The Job may take
three days or it may be a week
Hang it muttered Bennet sticking
his hands deep In his pockets A week
And f e oranges will he rotten before we
get home Just tho luck of a first voyage
skipper
II
During the dark hours the Tudor with
two red lights swinging from her mast
head lamp halyards tumbled about tho
ugly sens of Biscay Bay in grim solemnity
and it leliness
Two gaunt and very ragged looklLg try
sails and staysails ballooned from her
spencer and forestaya Such sails would
hardly have been of uso to an
mall boat much less to the Tudor built
as she was on the splendid lines of the
average dMdend paying tramp indeed
she provoklngly turned her flat bows to
all points of the compass and wallowed
and poked in the shimmering crested
swells the whole night through
Her enraged skipper watched her move
ments as he paced athwart the bridge Ills
anxiety grew as time dragged on and not
without cause The barometer was falling
and the clouds heaping up In the north
west
About midnight when tho breeze gath
ered heart two sailing ships came out of
PROFIT IN FISH CULTURE
Threatened Scarcity of Sea Food
Developing New Industries
The FiutiotiK Tcrrnpln of Mnrylnnd
mul Alrgrlnln Xot Well Protected
liy the Game Invi StepH Tit ken to
1reient Alolntlonn of the StntutCH
Chester IC Green Superintendent of the
fish lakes in the Monument lot said re
cently that despite the efforts Of the Fish
Commission the supply of fish in the
streams and lakes throughout the coun
try is growing less and less every year
The scarcity of sea food is beginning to
inspire and develop new Industries Soon
er or later the lakes and the streams and
the sea will be cultivated like the land
and we will be buying and selling broad
acres of water farms as we now do land
farms
The census shows that the fisheries of
the Ignited States already produce food to
tho value of 15000000 which can be in
creased up into the billions In a few years
Already the oyster industry has reached
colossal proportions and the raising of
terrapin is an established industry al
though an expiring one through tho fail
ure of the Maryland State Government to
protect it Maryland Is the home of the
terrapin Formerly on tho Eastern Shore
of the State terrapin were so plentiful
that a good sized turtle could be bought
for25 cents now it costs 3 Co get as good
a one They were so plentiful up to the
time of the civil war that they wero the
principal food of the slaves in the black
counties along -Chesapeake Bay Now
Jhe terrapin is so scarce that the Legis
lature of Maryland has recently passed a
law for their protection The law pro
hibits people from catching the terrapin
during the breeding season which begins
April 1 and extends to the 1st of Novem
ber
But already Is there an organized eva
sion of tho law which imposes a penalty
of J10 for ever turtle caught or offered
for sale in tho State during the breeding
season Liko most game laws they are
not operative to tho extent of their Inten
tion owing to thi lack of uniformity in
the game laws of other and especially
neighboring States As In the case of
Maryland it is demonstrated that the law
will not accomplish its purpose unless the
Virginia Legislature makes a similar en
actment for tho Maryland fishermen
when they get a boatload of terrapin
land on the Virginia side of the river and
ship from that Stato instead of from their
own
The little town of Crisfleld on the
Eastern Shore of Maryland is the centre
of the terrapin trade and Jrmes C
Tawes Maryland State Fish Commission
er has moved down there to remain dur
ing the breeding season to sea that the
new law is enforced Terrapin begin to
deposit their eggs about the middle of
May Tho female seeks a sandy spot
and scratching a hole In the sand lays
from twelve to twenty eggs In it These
she covers over carefully with sand and
goes her way leaving the heat from the
sand to hatch out her brood The eggs
hatch in about thirty days The young
turtles as soon as they emerge from tho
shell begin to scramble to the surface
When they are first hatched they look
not unlike the little oyster crab and are
about the same size They are not guard
ed by their parents and must shift for
themselves without aid or a commissary
department to provide sustenance for
them
The young terrapin has to forage in
dependently for his food and lives on in
sects the flesh of fish crabs and what
ever morsels he can pick up Their
growth Is rapid When cold weather
comes the little fellows burrow down In
the mud and hibernate there all winter
until April comes around when they
crawl out three or four inches long It
is one of tho mysteries of nature that
while In this dormant or hibernating
state the terrapin eats nothing and yet
grows to a number of times his size at
the time he entered his winter quarters
An interesting experiment was tried at
the Agazlz Museum at Harvard which il
lustrates the ability of turtles to grow
and takp on weight -without eating An
ordinary turtle was captured and evis
cerated the entire digestive tract in
cluding stomach and intestines -was re
moved and the turtle placed In a small
pool near the museum building The tur
tle was weighed after the operation and
watched carefully during the summer
months In the fall it was taken out of
the pool and again weighed when it was
found that not only had there been an
increase in dimensions but In weight
also The terrapin will grow to be six
inches long during the second year and
when In the third year it reaches seven
Inches or more it is ready for market
Terrapin culture is carried on in several
sections of Maryland and is becoming a
profitable business owing to the hitch
the north and crept swiftly with a red
eye gleaming from each hull until they
worked -abaft tho TuJors beam then van
ished like weird spectres But no steamer
came and the night trailed through to
dawn and daylight
Not until the Tudor had lain nt her own
sweet will full twenty four hours did any
thing show up to lessen Captain Rennets
anxiety It came In the shape of a tub
bowe fiat bottomed stump masted roll
ing big tramp that wallowed up from the
fiouthward through the long seas dipping
her ugly nose as she came and exhibiting
a round rusty side to the glinting red of
the sinking sun
The stranger no doubt seeing the
j nals Hying from tho Tudors masthead
and span and Interpreting them as tho
promise of something that lay rich to his
1 hand sent belches of smoke from his lean
i and five colored funnel and bore down
to the helpless snip with all his might
He came shooting to within a mile of the
Tudor then slowed his engines and rolled
slowly to within a couple of ships lengths
of her
Whats tho matter capn Engines
broken down
There was a grim smile of confident
satisfaction on the hairy faco of tho in
terlocutor He gave tho man at the
wheel an order and the tramp seethed a
few yards closer then he revealed him
self a big stout pompous Individual and
leaned over the bridge railing while he
rubbed a pair of broad tarry palms to
gether
Whats up he grinned Youve got
two balls up forard
Broken down answered tho Tudors
master
Urn grunted the other tranps skip
per as he cast a comical look fore and aft
the ship Where from ctpln
Jaffa with a cargo of oranges my
owners picked up for Liverpool
Sposo youre in a big urry to get em
ome eh Oranges soon goes bad
Im wanting a tow said Bennet Tho
engineer tells mo he may be a couple of
days mending up below
Rotten queried the newcomer Urn
The Miltiades my own barge here aint
up to much my own bit o property Pret
ty good looking though and ablo to drag
that ramshackle affair of yours What do
you offer for a tow
Two hundred and fifty pounds to Liv
erpool answered Bennet modestly
In answer to tho Tudors demand the
Miltiades skipper raised a big hand in
deprecation
Phew he said and whos to pay for
the coal whats used in steaming - tho
grubbing of two days and pay for tho
hands Id llko to know and wear and
tear of my steamer Besides he added
with a grin and chuckle do unto others
as others ud do unto you If they got half
a chance
Isnt 250 sufficient cried Bennet
with some indignation
prices which the turtle brings which is
from J2 to 5 apiece Terrapin hide in the
sand c mud when pursued but always
leave a breathing hole whjch the experi
enced eye of the terapln hunter recog
nizes on sight and a dig of the fork soon
unearths him It requires little capital to
raise terrapin but the locatlpn ofahe farm
Is very important because the sun and
soil must be ixactly flttedto breed prop
erly
The United States Fish Commission is
advocating the raising of fish on farms
when water can be obtained cither In
natural or artificial ponds George M
Bowers the Fish Commissioner believes
that if every farmer who could do so
would raise his own fish either for his
own consumption or for the market a
permanent and profitable Industry would
soon be established This is the method
employed by tho Japanese who have de
veloped this Industry to a profitable ex
tent The farmer Mr Bowers thinks
could raiso fish for market us profitably
as chickens pork and grain It does not
require a large area of ground surface
although the fish require a certain number
of cubic feet of water Mr Bowers be
lieves that on farms in the Interior fish
ponds can be created wherever there is
access to a running stream or springs
The fresh water fish pond involvesonly a
little digging the erection of wire screens
to prevent the fish from escaping and a
supply of vegetable and animal life to
furnish tho fish with food plant life be
ing more desirable for young fish espe
cially
After the pond has been stocked with
fish which the United States Fish Com
mission will gladly furnish It will require
no more attention to look after the wel
fare of the fish than is given to straw
berries or vegetable beds Where a pond
can be fed from a running stream it Is to
be preferred Joslah Mossey of Chester
town Md has a fish farm of two acres
which contains black basss perch and
other fish The water was supplied from
a small stream by draining it The stream
is formed from the overflow of a large
spring near the house He was thus se
cured a small lake of pure spring water
shaded partially by a grove of trees The
fish are fed night and morninr on scraps
from the kitchen and table The pond
was stocked by the Fish Commission and
after two years it has yielded about 303
pounds of good marketable fish annually
TAUGHT MRS MXXNLEY
Mrs S iiaii Morgan Gave Primary
IexMOiiH to the l reMltlentH Wife
In a Ittlo house on a back street and
almost out In the country lives Mrs
Susan S Morgan a dear little old lady
And years ago when Mrs Morgan was
known as tho pretty Miss Splker she
taught school Not a little country school
but she was at the head of the whole pri
mary department as the schools were
then divided Some 300 little children
were under her care and of these there
was ono very pretty little girl with a
round faco rosy chceks and merry danc
ing eyes This little girl was Ida Saxton
now tho wlfo of President ilcKlnley
It was In 1853 that Mrs -Morgan who
now lives lnDenver taught Mrs William
McKlnley her A B and how to add
those first sums of which tho child is so
proud
No said Mrs Morgan as she thought
reflectively of those maiden days there
was nothing unusual about Ida as a little
child She was a very pretty little girl
and a very good little girl She always
worked earnestly but she was only five
years old She had a very- lovable- and
gentle disposition and always seemed to
be the favorite in her grqup of playmates
Yes how well I remember that bright lit
tle face And again Mrsj Morgan went
back in thought to that first public school
In Canton
Idas father you know she contin
ued was president of the first public
school board there He wa3 a very public-spirited
man and very progressive too
for those days He insisted that his
daughter should go to a public school
which to people in those days was a
very terrible thing Ida Saxton went
through and I cant see that It has done
her any harm
Mrs Morgan then Miss Splker was tho
first teacher employed In what were then
called union schools Great opposition
was shown In Canton In the introduction
of these schools but after Mr Saxton
sent his little daughter there the feeling
against them lessened He was one of the
wealthy citizens of Canton and much
looked up to
I knew tho family very well said
Mrs Morgan and was often Invited to
their house to parties or to supper or
something of that sort I have an Invi
tation from them now that I have always
kept
And from a box of treasures and keep
sakes she brought out a faded bit of pa
per that had invited Susan Splker to
drink tea with Mr and Mrs Saxton
Mrs Morgan Is nearly seventy seven
years old now and remembers as though
it were yesterday the time when she
taught Ida Saxton to make her first let
ters For the last six years Mrs Morgan
has lived in Denver with her husband J
W Morgan They have three grown
sons Denver Post
Dont leave scarce no margin for
profit answered the other man coolly
Ill tell iu what I will do For 900
Ill take ail risks of weather and so on
Your cargo must be worth all of 10000
As for the shli well sho aint what Id
call a beauty so we wont say much
about her Anyhow sho fetoh a coupe
of thousand sold as old 3crap iron Ainit
my ofTer fair
Its an almighty pickle muttered Ben
net for the Miltiades skipper had struck
home The Tudors cargo of sixty thou
sand cases of oranges was worth 10000
to the owner But this was the point If
Bennet refused a tow and landed a bad
cargo through delay caused by his brok
en shaft he would get the blame and a
permanent holiday on the other hand
accepting assistance and arriving home
with a clean cargo he might be able to
dispense with the holiday and keep his
Job Still the coup wae very very
doubtful The sword of Damocles could
not be held by a finer hair
Rennet signaled to Jamieson who stood
boiSath the bridge coolly grinning and
when he reached tho top of the ladder
the skipper ardently exhorted him to
promise steam in twelve hojirs or even
twenty But the engineer -would not make
any promises He did not see why he
should kill himself with work to save an
other mans neck and said aloud some
thing about more Jobs than church stee
ples At this Bennet spouted up an in
digestible adjective and treated tho en
gineer to many vivid and ljghtning llko
prayers concerning rotten engines and
unlucky tramp steamboat skippers
Jamieson did not resent the language
On the contrary it gave him a twinge of
satisfaction and he dropped a remark
about being in the same box which
insinuation brought vividly to Benncts
mind visions of tramping iloiley Street
and Quayside in Geordle LanJ and Wa
ter Street In Liverpool looking f v a ship
armed with thlek boled bootB and much
strong language and a few small pence
borrowed from a hard up landlady to buy
biscuits and beer It was In the middle
oi uiese oau dreams that the Miltiades
skipper impatiently hailed the bridge of
the Tudor
My old steamboat aint going to wait
here nil night for your coffee mill capIn
ho roared giving at the same time his
engines u touch ahead and sheering his
vessel close to tho Tudor Whats tho
decision
Three hundred and fifty answered
Bennet nervously
Thankee very much came the mock
ing reply Then the brangeswlll be per
fectly rotten before they gets omo if
you wait for my services Good night
and ho put his hand to the telegraph
Four hundred shouted Bcnm t des
perately Come thats a fair and square
price
It Is replied the warriors master
sarcastically Its simply monstrous
and youd better eat your oranges rath
er than chuck cm away
Bcforo he had finished speaking his pro
peller was churning the blue water astern
to a frothy milk and Bennet watched as
It wabbled slowly past the Tudors stern
He held his breath for one impatient min
ute then ho bawled at tho top of his
voice IJl make it 700
Tho other steamer wallowed round and
her screw ceased working A ships length
distant from the broken down tramp her
skipper called triumphuntly
-T
TIIE TIMES WASHINGTON ItfDAY JUNE 30 1901-
5rflr5wsSslS55SitSsf5f5
THE ORIGIN OF SURNAMES
No Clear Record of the Time They
First Came Into Use
The ConfuMlon Incident to the Enrly
Flood of Similar IlniitUninl Cofr
nomciiH Vnxt Contribution From
fie VurloiiM XrudeM and CullIngH
There is nq very clear record of the
time when surnames first came Into regu
lar use No doubt the process was a very
gradual one and Its epoch varied In dif
ferent countries but that they wero gen
eral at a comparatively early period of
the civilization of each nation needs no
insisting on To give but a single In
stance in the year 1387 Christianity first
became widespread In Poland and great
numbers of men and women were bap
tized at one time To simplify and ex
pedite matters with so large a concourse
it became the custom of the officiating
clergy to bestow the same name upon
whole batches of people who came to be
admitted into the church At one bap
tism for example Ihe name Peter was
conferred upon all the men and Catherine
upon all the women On another occasion
they would all be Pauls and Margarets
and so on
Great confusion must inevitably have
been the result and the rapid adoption of
a system of patronymics was the only es
cape from the difficulty The origin of our
word surname formerly occasionally
spelled sirname is often supposed to be
sirename and it was indeed only in the
nature of things that the earliest kind of
distinguishing second name should have
reference to the parent Our English
Robinsons Johnsons Wilsons and so
forth are as cornraon ancient and char
acteristic ns the Scotch Macs and the
Irish Os which mean the same thing
The Mac it need scarcely be said though
often considered essentially Scotch Is
common to the two nations as witness
the well known doggerel
By Mac and O youll always know
True Irishmen they ay
But if they lack both 0 and ilac
No Irishmen arc they
While Mac may bo translated son
O is more properly grandson The Nor
man equivalent is Fitz a corruption of
Ills The Russian termination witz
signifies tho same word as also the Pol
ish sky With Tegard to the Welsh
ap which also mcansfson matters
stand rather differently for In this case
ap is a separate word and Is not in
corporated In the whole name except as
a corruption also it may be Introduced
an indefinite number of times in the samo
appellation so that a Welsh surname can
convey a complete genealogy and be
moreover one of the longest words in
civilization It is a common Joke to laugh
at a Welshman for his long list of an
cestors with tho connecting aps
There Is an old story of an Englishman
foreign to the principality and Its ways
riding after dark near a ravine from
which issued a cry for assistance from
one who had Allien in
Whos there shouted the English
man
came the reply
Lazy fellows half-a-dozen of you why
cant you help each other out exclaimed
the Englishman Ignorant of the fact that
he was addressing but one man
The corruption of tho ap has led to
number of common modifications of old
Welsh names as Price for ap Rhys
Pritchard or ap Richard Powell for ap
HowQl and many others Probert Pro
byn Pugh Penry as also the b being
similar to the p Bevan Barry and th9
like Another Welsh form of family name
that which simply puts the Christian
name into the genitive c se has contrib
uted many of our commonest surnataes
as Jones 1 - Johns Harrys Harrls
Williams HuBhes etc
The roots of our family names as of
our families themselves have sprung
from among many nations and many
tongues There are well nigh Innumerable-cases
In England of surnames which
point unmistakably to the foreign coun
try and frequently too actual neighbor
hood or towns even from which the fam
ily originally migrated though no other
kind of rqqord may exist to prove that
In far off time they came from over seas
Of the original Anglo Saxon there are
some few survivals Some can be traced
in the termination Ing which among
Teutonic people signified offspring
Browning and Whiting in this way would
mean the dark or fair children
Place names from Normandy and Brit
tany are very common ns might be sup
posed DArcy Nevill Ferrers Devcreux
Warren Percy Marmlon Tankerville St
Aubin Lascelle Moley all these and
many others can readily be referred to
their original birthplaces In others
through corruption of the word the lo
cality is not so easy to trace though still
there as for example1 the name St
Maure which by process of time has
Eight hundred Not a cent less
The unfortunate Bennet saw it as his
last chance and a glance nt the uncom
fortable northwest hastened his decision
Ill take you at that he groaned I
might as well be hung for a sheep as a
lamb and if I get hooted out by the
owner Ill lay the result at your door
You may come to me for a Job Jeer
ed the hairy faced man If he sacks you
1 shall be wanting a trustworthy man
for this ship after this paying Job for Ill
retire Send a boat with your hawsers
and well connect your old orange box on
to my ship
Bennet with deep forebodings put out
a boat and passed his steel wires to tho
Miltiades
III
They had not been more than six hours
in tow before no less than a half dozen
steamers came out of the southern hori
zon and passed Into the north Bennet on
the bridge watched them with glowering
and hungry eyes and as they passed curs
ed the folly that led him to accept assist
ance in such haste Here from ths host
of vessels he could have chosen a most
respectable toy with 200 ns limit and
Matthew Walker was the ma to know It
There was obolutely no excuse for his
paying such an extravagant sum as SW
Bennet almost prayed that a gale would
cme It would save my bacon if any
thing could he mumbled But tho
weather obstinately kept tine He went to
Jamieson for sympathy and confided to
him his thoughts The engineer became
quite hearty Friends in distress make
sorrow the les he said He even grin
ningly asked Bennet for the promise of a
chiefs Job in the Miltiades when he
should take her over and tried to bargain
for 1S a month wages Indeed he seem
ed to take heart induced perhaps by the
motto and worked so spiritedly at his
engines that the shaft was fltte d and had
taken a half dozen turns to his complete
satisfaction the day after tho Miltiades
took the Tudor In hand Bennet received
this piece of news very gloomily he saw
In it another nail in his half sealed coltln
Again ho cursed the steamer that had
picked him out of the frying pan and hove
him at his own request into the fire He re
monstrated with Jamieson
Look here he said heatedly why
didnt you tell me the Job could have been
patched so quickly Surely you must have
known
Jamieson smiled gently while the greasy
wrinkles on his fuce shono in sympathy
nnd dirt
Didnt ho replied and Its no mat
teris it The owner cant blame you for
doing the best In his interest You have
my word I couldnt promise
Fuji well he knew thnt the Tudors own
er was not the man to take abstract con
clusions however good into account in
Bonnets defence while the gross resCTTia
of the voyage cirne dangerously near
comparative loss Instead of affluent profit
Ho was not a being of that sort He would
rate the employes worth not according to
his moral or intellectual ability but sole
ly in consonnnce with his capacity for in
creasing nnd on occasions multiplying
the Tudors exchequer The denouement
of the affaire de Tudor came unpleasantly
before Bennet s mind and he produced
tho effect in words
Well its all u p said the latter mood
come to stand as Seymour Valolns which
we now know only in its English surname
as Vallance etc Some of our names
again have a Netherland birthplace ns
Guunt which was originally Ghent St
Leger and Brydges which last Is a cor
ruption fri all probability of Bruges
It needs no pointing out how easily
place names can become family names
To distinguish nn individual by the name
of his home birthplace or residence was
a ready means of securing his Identity
In rural districts and among a popula
tion that continued for generations In
the same homesteads place names would
be given from trivial features of locality
as Wood and Hill and Lane and Dale
In this connection we can find a number
of ancient words for country objects
which have long ago become obsolete and
forgotten Cowdray for Instance in
olden days signified a grove of hazel
Garth is old English for yard HIthe
for a haven Garnett for a granary
Shaw for a small wood The common
surname Head is really a place name
Head being a frequent term for fa
promontory or cape as Beochy Head
The suffix bee as In Ashbee Holmbee
is a survival of the Danish By a habita
tion
The name Dean Is not from the church
dignitary but signifies a hollow or dell
whence we get Dean Forest and Arden
Another word still In common use In cer
tain parts of England for the same thing
is bottom Hfgginbottom thus means
the dell where the hicken or mountain
ash flourished Beckett Is a little brook
still called a beck In the north boys Is
the English corruption of bols a wood
Donne means a down Holt a grove
and Hurst a corpse Stead of course
is a farmhouse and its surroundings
Lynne Is a pool Law once meant a
hill and Horner a corner Townsend
would signify the towns end Brock
was the old term for a badger hence
Broxbourne and other similar titles while
gos as In Gosford and other examples
merely referred toji goose
It is needless to say that a vast ma
jority of English surnames among which
are to be numbered our very commonest
are derived from trades and callings
Smith and Baker and Turner and Tay
lor and others past enumerating Here
too we may trace ancient words which
have since completely dropped out
Chaucer and Sutor aro to us now
perfectly meaningless but long ago they
both signified a shoemaker A Pilcher
formerly made greatcoats a Reeder
thatched buildings with reeds or straw
A Latimer was a writer of Latin for
legal and such like purposes
An Arkwright was a maker of the
great meal chests or arks which were
formerly essential pieces of household
furniture Tucker was a fuller Lori
mer a saddler Launder or Lavender
a washerman Tupper made tubs Jen
ner was a Joiner Barker a tanner
Dexter a charwoman Banister kept
a bath Sanger Is but a corruption of
singer or minstrel Bowcher of butch
er Milner of miller Forster of for
ester A Chapman was a merchant the
ancestors of the Colemans and Woodyers
sold those indispensable commodities In
former generations
Wagners were wagoners and Naylora
made nails A Kemp was once a term
for a soldier a Vavasour held rank1 bef
tween a knight and a baron Certain old
fashioned Christian names or quaint cor
ruptions of them have given rise to
patronymics which at first sight might
appear hard to interpret Everyone i3
aware that Austin is identical with Au
gustin but the name Anstice Is not so
generally known to be but a shortening
of Anastasius Ellis too was originally
derived from Ellas Hood In like mari
ner is but a modern corruption of the
ancient Danish Odo Everett Is not far
removed from tho onco not uncommon
Christian name Everard while even Stlg
gins can be quite safely referred to the
northern Stigand London Standard
Motor Gun Cnrrlnpren
From the Boston Transcript
The Board of Ordnance and
of the United States
be considering the subject of motors for
gun carriages on which -the artillery
would be propelled over a field by elec
tricity instead of by horses In course of
time the pomp and circumstances will be
entirely eliminated from the profession of
arms and battles will be fought and de
cided without more appeal to the senses
than obtains in the most common opera
tion nf n5irAfii1 Irwlimtrv nf th
est piece of machinery In the j
tlons of the red artillery upon the field
of battle there Is a splendid Intoxication
which perhaps is as effective as anex
hilcrant to action upon one side as It is
a cause of demoralization upon the other
but without the horyes and the war
drunken drivprs swirling their black
whips in the air field artillery would b
tame and spiritless It would be a death
blow to the sensuous glory of war to sub
stitute machinery for horses or it would
certainly have that tendency But there
is one thing to take into consideration
and the one thing most important of all
the more mechanical and unromantlc war
becomes the sooner will It cease to be
ily and the Tudor and Ill part company
after this my first voyage
They were talking the matter ever in
the cabin and it was while the skipper
pondered further on his foggy future that
he was aroused from his apathetic state
by a loud and violent blast on a steam
whistle He rushed on deck to see what
the matter was followed by Jamieson
Right abeam moving slowly and losing
way was the great and unshapely tramp
Miitiades alongside the Tudor her own
hawsers trailed like white and gleaming
snakes Bennet gazed at her for a mo
ment looking curiously at her still pro
peller Then he turned to tha chief en
gineer and said quietly Stand by Mr
Jamieson I guess Its our turn now
nnd as Jamieson rushed below to th en
gine platform Bennet raced on to the Tu
dors upper bridge where the mate was
bawling orders to haul In the wires He
rang up the engines to siow nneaa
then he put th helm down and the old
tramp wore round under her restored ma
chinery and oozed up to the Miltiades
Bennet stopped his sngines leaned over
the bridge rail and took a cool survey
of the Miltiades crestfallen skipper who
glared savagely but helplessly back
Yes Im all right thank you cap
tain said Bennet nodding his head
But whats themattcr with that old tug
boat of yours
Engine gone smash shouted back the
elder man his late sarcasm exchanged
for a white heat of rage
Bennet smiled he could afford to do it
now and lit a cigarette with great care
Where are you from he asked at
length
Alexandria with a cargo of onions for
some Liverpool people
Big hurry I suppose Want a tow
Id take one cheap
Depends on what you call cheap was
tho irritating reply of the man with the
big trump card Whats your offer any
how
Call it 200
Ye thats pretty decent for some old
hooker thats coming home- light or with
a bad freight and wants to make her
dock dues but I couldnt think of it al
though I dont want to be hard on you
and Bennet beamed genially
The elder mans face beamed and he
stroked the fag ends ot nis goat ward
lovingly Im glad you dont bear no
spite he said pleasantly nat would
vnn tnw mp for
Bennet lazily swung himself over the-
railing of the bridge anu smoxeu placid
ly he was the picture of calm content
ment and victory
Nine hundred pounds is my price he
rpnllpd
The master of the Miltiades made no in- j
telliglble reply he beat the rail and
stamped on the bridge for five minutes
and when he had shouted himself hoarse
nnd blue in the face called to the mute
and engineer of his ship j
Bennet watched him with pn amused
smile and when another five minutes
had been registered and still no answer i
came from the other ship he thought it
time to follow up the every duy motto
man twenty four hours previosly Do
unto other as others do unto you So he
hailed the bridge with some show of im
patience
I cant wait here all night for that oM
onion box of yours he called My
oranges as you well know may go bad
pwgi1 ty
SLEEPING WHILE ON BDTY
A Shortcoming of Soldiers That
Constitutes a Crime
Forty Men of the Ilrltlnh Army rny
Infr Iennltlen la Dartmoor Jul for
a Serlouft Offence Conld Xot Keep
Their Heavy Lidded Eye Opea
In one of his Majestys prisons In this
country aro forty men who have com
mitted no offence against the civil laws
of the land but who will shortly bo
transferred to Dartmoor where they will
servo terms of penal servitude In closo
association with common flon life long
thieves woiild begisaurderers ot black
mailers
Lat week some of these men wero
transferred from a local prison to Dart
moor and while being transferred they
were no doubt by routine chained to
ordinary convicts men who have com
mitted coclal crimes against the com
munity The sentences of the forty men
vary from three to ten years penal servi
tude Yet they are not common felons
like the men with whom they are herded
The sole offence of which they have
been convicted Is that of sleeping when
they should have been awake They are
soldiers cr perhaps they should now be
called ex soldiers of the King who fell
asleep at the post of duty In South Africa
One of them is a young volunteer of
good family sentenced to eight years
penal servitude for this offence Many of
the men have protested with tears that
they fell asleep through sheer exhaustion
after a leng days toll
In the local prisons to which these de
linquent soldiera of the King are first
taken on arriving In custody from South
Africa a proper distinction Is drawn be
tween the faulty soldier or erring volun
teer and the oft condemned Jail bird
They are kept apart take exercise apart
and wear different dress The man who
has fought for his country and then made
a terrible blunder Is not classed with the
forger and the moral degenerate But In
the convict prison ths difference disap
pears They are1 all convicts the volun
teer included
The knowledge of this fact has already
created intense indignation In the limited
circle in which it has traveled The War
Office regards the treatment of lt3 pris
oners In this way as a regrettable inci
dent which it cannot help There have
been it Is pleaded so many- military pris
oners for various offences that the prison
arrangements are pressed
Nevertheless the War Office holds that
It Is necessary to make severe examples
of men who sleep on duty It Is further
suggested that men are not sentenced for
long terms merely for sleeping on duty
and that if they an sentenced for more
than two years they aro dismissed from
the army with Ignominy and cease to be
soldiers So the War Office washes It3
hands of responsibility
Against this persons who are qualified
to speak assert that most of the soldiers
who have been herded with convicts are
serving sentences for being found asleep
and for nothing else If they behave
themselves In their convict homes these
ex soldiers will eventually be released on
ticket of leave like burglars The Lon
don Mail
HOW WOLVES ABE KELXED
Methods TJoeil to 1nt the Animals
Out of Existence
Whole families of the animals are some
times asphyxiated In their dens A wolf
of the grey variety generally makes Its
home by getting on the side of a dirt
gulch and burrowing straight inward un
til a safe distance from the surface is
reached There her young are born and
raised to sturdy cub estate
When a cowboy locates a den In which
he believes the entire family to be gath
ered a composite mass of cotton satu
rated wuh damp flour sulphur and other
noxious smelling substances Is thrust In
to the den and set on fire The mouth of
the hole Is then fillet with clay stamped
down solidly and the Imprisoned wolves
are speedily suffocated within In this
way from six to ten and eleven wolves
young and old are wiped out at ono
stroke
Another effective method is to bore four
or more holes in a flat piece of board and
plug them up with beef fat soaked in
strychnine The odor of the fat attracts
any wolves that may be In the vicinity
andthey lick the fat voraciously until the
leavening of poison does its wdrk upon
them and they drop dead Very often as
many as a dozen wolves are killed off by
this process before the fat In the holes is
exhausted
Strychnine enelosed In capsules Is also
used The capsule is thrust Into a slit
cut in a chunk of beef andthe wolf bolt
ing the meat hole fails an easy victim
Steel traps baited with raw beef are also
tried with fair success Denver Republi
can
Call It four hundred reeled pff tho
Other skipper
You may call it what you like but so
long as you call it anything below my
figure nine hundred captain your on
ions will rot before they reach Liverpool
If you wait for my services Ill remem
ber you to Messrs Ramshackle Tub
Co nnd tell em youre having good on
ion soup Good night and a pleasant
time Theres some nice weather coming
shortly out of the norwe V
Bonnet pointed to a fiery glow on tho
bow where a mass of clouds banked
heavily below the falling sun and the
purple tinge of the promising storm came
over the fat seas nnd sighed to him a
melody of satisfaction and a hundred or
so of weather cash into the pocket of
Matthew Walker of Newcastle
He rang up his engines with a swift
hand and grinned at the telegraph face
The reply had but tringed tringed from
tlic engineer when a loud anu hoarso
shout accompanied by something strong
arrived to him
your offers vile Youll swallow
up all thg earnlns of the voyage Ill
give you seven hundred and the oar like
fist of the man who shouted thumped tho
bridge rail in emphasis
Thats better murmured Bennet who
had only rung his engines to tand by
I thought that would bring him that
and the weather God bless it Its an ill
wind though it pipes outcf the norwest
that blows nobody any good
Cant help it he bawled If you get
broke over the job you- may call in on
my owner Matthew Walker of Newcas
tle and tell him that I can recommend
you as a thorough business man captain
He wants people who can coin money for
him Only dont tell him you bagged
S00 for towing one of his ships a dis
tance of 500 miles Itll look bad you
know Now captain this is the last time
take my offer or leave It
There was a hasty consultation on the
btldge of the Miltiades while Bennet sud
denly became anxious What was that
in the southard The other captain could
not have seen It He made answer
Yes Ill take you at that he cried
nine hundred
Very well captain Ill send my haws
ers aboard ngnln and you may hitch on
to my steamboat that old tin coffin of
vours
I could not resist it muttered Bon
net although it is not wise In the hour
of triumph over your enemy to be too
sarcastic for the tables may yet turn
He lookeel hard anil earnestly astnrn
win re three faint lines and the bulge of
a steamers funnel pricked the clouds
Meanwhile the Tudor and her bait were
connected during whieh the owner and
muster of the Miltiades groaned at ils
folly It was the moral of the proceed
ings that hurt him most
So with all arranged Bennet rang up
his engines full and shouted down the
engine r om tube Mr Jamieson some
dirty weathers coming on Gle it her
for all shes worth You save the ornngcs
and Ill save your neck Though you beg
gar he mumbled as he capped the brass
piping you dont deserve it
Then he glanced at the big oncoming
steamer hull down and blessing his
luck set his course along the great steam
er track straight for the rocky Islands
that grow up like jagged and wolfish teeth
out the of the Channel mouth Chambers
Journal
i
11

xml | txt