" ' " -1 : -
NE SERIES TOL. 2. NO. 32.
LANCASTER, OHIO, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 17, 1847.
WHOLE NO. 1160.
u PUBLISHED EVERY KEIDAY MORNING BY
JO HIV H. WRIGIl T.
Owes Tallmadge Buildings Third Floor
opposite J. & J. C Maccvackeu's 3tore.
. , T c a MS .For one year, catkin advance, ti 00
Withio the year,.., S 50
Xfter the expiration of the year 3 00
K' INDUCEMENTS FOB CLUBS.
'. Ten copiea, to ouewldreBS.caM ih ai- '
yance (17 50
. , Any larger number in the same proportion.
' V ADVERTISING. , ,
1 ' One square, one insertion,.: (0 50
. three insertions, 100
Kach continuance 25
EF"A liberul discount will be made to yearly
EFVOB WORK neatly and promptly executed.
Agents fur the Iaucjister Gazette.
MiUimpcrt: E. Viince
' AV Salnc Or. M D. Brock!
Ptekiringlan: A. flrliiht, Jr
Jcftraom: Dnvtil Jenainf
Liikopoliti Lewis Huher
artmfeli T; Waller Mr.Par.
laud Thnniaa Minefield
Plmtaot T, T. P. Allinronk
Eatt HutMlU; Dnviil linker
H.Ruihmllt; N. B.Conlsion
Rramas Hoary Ashlwiiih
Canal Ifimekttttr: Dr. Potter
JLekailte: Win. P. Teiiimnl
Amanita: Nathnn J. Worrall
I Renatton: J.CIeinentf, Jr.
. Amanda 7. Win. Ailihrook
Carroll; William P. Brock
but: Hanr Laonard
Ltaaam 7- J. Ilnll, B. Illicit
Bern 7. James n. reurra
Prr-7'on.' lvl Friend
Midia TS I. B Koontz
Cleanretk; Col.W. Hamilton
O'M0((: P. R Haierman
BaUimtrt; H. L Nicely
iSomtrft; IJavli) Hewitt
V. B. Palhbr, Esq., General Aenl for the Eastern CHIes
AT THE -
FIUST DOOR EAST, OF THE
, fTHE subscriber ia now receiving a new and
. J unprecedented inpply of
FALL & WINTER GOODS,
' in all the variety necessary to the public watits,
' which will be sold mutually low. Wholesale and
, Retail, for Cash or County Produce, consisting in
part of SUl'ERr INE, MEDIUM and CUMMUN
Cloths, Cassi meres, Satinets,
Jeans, Heavy Tweeds; Rich Ribbed and Heavy
. Beaver, Felta and Pilot Cloths, for Over Coats.
Also, a large supply of SILK VALENTIA and
. 8, 10, 11 & 12-4 Blankets; Flannels of all kinds
Comforta, Bleached and Brown Mtislius
Furand Common HATS and CAPS
Silk and Cotton Handkerchiefs
Silk, Gingham and Cotton Umbrellas
Gloves, Hosiery, Carpet Warp, long reeled Cot
tort. Yarn, &c. &c.
Also.a large supply of superior warranted Calf,
Kip and Common BOOTS.LACES & BROGAN3
&3&as3 &sas mm
,"A few pieces choice Wool Carpeting, new and
, ., fine patterns;
. " . , " Cotton . do "
' ' " .'" Stair Carpetiug, and lot of superior
11 E A IY iTtADEC LOTH 1 KG ,
a good supply, at moderate prices.
In purchasing this superior Stock of Goods, the
subscriber has not forgotten to provide most am
ply for the wauts of
Among which may be enumerated in the Silk,
Worated and Cotton line, a large lot of the moat
- superior, plain, Satin striped and pluld and
SILK WARPED ALPACAS,
' Figured. Delisle, Cumoleon, Changeable audOm-
. bray, do 1
Vienna, Britania, Union Silk Plaids and Cash
mere De Corsa, for Dresses
Gula, Juvenile and Rob Roy Plaids for Dresses
and Cloaks ' '
Fancy, Blue and Scarlet Woollen Plaid Cloukings
.. 4-4 and 6-4 wide - -An
unusually large and splendid lot of 5-4 and 4-4
French, English. Scotch and Italian
. An unusual large and splendid lot of
CHINTZES, PRINTS & DELAINES,
at all prices, includins Linens. Lawns, Thread
- Cotton and Silk Laces. Edgings and Inserting,
Silk Bullion, Slieal Head and Moliair fringes
Jet aud Silk Buttons, assorted
Cords, Tassels, Merino and other Husiory
GLOVES. Liuen and Silk Handkerchiefs
Swiss and other Muslin " '
Worked aud Tambored Chemezettsand Collars
White Goods of all kinds, aud a supply of Butter
fly aud other Hair, Dress aud Shell Side Combs
The most beautiful 8-4 & 10-4 Broche, Cashmere
figured and printed Caahmero, Net, Kuib'd
Cashmere, French pluid & striped worsted and
woollen Shawls, ever brought to tills country
A large supply for Winter use, Including figured
aud the most delicately wrought VEL VE T.
Also, FLOWERS to suit, . .
. , . .; Shoes:
A fine supply of Ladies and Misses Polkas, Laces.
Buskins, Ties and Slippers; Ladies aud Misses
' Rubber Buskins aud Over-Shoes
Also, on hand, a lull supply of GROCERIES,
consisting iu part of i .
Teu, Coffees, Wines, Liquors, Spices, 4.C.
,., 2nd Door East qftke"Stoan Hotel,''
, is also well stocked with a groat variety of CHIN A
and GLASS- WA R E, including a supply of
' Flowing Blue; also, with a general assortment of
The Stock of Goods referred to, was laid in
, with the greatest cure, is most full und complete,
and will cover every domaud to all which the
. public attention is requested.
All kinds of Produce, for which Cash or Goods
in exebungg will be given
Xnncaster, October 29, 1847.
Wheat! Wheat!! Wheat!!!
A LARGE QUANTITY OF WHEAT wanted
at the A W CASH STORE, 1st Doer
East of the "S WAN HO TEL," for: which the
Cash will b paid on delivers , , i '
, T.; U. WHITE.
' ' Lancaster, October29, 1817. , . 25
Fashionable Tailors. J
, . SHOP In Shaffer's Building, one door East of
the Tallmadge House. ;,, ,:
' Lancaster, June 11, 1847. . i ' ,
WOULD respectfully inform the public, that
he has removed his Shop to Foster's Brick
Building, in the room formerly occupied by J.
orn s v,o., as a oiioe Bliop, directly above u,
Kauffman's Drug Store, where he will still coil
tinue to carry on the
in all its various branches. His work will be done
in the neatest and most substantial manner and
at prices to smt tne limes
jiuuuw vi uu Kiuua, xaRan in ex
change tor work . , . , ;
Lancuster, April 23, 1847 , tf50
1 ' Cheap Watches.,
PERSONS wishing to purchase a good Gold or
Silver Watch, as cheap as they can in the
r,asiern cities; are invited to examine the exten
aivo assortment for sale by '
. -I - GATES & COSPER.
, Tallmadge House, Lancaster, June 18, 1847.
The best Mechanical Taper In the World.
THE "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,"
Published at 128 Fulton at., New York, ia admit
ted by all to be the beat Mechanical
publication in the World.
IT has attained a largor circulation thnu all the
other Mechnuicid papers published in America,
combined, and possesses such facilities for obtain
ing the latest intelligence on Scientilio subjects
from all parts of the world that no publication of
the kind cau compete with it.
Each number coutains from FIVE to SEVEN
ORIGINAL MECHANICAL ENGRAVINGS of
the most important inventions; a catalogue of
AMERICAN PATENTS, as issued from the Pa
tent Ofliue eack week: notices of the progress of
all new MECHANICAL and SCIENTIFIC in
ventions; instructions in the various ARTS and
TRADES, with ENGRAVINGS; curious PHILO
SOPHICALaud CHEMICAL experiments; the
lutest RAILROAD INTELLIGENCE in EU
ROPE and AMERICA; all the different ME
CHANICAL MOVEMENTS, published in a series
and ILLUSTRATED with more than A HUN
DRED ENGRAVINGS, &c. &c.
, It is published weekly in QUARTO FORM,
conveniently adapted to BINDING, and furnished
to Country Subscribers at the LOW PRICE of
TWO DOLLARS A YEAR ONE DOLLAR IN
ADVANCE, and the remainder in Six Mouths.
Address, MUNN & CO Publishers,
POST PAID. New York.
Bound volumes of the Scientific American cou
tuining 419 pages of choice reading matter aud
illustrated with more than 3(i0 engravings of new
inventions, for sale at the office. Price $-,75
New York. December 3, 1347. 30
It EST riTTUUKGH
A ASSORTED, from 8 by 10 to 21 by 25, for
sale by GKORGE KAUFFMAN.
Lancaster, August20, 1847. 15
HE HIGHEST PRICE iu CASH will be
giveu for FLAX-SEED by
Lancaster, August 20, 1847
J 13 ST IYU ClilVTlU
AND FOR SALE,
OfiKEGS PURE WHITE LEAD, and
OU 5 Barrels LINSEED OIL, by
UEUUUK KAUrf MAN.
Lancaster, Aug. 13 1847. 14
OK B"g Rreon mid Yellow KIO CO r EE;
3 Bags BLACK PEPPER;
YOUNG HYSON and I.Mrr.ttlAL 1 iiAS, cio.
For sale by GEORGE KAUFFMAN.
Lancaster, August 13, 1347 14
10 Barrels Tanner's Oil.
J UST received aud for sale by
Lancaster, August 13, 1847. 14
CALL AT THE
OLD DRUG STORE
AND see a fresh supply of DRUGS und ME
D1CINES PAINTS and DYE-STUFFS,
For sale low. GEORGE KAUFFMAN.
Lancaster, August 13, 1847. 14
10 Barrels Water Lime.
BEST QUALITY, for sale by
Lancaster, August 13, 1847. 34
lL AX-SEED OIL--300.
clear Flux-Seed Oil, just received and for sale
by BURY & BECK.
Lancaster, July 9, 1847. 9
A Greater quautitv than ever to be had at
' GATES Si, COSPER'S.
June 18, 1847.
'I HAVE FOOD IT.' Eureka.
CONSUMPTION CAN BE CURED
Dr. Dnncans Expectorant Remedy.
Cincinnati, O., March 3d 1847.
Dear Sir: This is to certify to the public, par
ticularly to those ufllicted with a diseuse of the
Lungs, or Consumption, that iu the Spring of
1114 J I was attacked Willi a severe cold, winch
soon became seated upon my Lungs, showing ull
the symptoms of an approaching Consumption.
My cough was tight and troublesome, nttonded
with copious night aweuts; I spit up daily a con
siderable quantity of blood mixed with thick dark
matter. My situation becomo serious and ularm-
ing. During this time 1 wus attended by two of
our most skilllul f hysiciaus, they did the best they
could for nie, when ut length, they gave up all
hopes ot my recovery, inlormuig me that nothing
more could be done thut my Iuiil'S were fatally
diseased, und beyond remedy, I wus then per
suaded by a Irieudol mine to make a trial ot l)K.
DUNCAN'S EXPECTORANT REMEDY, which
my Physicians persisted against, saying that this
medicine would do no good, aud would still add
more to my suH'ering. I told them it was my last
and only hope, aud that u i must die ot the dis.
ease, (which was evident to me.) there would be
nothing lost.' bo 1 sent to the Cincinnati Olhce,
and obtained 5 bottles of this truly valuable medi
ue, aud commenced using according to the di
rections, which instead of adding to my sull'eriug,
immediately gave me relict, at once arresting the
troublesome Cough; easing the pain und tightness
in my Cheat; giving me a new life aud strength,
which soon enabled I no to be about again. This
medicine continued its good work, which it so no-
ily commenced, until I was made a sound man.
I have since been attending to my business, (up.
wards of 3 years) and feelns healthy as I wish.
I nave recommended Dr. Duncan i Expectorant
Remedy iu many instances to those similarly alllic-
ted, and it has always proved successful so far as I
have Witnessed its eltects. My sister is using this
medicine at present, for a Diteased Liver uud an
Arrr.cTioN or the Lungs, which she had gutter
ed with for some time; she bus nearly recovered
by the use of this medicine, and I am confident
the 6 bottles that I take with ine to-day will en
tirely cure her. I am sorry to know that there
are thousands of valuable persons wasting away
with the dreadtul destroyer CONSUMt'lUN.
Wero it only possible lor those to procure this
medicine iu time, before it bo too late, many lives
might be prolonged and their families and rela
tions ngniu rendered happy. This medicine will
give inslaut relief, ut the same time arrest the hard
and painful Cough, remove the tightness iu the
Chest, give strength to the enleebled and emacia
ted Ira mo, and ill most cases, I am certain, will
perforin a perfect cure.
" . unn,.!,, T t- f T Mien
A.IUUl'.IY J tLLlt,H.!
Montgomery, Hamilton County, Ohio,
N. B. Those who may not be acquainted with
ine I refer to the undersigned, citizens of Mont
gomery, Hamilton county, O.. lliev wilt at any
lime substantiate the above statements.
Capt. J. Skider.
frrDr. Duncan'. Wealern Office. 150
Sycamore St. where thia valuablo Medicine can
always be obtained. Advice given grattt.
For sale by Macccracken & tialoraitu, Lancaster
Lancaster, November 19, 1847. , 6v28.
W. If. RANKIN.
Attorney at Law and Solicitor in Chancery.
OFFICE IN FOSTER'S BRICK BUILDING,
iu the Room recently occupied by Charles
Borland, Esq. Entrance, one door west of KauB
man's Drug Storo, Main Street, Lancaster, Ohio.
May 14, 1847. ltf
JOHN D., MARTIN,"
R. P. EFFINGER,
ItlAUTIN & EFF1NGEK,
Attorneys and Counsellors at Law,
Of FICE In Foster's Brick Building. I.e.
Lancaster, Ohio, June 11,1847. 5
THE I'ltllDIT S MESSAGE.
We conclude, to day, the publication
of the President's message. The former
part we sent, in an extra, last week, to
most of our subscribers. If any have
not received it, we will, as far as we are
able, supply tliem, if they call at the of
Con;;ross is, therefore, called upon to
determine whether it is wiser to impose
the war duties recommended, or, by o
milting to do so, increase the public debt
annually three millions of dollars so long
as loans shall be required to prosecute
the war, and afterwards provide, in some
other form, to pay the semi-annual inter
est upon it, and ultimately to extinguish
the principal. If, in addition to these
duties, Congress should graduate and re
duce the price of such of the public lands
asexperience has proved will not com
mand the price placed upon them by the
government, an additional annual income
to the treasury of between half a million
and a million of dollars, it is estimated,
would be derived from this source.
Should both measures receive the sanc
tion of Congress, the anniiul amount of
public debt necessary to be contracted
during the continuance of :he war would
be reduced near four millions of dollars.
The duties recommended to be levied on
tea and collee, it is proposed shall be
limited in their duration to the end of
the war, and until llie public debt ren
dered necessary to be contracted by it
shall be discharged. The amount of the
public debt to be contracted should he
limited to the lowest practical sum, and
should be extinguished as early after the
conclusion of the war as the means of the
treasury will permit.
With this view, it is recommended that
as soon as the war ahull be over, all the
surplus iu the treasury, not needed for
other indispunsibie objects, shall consti
tute a sinking fund, and be applied to
the purchase of the funded debt, and that
authority be conferred by law for that
The act of the sixth of August, 1846,
"to establish a warehousing system," has
been in operation more than a year, and
has proved to be an important auxiliary
to the tariff act of 1846, in augmenting
the revenue, and extending the com
merce of the country. Whilst it has ten
ded to enlarge commerce, it has been
beneficial to our manufactures, by dimin
ishing forced sales at auction of foreign
goods at low prices, to raise the duties to
be advanced on them, and by checking
fluctuations in the market. The system,
although sanctioned by the experience of
other countries, was entirely new in the
United States, and is susceptible of im
provement in some of its provisions.
The Secretary of the Treasury, upon
whom was devolved large discretionary
powers in carrying this measure into ef
fect, has collected, and is now collating,
the practical results of the system in oth
er countries, where ithaslongbeen estab-
isheU, and will report at an early period
of your session such further regulations
suggested by the investigation as may
render it still more effective and benefi
By the act to "provide for the better
organization of the treasury, and for the
collection safe-keeping, and disbursement
of the public revenue," all banks were
discontinued as fiscal agents of the gov
ernment, and the paper currency issued
by them was no longer permitted to be
received in payment of public dues.
The constitutional treasury created by
this net wont into oneralion .m thu first nf
January lust. Under the system estab-
lished by it, the public moneys have been
p,,11ib,1 .rlu ir-nf n,J ;i;ul,.l i,
tliA Hit'Apr nrrMrirv iF Ofllfttra uf tlin rriv.
L ! .
eminent in cold and silver: and transfers
arge amounts have been made from
points of collection to points of disburse
ment, without loss to the treasury, or in
jury or inconvenience to the trado of tho
While the fiscal operations of the go
vernment have been conducted with reg
ularity and ease, under this system, it
has had a salutary effect in checking and
preventing an undue inflation of the pa
per currency issued by the banks which
exist under State charters. Requiring,
as it docs, all dues to the government to
be paid in gold and silver, its effect is to
restrain excessive issues of bank paper
by the banks disproportioned to the spe
cie in their vaults, for the reason that they
are at all times liable to be called on by
the holders of their Notes fur their re
demption, in order to obtain specie for
the payment of duties and other public
dues. The banks, therefore, must keep
their business within prudent limits, and
be always in a condition to meet such
calls, or run the hazard ot beini; com
piled to suspend specie payments, and
be thereby discredited. The amount of
specie imported into the United States
during the last hscal year was twenty tour
million one hundred and twenty -one
thousand two hundred aud eight-nine
dollars; of which there was retained in
the country twenty-two million two hun
dred aud seventy-six thousand one hun
dred and seventy dollars. Had the for
mer financial system prevailed, and the
public moneys beon placed on deposite
in banks, nearly the whole of this amount
would have gone into their vaults, not to
be thrown into circulation by them, but
to be withhold from tho hands of the peo
pie as a currency, and made the basis of
new and. enormous issues of bank pa
per. A large proportion of the specie
imported has been paid into the treasu
ry for public dues; and after having been,
to a great extont, recoined at the mint,
has been paid out to the public creditors,
and gone into circulation as a currency
among the people. The amount of gold
and silver coin mow in circulation in the
country is larger than at any former pe
riod. . , ,'' ' i
The financial system: established by
the constitutional treasury has been, thus
far, eminently successful in its operation;
and I recommend an adherance to all
its essential provisions, and especially to
that vital provision which wholly sepa
rates the government from all connexion
with banks, aud excludes batik paper from
all revenue receipts.
In some of its details, not involving its
general principles, the system is defect
live, and it will require modification.
These defects, and such amendments as
are deemed important, were set forth in
the last annual report of the Secretary of
the Treasury. These amendments are
again recommended to the early and fa
vorable consideration of Congress,
During the past year, the coinage at
the mint and its branches has exceeded
twenty millions of dollars. This has con
sisted chiefly in converting the coins of
foreign countries into American coin.
The largest amount of foreign coin im
ported has been received at New York;
and if a branch mint were established at
thut city, all the foreign coin received at
that port could at once be converted into
our own coin, without the expense, risk,
and delay of transporting it to the mint
for that purpose, and the amount recoin
ed would be much larger.
Experience has proved that foieign
coin, and especially foreign gold coin, will
not circulate extensively as a currency a-
nong the people. The important meas
ure ot extending our specie circulation,
both of gold and silver, and of diffusing it
among the people, can only be effected
by converting such foreign coin into A
mericancoin. 1 repeat the recommenda
tion contained in my last annual mess
age fur the establishment of a branch of
the mint of the United States at the city
of New York.
All the public lands which had been
surveyed and were ready for market
have been proclaimed for sale during the
past year. Tho quantity offered and to
be offered for sale, under proclamations
issued since the first of January last, a
niouuta to nine million one hundred and
thirty-eight thousand live hundred and
thirty-one acres. The prosperity of tlio
Western States and territories in winch
these lauds lie will be advanced by their
6pcedy sale. By withholding them from
market, their growth and increase of
population would be retarded, while
thousands of our enterprising frontier
population would be deprived of the op
portunity of securing freeholds tor them
selves and their families. But in addi
tion to the general considerations which
rendered the early sale of these lands
proper, it was a leading object at this
time to derive as large a sum as possible
from this source, and thus diminish, by
that amount, the public loan rendered
necessary by the existance of a foreign
It is estimated that not less than ten
millions of acres of the public lands will
be surveyed and be in a condition to be
proclaimed for sale during the year 1848.
In my last annual message I presented
the reasons which, in my judgment, ren
dered it proper to graduate and reduce
the price of such of the public lauds as
have remained unsold for long periods
after they had been offered for sale at
Many millions of acres of public lands
lying within the limits of several uf the
western States have been offored in the
i market, and been subject to sale at pri
vate entry tor more than twenty years,
and large quajililies for more than thirty
years, at the lowest price prescribed by
the existing laws, and it has been tumid
that they will not command that price.
They must remain unsold and uncultiva
ted for an indefinate pciiod, unless the
. Fleo demanded h.rtliem ly me govern
.lemanded for them by tl
ment 8,!a11 1,0 wiliicod. No satisfactory
! a8on Perceived why they should be
I longer held at rates above their real val-
I ( a At tli i ni'nennr nnl'ln.l tilt n A A 1 1 inn 1
41, tlio liicnLiii uviiuil tin uuviihuiiui
i rea" exists for adopting the
recommended. W hen the country is
engaged in a foreign war, and we must
necessarily resort tolouns, it would seem
to bethedictnte of wisdom that we should
avail ourselves of all our resources, and
thus limit the amount of public in
debtedness to the lowest possible sum.
, I recommend that the existing laws on
the subject of pre-emption rights be
amended uud modihedao as to operate
prospectively, aud to embrace all who
may settle upon the public lauds and
make improvements upon them before
they are surveyed, as well as afterwards,
in all cases where such settlements may
be made ufior the Indian title shall have
It' the right of. pre-emption be thus
extended, it will embrace a large and
meritorious class of our citizens. It will
nciease the number of small freeholders
upon our borders, who will be enabled
thereby to educate thoir children and
otherwise improve their condition, while
they wilt be found at all times, as they
havo ever proved themselves to be, in
the hour ot danger to their country, a
mougour hardiest and best volunteer sol
diers, ever ready to tender their services
in cases of emergency, among the last to
leave the fields as long as an enemy re
mains to be encountered. . Such a policy
will also impress these patriotic pioneer
emigrants with deeper feelings of grati-
tudtMor the parental care ot their gov
ernment, when they find their dearest in
terests secured to them by the permanent
laws ot the laud, and thut tliey are no
longer in danger of losing their homes
and hard-earned improvements by being
brought into competition with a more
wealthy class of purchasers at the land
The attention of Congress was invited
at their last and preceding session, to the
importance of establishing a Territorial
government over our possessions in Ore
gon; and it is to be regretted that there
was no legislation on the subject. Our
citizens who inhabit that distant region
of country are still loft without the pro
tection of our laws, or any regular organ
ized government. Before tho, question
of limits and boundaries of the territory
of Oregon was definitely settled, from the
necessity of their condition, the inhabit
ants had established a temporary gov
ernment of their own. Besides the want
of legal authority for continuing such a
government, it is wholly inadequate to
protect them in their rights of person
and propurty, or to secure to them the
enjoyment of the privilege of other cit
izens, to which they are entitled under
the constitution of the United States.
They should have the right of suffrage,
bo represented in a Territorial legisla
ture, and by a delegate in Congress; and
possess all the righuand privileges which
citizens of other portions of the Terri
tories of the United States have hereto
fore enjoyed, or may now enjoy. '
Our judicial system, revenue laws.
regulating trade and intercourse with the
Indian tribes, and the protection of our
lawa generally, should be extended over
In addition to the inhabitants in that
territory who had previously emigrated
to it; large numbers of our citizens have
followed them during the present year;
and it is not doubted that during the next
and subsequent years their numbers will
he greatly increased.
Congress, at its last session, establish
ed post-routes leading to Oregon, and be
tween different points within that terri
tory, and authorized the establishment of
post ofhees at "Astoria and such other
places on the coasts of the Pacific, with
in the territory of the United Slates, as
the public interests may require." Post
offices have accordingly been estalish
ed, deputy postmasters appointed, and
provision made for the transportation of
The preservation of peace with the
Indian tribes residing west of the Rocky
mountains will render it proper that au
thority should be given by law for the ap
pointment of an adequate number of In
dian agents to reside among them.
I recommend that a surveyor general's
office be established in that territory, and
that the public lands be survoyed and
brought into market at an early period,
1 recommend, also, that grants, upon
iberal terms, of limited quantities of the
public lands be made to all cilizons of the
United States who have emigrated, or
may hereafter within a prescribed peri
od emigrate, to Oregon, and settle upon
them. These haidy aud adventurous
citizens, who have encountered the dan
gers and privations of a long and toil
some journey, and have ut length found
an abiding-place for themselves and their
families upon tho utmost verge of our
western limits, should be secured in the
homes which they have improved by their
I refer you to the accompanyingrcpott
of the Secretary of War for a detailed
account of the operations of the various
branches of the public service connected
with the department under Ins charge.
The duties devolving on this department
have been unusually onerous and re:
sponsible during the past year, and have
been discharged with ability, and success.
Pacific relations continue to exist with
the various Indian tribes, and most of them
manifest a strong frendship for the United
States. Some depredations were com
mitted dnring the past year upon our
trains transpoiting supplies for the army,
on the road between the western border
of Missouri and Santa Fe. These dep
redations, which are supposed to have
been committed by bands from the region
of New Mexico, havo been arrested by
the presence of a military force, ordered
out for that purpose. Some outrages have
been perpetrated by a portion of the
north western bunds upon the weaker and
comparatively defenceless neiglilmring
tribes. Prompt measures were taken to
prevent such occurrences in future.
. Between one & two thousand Indians,
belonging to several tribes have been
removed during the year from the east of
the Mississippi to the country allotted to
them west of the river, as their perma
nent home; and arrangements have been
made tor others to follow.
Since the treaty of 1846 with theChero
kees, the feuds among them appear to
have subsided, and they have become
more united and contented than they have
been for many years past. ., The commis
sioners appointed in pursuance of the act
of June 27th, 1846, to settle claims ari
sing under the treaty of 1835 '36 with
that tribe, have executed their duties,
and ufter a patient investigation, and a
full and fair examination of all the cases
brought before them, closed their labors
in the month of July last. This is the
fourth board of commissioners which has
been organized under this treaty. Am
ple opportunity has been afford ed to all
those interested to bring forward their
claims. No doubt is entertained that im
partial justice has been done by the late
board, and that all valid claims embraced
by the treaty have been considered and
allowed. This result, and the final set
tlement to bo made with this tribe, under
the treaty of 1846, which will be comple
ted and laid before you during your ses
sion, will ad just all questions of contro
versy betweeu them and the United
Siates, and produce a state of relations
with them simple, well-defined and sat
isfactory. Under the discretionary authority con
ferred by the act of the third of March,
last, tho annuities due to the various
tribes have been paid during the present
year to tho heads of families instead of
to their duels, or such persons as they
might designate, as required by the laws
previously existing. This mode of pay
ment has given general satisfaction to the
great body of the Indians. Justice has
been done to them, and they are grateful to
the government for it. A few chiefs and
interested persons may object to this
mode of payment, but it is believed to be
the only mode of preventing fraud and
imposition from being practiced upon the
great body ot common Indians, constitu
ting a majority of all the tribes.
It is gratifying to perceive that a num
ber of the tribes have recently manifested
an increased interest in the establishment
of schools among them, and are making
rapid advances in agriculture some of
them producing a sufficient quantity of
food for their support, and in lome cases
a surplus to dispose of lo iheir neighbors.
i no comions by winch those who have
received even a very limited education.
aud have engaged in agriculture are sur
rounded, tend gradually todraw off their
less civilized brethren from the preca
rious means of aubsistance by the chase,
to habits of labor and civilization.
The accompanying report of the Se
cretary of the Navy presents a satisfacto
ry aud gratifying account of tho condition
and operations of the naval service du
ring the past year. Our commerce has
been pursued w ith increased activity, and
with safety and success, in very quarter
"I the globe under the protection of our
tlag, which the navy has caused lo be re
spected in the most distant seas.
In the gulf of Mexico, and in the Pa
cific, the officers and men of our squad
rons have displayed distinguished gal
lantry and performed valuable services.
In the early stages of the war with Mexi
co, her ports on both coasts were blocka
ded, and more recently many of them
have been captured and held by the na
vv. When acting iu co-operation with
the land foices.the naval officers and men
have performed gallant aud distinguished
services on land as well as on water, and
leserve the high commendation of the
While other maratime powers are ad
ding to their navies large numbers of
war steamers, it was a wise policy on our
part to make similar additions to our na
vy. The four war steamers authorized
by the act of the 3d March, 1817, are in
course of construction.
In addition to the four war steamers
authorized bythisact.the Secretary ofthe
Navy has iu pursuance of its provision,
entered into contracts for the construc
tion of five steamers, to be employed in
the transportation of the United States
Mail "from New York to New Orleans,
touching at Charleston, Savannah, and
Uavanna, and .from llavanua to Chag
res; for three steamers to be employed in
like manner from Panama to Oregon, "so
as to connect with the mail from Ilavanna
to Chagres across the isthmus;" aud for
five steamers to be employed in like man
ner from New York to Liverpool. These
steamers will be the property ofthe con
tractors, but aie to be built "under the
superintendence and direction of a naval
constructor in the employ of the Navy
Department, and to be so constructed as
to rendor them convertible at the least
possible expense into war steamers ofthe
A prescribed number of naval officers,
as well as a post-office agent, are te be on
board of them; and authority is reserved
tethe Navy Department at all times to
"exercise control over said steamships,"
and "to have the right "to take them for
the exclusive use and service of the Uni
ted States" "upon making proper com
pensation to the contractors therefor."
Whilst these steam-ships will be em
ployed iu transporting the mails ofthe
United States coastwise, and to foreign
countries, upon au annual compensation
to be paid to the owners, they will be al
ways ready, upon an emergency requi
ring it, to be convened into war steamers;
and the right reserved to take them for
public use, will add greatly to the efficien
cy and strength of this description of our
naval force. To the steamers thus au
thorized under contracts made by the
Secretary of the Navy, should be added
five other steamers authorized under con
tracts made in pursuance of law by the
Postmaster General, making an addition,
in the whole, of eighteen war steamers,
subject to be taken for public use. As
further contracts for the transportation of
the mail to foreign countries may be u
thorized by Congress, this number may
be enlarged immediately.
The enlightened policy by which a
rapid communication with the variou.sdis-
lunt parts ofthe globe is established, by
f . i .
means ot Americaii-uuiit sea steamers,
would find an amnio reward in the in
crease of our commerce, and in making
our country andits resouicesmore favora
bly known abroad; but the national ad
vantage is still greater, ol having our na
val officers made familiar with steam navi
gation; and of having the privilege of ta
king the ships already equipped for im
mediate service at a moment's notice,
and will be cheaply purchased by the
compensation to lie paid for the transpor
tation of the mail in them, over and a
bove the postage received.
A lust national pride no less, than our
commercial interests, would seem tofa-
ror lho policy of augmenting the number
of this description of vessels, i hey can
be built in our country cheaper and in
greater numbers than in any other iu the
I refer von to the accompanying report
ofthe Postmaster General for a detailed
arid satisfactory account of the condition
and operation of that department during
the past year. It is gratifying to find
that, within so short a period after the
reduction in the rateB of postage, and
notwithstanding lho great increase of mail
service, the revonue received for the year
will be sufficient to defray all the expen
ses, and that no further aid will be requi
red from the treasury for that purpose.
The first of the American mail steam
ers authorized by the act uf third of March
1845, was coropletod and entered upon
the service on the first of J une last, aud is
now on her third voyage to Bremen, and
other intermediate ports. The other ves
sels authorized under the provisions of
that act are in course of construction, and
will be put upon the Hue as soon as com
pleted. Contracts have also been made
for the transportation of the mail in a
steamer from Charleston toHavanna.
A reciprocal and satisfactory postal ar
rangement has been made by the Post
master General with the authorities of
Bremen, aud no difficulty is apprehended
in making similar arrangements with all
other Powers with which we may have
communications by man steamers, except
with Great Britain.
On tha arrival of the first of the Ameri
cau steamers, bound to Bremen, at South
haropton, in the mouth of Juno last, the
British post-office directed the collectiort
of discriminating postages on all letter
and other mailable matter, which she took
out 16 Great Britain, or which weutiuto
the British Post office on their way to
France and other parts of Europe. The
effect ofthe order of the British post of-
nee is to subject all letters and other mat
ter transported by American steamer td
double postage, one pobiago having been
previously paid on them to the United
Slates, while letters transported in Brit
ish steamer aie subject to pay batasiu
gle postage. This measure was adopted
with the avowed object of protecliugthe
British line of mail steamer now running
between Boston and Liverpool, and, if
permitted to continue, must speedily put
an- end to the transportaion of all letter
and other matter by American steamers,
and give lo British steamers the monopo
ly ofthe business. A just and fair reci
procity is all that wo desire, and on this
we must insist. By our laws, no such
discrimination is made aaoinst British '
steamers bringing letter into our ports,
but all letters arriving in the United
States are subject to tho same rate of pos
tage whether brought in British orAmeri
can vessels. I refer you lo the repvt of
the l uslmaster O antral for a full state
ment ofthe fact of the case, and ofthe
steps taken by him to correct this ine
quality. He has exerted all the power
conferred upon him by the existing law.
tu vt::... r a.. it..:..i c...
London has brought the ahject to the
attention of the British Government, and
is now engaged in negotiations for the
purpose of adjusting reciprocal postal ar
rangements, which shall be equally just
to both countries. Should he fail in con
cluding such arrangements, and should
Great Britain insist oil enforcing the un
equal and unjust measure she has adop
ted, it will become necessary to cooler
additional powers in the Postmaster Gen
eral, in order to enable him to meet the
emergency, and to put our owo-.steamers
on an equal footing with British Btearoer
engaged in transporting the mail between
the two countries; and I recommend that
such powers te conferred.
In view ofthe existing state of our
country, I trust it may not be inappro
priate, in closing this communication, to
call to mind the words of wisdom and ad
monition ofthe first and most illustrious
of my predecessors, in his farewell ad
dress to his countrymen.
That greatest aud best of men, who
served his country so long, and loved it so
much, foresaw, with"serious concern" the
danger to our Union "of characterizing
parties by geographical discriminations
Northern and Southern, Atlantic and
TT-Wern-wher.ee designingmen may en
deavor to excite a belief that there is a
real difference of local interests and
views," and warned bis country agiinst it.
So deep and solemn was his conviction
of the importance oftlie Union and of
preserving harmony between its different
parts, that he declared m his countrymen
in that address, "it is of infinite moment
that yon should properly estimate the im
mense value of your national Union to
your collective and individual happiness;
that you should cherish a cordial, habita-
al and immovable attachment to it; accus
toming yourselves to think and to speak
of it as a palladium of your political safe
ty and prosperity; watching for its preser
vation with jealous anxiety; discounten
ancing whatever may suggest even a sus
picion that it can in any event be aban
doned; end indignantly frowning upon
the first dawning of every attempt to al
ienate any portion of country from the
rest, or tu enfeeble the sacred ties which
now link together the various parts."
After the lapse of half a century, these
admonitions of Washimrton fall upon us
with all the force of truth. It it difficult
to estimate the "immense value" of our
glorious Union of confederated State, to
which we are so much indebted for our
growth in population and wealth, aud for
all that constitutes us a great and happy
nation. How unimportant are all our
differences of opinion upon miner ques
tions ot public policy, compared with its
preservation; aud how scrupulously
should we avoid all agitating topics which
may tend to distract and divide us into
contending partie, separated by geo
graphical lines, whereby it may be weak
ened or endangered.
Invoking the blessings ofthe Almigh
ty Rulerof the Universe upon your de
liberations, it will be my highest duty, no
less than my sincere pleasure, to co-operate
with you in all measures which may
tend to promote the honor and enduring
welfare uf our common country.
JAMES K. POLK.
Washington, December, 1817.
Deaths in thp. Hospital at Perote. ...
Frightful Morality. -We hud fre
quent mention by letters and otherwise,
from Perote, of the alarming mortality a
mong the troops at that post, but were
unprepared for the long list of deaths
occurring during the five month com
mencing on the first of June and closing
on the 1st of December, in the general
hospital at Perote Castle, which we find
in the New Orleans Delta ef the 18th
instant. They comprise 498 deaths, the
day. date, and disease of each being giv
en iu the list, most of whom died of diarr
hoea, dysoiitary, or intermittent fever.
The number shows the deaths to have
averaged irom tnree to iour per day.
Nearly two thirds ofthe whole list were
attached lo the Pennsylvania Regiment.
'More Revelations." At Buffalo, a
few days since, three colored men were
arrested, after a desperate resistance, by
a posse of police officers, charged with
breaking into aud taking possession of a
house. It appears tlm tluce are labor
ing under some kind of fanaiico-religiou
delusion, one of them professing to have
revelations and inspirations from on high;
and their assault upon the house was the
result of a revelation he professed to have
received, that the dwelling wa hi own
A man sooner finds out hi own foible
in a stranger, than any ouhei foible.
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