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South-eastern Independent. (McConnelsville, Ohio) 1871-1871, May 05, 1871, Image 4

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How Life in Mars Goes On.
In the case of the planet liars, and in
the case of the planet Mars -alone, oar
astronomers have really established the
existence of a similarity of physical con
dition, which gives us the strongest posi
tive grounds for inferring that even such
creatures as we now are could somehow
make shift to live there, though, of course,
not without a certain amount of preli
minary discomfort while we were trying to
acclimatize ourselves. Mr. Proctor's
graphic account f these similarities, and
his delightful chart of the planet's conti
nents and waters, suggests to ub to discuss
one or two of the known differences of
condition, in their relation to the probable
results upon the history and civilization of
the Martialists.
First, let us briefly say that the Mar
tialista have a world less in area than one
of our hemispheres to explore ; that, in
spite of this, it has not much less land than
the earth, a much less proportion of its
surface being occupied with water than of
our globe ; its seas are of the general type
of tne Baltic and Mediterranean, for the
most part narrow, straggling, inland seas ;
jthe greatest seas are in the neighborhood
of the cold south pole of Mars, which has
a climate far severer than the north pole ;
there is a world of perpetual snow at tach
Martial pole, which can be seen to diminish
as the summer returns to each hemisphere,
and to increase again as winter comes
back; and, in spite of the prepon
derance of land, a vast deal of rain falls on
Mars, especially in winter, clouds often
hiding the configuration of the continents
from our astronomers, and the suddenly
dispersing, and leaving the continents clear
again a clearing up which usually happens
about the hour of noon-in Mars, just as
our weather so often changes as the sun
passes the meridian ; that the length of the
Martial year is nearly twice as long as
ours; and that the force of gravity on
Mars is much less than half what it is with
us, so that, as Mr. Proctor expresses it, fa
Daniel Lambert on Mars would be able to
leap easily to a height of five or six feet,
and he could run faster than the best of
our terrestrial athletes."
The general result, then, of the tele
scopical observations on Mars, and the de
duced calculations, may be said to be :
(1.) With certainty, that the' weight of
objects of the same mass in Mars is much
less than half what it is here, and that
consequently there would be a far greater
range of activity for creatures of the same
size, that falls would be less dangerous,
that the strain on walls or columns, or any
other supports, would be much less ; and
that, therefore, roofs, arches and struc
tures of that kind might be easily set up
on a much larger scale by creatures of
equal skill with ourselves; but, on the
other hand, that friction, which is more or
less proportional to - pressure, and,
fore, in the case of piles of
stones, etc, to weight, would be far less
than on the surface of the earth, so that
any violent lateral disturbances, such as
hurricanes, would exert a still greater ef
fect than on our earth in destroying such
structures, since there would be less solid
ity and, therefore, less fractional resistance
to overcome in overturning them. Again,
the vastly diminished weight of given
masses would give a very great advantage
to all kinds of engines of draught Car
riages, carts and railways would attain a
vastly greater speed than on our earth, and
the sledging on the snow-fields of Mars
might be as swift as the wind. All these
inferences are matters of certainty, so far
as they go.
But (2) there seems a very great proba
bility that the atmosphere of Mars is re
latively considerable denser than ours,
since at a distance from the sun so much
greater that the planet probably receives,
directly, less than half the light and heat
we receive. There seems no sign of any
arctic severity, and clear evidence that the
atmosphere holds vast quantises of watery
vapr, even in winter, which points to a
temperature much higher than our world
would have if removed to the same dis
tance from the sun, especially when one
considers how much less water to supply
vapor, and how much greater a propor
tion ot iana man tne earth Mars contains.
Again, the rapidity with which storms
clear off from a big continent, and leave
the outlines clearly marked after being all
enveloped in mist before, seems to show
the existence of very rapid currents of air;
and this no doubt the greater inclination
of the axis of Mars, giving a greater range
to the northward and southward journeys
of the sun, would promote. Putting these
facts together, then, we 6hould infer that
tne atmosphere of Mars is, in proportion,
heavier than that cf the earth, and there
fore a wanner envelope for the planet ;
that its winds are more violent, and that
the great difficulty of the architects of the
planet is more likely to be the strengthen
ing of their structures against lateral forces
hurricanes, for instance than against
me buiuu 01 gravity. ineir outer walls
would hav,e to be comparatively much
more solid ; their difficulty in rising broad
arches and spacious roofs would be much
less; and locomotion on Mars must be
more easy and speedy, eeterit paribus, than
wcumouou on eann.
If this be so, we may see a fitness in the
much larger proportion of land in the
planet, and the comparative narrowness
ana smauness ot the s as. Probably life
in Mars is faster than it is here. It is very
improbable that the civilization of the dif
ferent continents there, is divided by peri
ods extending over two thousand years.
There is probably no one of the great con
tinental tracts 01 aiars Known there as
" the New World." If great migrations
of conquering races have taken place on
Mars, as on the earth, they have probably
uruHi eacn otner iaster, Having a less
surface to move over, less obstacles, per
haps, in the way, and greater advantages
in locomotion. We should not be sur
prised, too, if the Martialists had got
greatly ahead of us in resDect of n a vi rat
ing the air. We know that the density of
Ilia 1 1 J . . . . J
puwcb, as wuuie, lit jess man inree
fourths of tnat of our earth; so that it
seems uaeiy inai me tissues of the body
of a Martialist, which must be fed from
the substance of the planet, are. on the
whole, intrinsically lighter than those of
man s ooay. But, u the Martialists' bodies
are intrinsically lighter, and their atmos
phere a good deal heavier than ours, aerial
transit may be a very easy matter to them,
and it is quite conceivable that their
normal mode of locomotion may be through
the air.
Again, if we are right in supposing the
currents of air in Mars to be of more than
usual violence, while the solidifying force
of friction which resists them is much
smaller than here, it may be a reasonable
inference that " natural selection" has al
ready weeded out the loftier growing trees,
which would stand less chance in encount
ers with hurricanes than our own ; and it
is not improbable that the tendency of the
greater facilities for motion, and the great
er velocity of life in Mars altogether,
would be that all its animal inhabitants
range wider for their food, and obtain less
on a given area than on our earth.
We should be disposed to conjecture
that it is a world in which speed is greater
and of more importance than even on the
earth ; and, if so, it seems likely enough
that the difficulty we have supposed as to
the solidity of walls exposed to the atmos
pheric currents of Mars is got over as the
difficulty of building durable structures is
generally got over in our own tropics,
where earthquakes are so common by not
building durable structures at all, but only
very light and fragile ones a process
which would, of course, be much easier
where all the materials were lighter and
all motion swifter than with us. In a
word, it seems likely that the distinctive
feature of life on Mars is velocity; that
the creatures there live faster, move often
er, undergo more change just as the
planet itself passes through a far vaster
orbit (though its orbital velocity is not
quite so great as ours) in one of the
Martial years. But that such a character
istic would tend to quicken the progress
of the mind and of discovery is doubtfuL
With us civilization has never advanced
rapidly till it had become tame and, so to
say, plodding, and the excitements of local
change, at least, had become few. But
the great seasonal changes of Mars es
pecially in the southern hemisphere, where
the winter and summer are aggravated by
the enormously increased distance of the
sun at that period when his rays are least
direct, and his nearness at that period
when his rays are most direct contribute
to confirm the impression we have drawn
from other considerations that physically.
at least, the lite tnere nas lar more oi
rapid change in it than we can easily con
ceive ; but whether that has developed or
arrested the mental and moral progress of
the Martialists is a question of which the
elements are altogether too conjectural for
serious discussion. London Spectator. .
Home Politeness in Little Folks.
" Tnrc wisdom, early eoneht and gained, -Id
age will pive thee rest ;
Oh, then improve the morn of life.
To make iu evening blest."
Parents, as soon as your little ones be
gin to totter about, and speak, say lisping
ly, " ma," and " pa," that very instant teach
tliem courtesy, good manners, to use cor
rect language, chaste, delicate, refined,
avoiding everything vulgar, uncouth,
clownish, indelicate or ungrammaticaL
Even baby lips can be taught refinement,
courtesy, politeness of manners, things
delicate, tasteful, beautiful, heavenly the
little words " please " and " thank you,"
when favors are conferred ; and far easier
will they learn them than older children.
What is termed baby -talk, when ad
dressed to children old enough to under
stand and mutate it, is detestable, ine
parents must remember that when the
child can comprehend one word its educa
tion is begun. The mother, especially, is
called to officiate as professor ot languages
in the domestic; university. But who, in
teaching a foreigner the English language,
would say to him that until he becomes
farther advanced he must call a horse a
" horsey," and a dog a " bow-wow, and
that for the present he will address his
maternal parent as his "mudder?" This
seems sufficiently ridiculous; but this
is not all it would be unjiut to the
learner ; it would teach him pronunciations
which he must unlearn as laboriously as
he learned them. You would, thus, in
fact, double his task. The folly and in
justice are the same when you teach a lit
tle child to speak a distorted, mangled,
burlesque language, of which it becomes
ashamed when older, and tries to unlearn
it
Little folks should be taught correct
language as early as possible ; not a slip
ot tne tongue should pass witnout correc
tion.
We advise all young people to acquire
in early lite the habit of using good lan
guage, both in speaking and in writing,
and to abandon forever the use of slang
words and phrases, else the unfortunate
victim of neglected education is very
probably doomed to talk slang for life.
The first infantile lisping should be
marked with critical precision. Every
thing vile, vulgar, clownish, impolite, un
couth, un grammatical, immoral, and an
slang phrases, should be sedulously avoid
ed, and all things true, honest, just, pure,
lovely, inculcated. All habits, once formed,
are formed forever !
" Fill flret the bn-hel with the wheat.
With wisdom food for souls to eat;
Then chaff, the fiction of the day.
Will find no place, and blow away."
Parents, the habits formed now in the
hearts of your ca'.spring will be life-long.
It was a principle with the old Jesuits
that if they might have the fiist seven
years of a child's life, they cared not who
had the after training.
In teaching your children these little
sweet courtesies of life, you must repeat
over and over the same lessons for the first
few years. It requires line upon line, and
be not discouraged, even after seventy
times repetition. - The reward will come
at length, and you rejoice to see the little
child you have taught so laboriously act
ing voluntarily on principles you have in
stilled, requiring no prompting or correc
tion, for courtesy has become habit
In no place is the distinction between
the refined and the ill-bred more marked
than at the table. If your children are
not early taught politeness here, you must
prepare yourselves and them for a thou
sand mortifications in future life, and must
look to see them regarded as annoying and
disagreeable by those whose good-will you
may most desire to secure. " A child left
to himself bringeth his mother to shame.'
However humble your position in life.
though your family gather about a table of
pine instead ot mahogany, your children
may and should be taught the same lesson
of respectful behavior. It is a duty which
uod requires ot you, and lie holds you re
sponsible for every unchecked manifesta
tion of disrespect or disobedience you al
low in your presence. Let your children
learn to sit quietly until all older than
themselves are helped, and do not begin
compromising with some little insurgent
by a lump trom tne sugar-bowl, it you
do, it will by no means be the " beginning
of the end." As they advance in years,
encourage them to join pleasantly, but al
ways modestly, in the family conversation
around the table. Let the meal time be
one of the most cheerful and heavenly
hours of the day. Come to the festive
board with something good to communi
cate, edifying, administering grace to those
present that every thought, word and
deed may be "apples of gold in pictures
of silver." The table spread with heaven's
choice bounties is the appropriate place to
inculcate order, sobriety, courtesy, polite
ness of manners, gentlemanly deportment,
strict temperance in all things.
14 The family is a little book.
The children are the leaves.
The parents are the cover, that
Protecting beauty gives."
—"Apples of Gold."
Teaching Cows Latin.
I once taught my cows Latin. I don't
mean that I taught them to read it, for it
is very cUiiicult to teach a cow to read
Latin or any of the dead languages a cow
cares more for her cud than she does for
all the classics put together. But if you
begin early you can teach a cow, or a calf
(it you can teach a calf anything, which I
doubt), Latin as well as English. There
were ten cows which I had to escort to
and from pasture night and morning. To
these cows I gave the names of the Koman
numerals, beginning with Unus and Duo,
and going up to Decern. Decern was, of
course, the biggest cow of the party, or at
least sue was tne ruler ot tne others, and
had the place of honor in the Btables and
everywhere else. I admire cows, and es
pecially the exactness with which they de
fine their social position. In this case,
Decern could " lick " Novem, and Novem
could " lick " Octo, and so on down to
Unus, who couldn't lick anybody, but
her own calf. I suppose I ought to have
called the weakest cow Una instead of
Unus, considering her sex ; but I didn't care
much to teach the cows the declensions of
adjectives, in which I was not very well
up myself; and, besides, it would be of
little use to a cow. .people who devote
themselves too severely to the study of the
classics are apt to become dried up : and
you should never do anything to dry up a
cow. Well, these ten cows knew their
names after a while, a least they appeared
to, and would take their places as I called
them. At least if Octo attempted to get
before Novem in going through the bars
(I have heard people speak oft" pair of
bars" when there were six or eight of
them), or into the staple, the mat
ter of precedence was settled then
and there, and once settled there
was no dispute about it afterward.
Novem either put her horns into
Octo's ribs, and Octo shambled to one side.
or else the two locked horns and tried the
game of push and gore, until one gave up.
Nothing is stricter than the etiquette of a
party of cows. There is nothing in royal
courts equal to it ; rank is exactly settled.
and the same individuals always have the
precedence. You know that at Windsor
Castle, if the royal three-ply silk stick
should happen o get in front of the most
royal doubie-and-twisted golden rod, when
the court is going into dinner, something
so dreadful wot Id happen that we don't
dare to think of it It is certain that the
soup would get cold while the golden rod
was pitching the silver stick out of the
castle window into the moat, and perhaps
the island of Great Britain itself would
split in two. But the people are very
careful that it never shall happen, so we
shall probably never know what the effect
would be. Among cows, as I say, the
question is settled in short order, and in a
different manner from what it sometimes
is in other society. It is said that in other
society there is sometimes a great scramble
for the first place for the leadership, as it
is called, and that women, and men too,
fight for what is called position ; and in
order to be first they will injure their
neighbors by telling stories about them
and by backbiting, which is the meanest
kind of biting there is, not excepting the
bite of fleas. But in cow society there is
nothing of this- detraction in order to
secure the first place at the crib, or the
further stall in the stable. If the ques
tion arises, the cows turn in, horns and all,
and settle it with one. square fight, and
that ends it I have often admired this
trait in coves. Charlei D. If arner, in Work
ana flay.
An Electric Joke.
Some weeks ago, one of those illegiti
mate sons of science, the vagrant electric
men, opened out at Fourth and Market
streets, with nis dial tor testing now mucn
torture his voluntary victims could stand.
To stimulate trade, he kept a standing
offer to pay $ ) to whoever could stand
as much electric fluid as his machine would
furnish. One day, a boy presented him
self and announced that he had come to
win that to. The man handed him the
" handles," and started the machine. The
boy stood it wonderfully. The operator
turned the crank faster, and asked the
boy how it felt The boy said it did not
feel at all. The man thought something
must be the matter, and commenced an
elaborate tightening up of the screws, and
then commenced another scries of swift
revolutions, which ought to have produced
a current sufficient to kill the boy ; still he
laughingly assured the fellow that he aid
not exnerience the slightest sensation.
Out of patience, the man demanded to
see his hands, and then the secret was ex
plained. The bov belonged to the tele
graph ofHce, and had picked up one of the
pieces of insulated wire now being put up
inside the office, and had passed it up one
sleeve of his coat around his shoulders,
and down the other sleeve, and then un
covered the ends of the wire in each
band. Thus armed, he had gone to the
electric man ; of course, the uncovered
ends of the wire pressed against the me
tallic handles, presented a better medium
than the bov s bod v. and the current sim
ply passed to them and along the insulated
wire around the boy's body, without touch
ing him. That " electrician was very mad,
and all the more so as the crowd drawn
together thought it a good joke, and took
the boy's part The man was so laughed
at that he left town. Scientific American.
A Knowledge of Common Things.
It is not a knowledge of abstruse and
difficult questions that we need, so much
as a familiarity with the every-day atlkirs
ot me. The number ot persons who at
tain to eminence by the extent of their in
formation is necessarily small. Their
heads tower above others, like peaks of
mountains, and their names are in every
person's mouth. They are the exceptions,
and not the rule. It will be observed in
studying the history of the world, that
the great mass t people, who represent
the valleys, have been raised by the pro
gress of discovery and invention, until the
common man has, at the present age, at
tained a height that was formerly consid
ered inaccessible, except to the scholars
by profession. The man who excels must
go vastly higher now than he was com
pelled to do in the time of Plato and other
philosophers, about whom our learned
pundits tell such marvelous storiea In
fact, Liebig says: "Our children have
more accurate perception and understand
ing of nature and natural phenomena than
Plato had, and they can laugh at the mis
takes made by Pliny." But there is no
denying the tact that a knowledge of com
mon things is sadly needed in every, com
munity; and we must take care that chil
dren of a future generation do not turn
the laugh on us. We are led to these re
flections by the occasional receipt" of let
ters asking questions, the answers to which
ought to be known to the veriest tvro in
science. We are always glad to answer
questions, and many of our correspondents
favor us with valuable information, or
start topics that lead to important investi
gations. Now and then some one "asks
question, very much as if he were to in
quire if water commonly runs np hill, or
something equally absurd. We receive
specimens of minerals, such as quartz or
rocs: crystal or leidspar, desiring
an analysis to be made, and in
quiring if they contain precious
metal ? We are asked if a perpetual
motion be possible t What are the con
stituents of water? Can it be rendered
combustible by being passed through iron
grates? Does the air have any weight?
Can water be compressed? And so on
through a long list of questions, upon sub
jects that ought to be common property
with every one who has attended public
scnooi.
We think that teachers and professors
commit the mistake of aiming their in
struction too high. They take it for
granted that ineir pupils Know more than
they really do, and omit just the common
things about which we are complaining
that there is too much ignorance. If we
begin at the top, and raise the roof of
house, that does not help the foundation.
It is better to see first to the cellar and
basement, and build up strongly from the
bottom ; we can then add to the structure
as much as we please, and those who have
the leisure and the means may go up as
high as their inclinations lead them.
Arithmetic must precede algebra, mineral
ogy properly introduces geology, spelling
goes before composition ; things ought to
be taken in their natural order, and jump
ing over the " Slough of Despond," or
tunneliig the " Hill of Difficulty," will
not no.
What we want is evidently not so much
an increase of knowledge as the universal
dissemination of facts already known. All
scientific men will bear testimony to this.
If no new discovery were to be made for
the next ten years, the world would not
stand still, but would have time to take an
account of stock, and to apply the many
useful things that are now slumbering in
the hands of the few who know about
them.
We say to our friends, the teachers and
writers : Do not soar too high, but keep
down to the level of the masses, and help
us to a knowledge of common things
actemijte American.
A Sunbeam.
The greatest of physical paradoxes is
the sunbeam. It is the most potent and
versatile force we have, and yet it behaves
itself like the gentlest and most accommodating.
Nothing can fall more softly
or more silently upon the earth than the
rays of our great luminary not even the
feathery flakes of snow, which thread
their way through the atmosphere as if they
were too filmy to yield to the demands of
gravity, use grosser things. The most
delicate slip of gold-leaf, exposed as a
target to the sun's shafts, is not stirred to
the extent of a hair, though an infant's
faintest breath would set it into tremulous
motion. The tenderest of human organs
the apple of the eye though pierced
and buffeted each day by thousands of
sunbeams, suffers no pain during the pro
cess, but rejoices in their sweetness, and
blesses the useful light Yet a few of
those rays, insinuating themselves into a
mass of iron, like the Britannia Tubular
Bridge, will compel the closely-knit parti
cles to separate, and will move the whole
enormous fabric with as much ease as a
giant would stir a straw. The play of
those beams upon our sheets of water lifts
up layer after layer into the atmosphere.
and hoists whole rivers from their beds,
only to drop them again in snows upon
the hills, or in fattening showers upon the
plains. Let but the air drink in a little
more sunshine. at one p!ace than another,
and out of it springs the tempest or the
hurricane, which desolates a whole region
in its lunatic wrath. The marvel is that
a power which is capable of assuming
such a diversity of forms, and of produc
ing such stupendous results, should come
to us in ro gentle, so peaceful and so un
pretentious a guise. Brttuh Quarterly
Eeviea.
How We Go to Sleep.
Thb immediate antecedents of sleep-
as languor, a sensation of weight in the
upper eyelids, partial temporary relaxation
of certain muscles, as shown by the nod
ding and dropping of the head upon the
breast, comparative obtuseness to external
impressions, yawning, etc. call for no
special remark. The order in which the
muscles lose their power is, however, de
serving of a passing notice. The muscles
which move the arms and legs usually be-
come relaxed before those which support
the head; and the latter before those
which maintain the body in an erect posi
tion. There are, however, many excep
tions to this rule, as may be seen in church
on a hot Sunday, when some of the con
gregation are almost certain to be seen
with their chins quietly resting on their
chests, but yet quietly grasping their
prayer-books. Moreover, iu relation to
the special senses, that of sight is first lost,
the closing of the eyelids setting up a bar
rier Deiween tne It: una auu uid calci uoi
world ; but independently of the eyelids
if they have been removed by the sur
geon, or cannot be closed through disease
the light is still the first sense whose
function is abolished. Some animals, as
the hare, do not shut their eyes when
asleeD: and in cases of somnambulism the
eyes remain open, although the sense of
bignt 18 Mill HI 1 tj ll'DU AUV, UlUU
senses, as Dr. uammoco tens us, are not
altogether abolished, but their acuteness is
much lessened. Taste is'the first to dis
appear, and then smell ; hearing follows;
and touch is the most persistent of the
senses. So, converoely, a person is most
easily awakened by touch, next in order
by sound, and men dj smeu.
"Take Time by the Forelock."
a
a
If there is any motto that should be al
ways before the mind t f the farmer, from
the first opening of the spring until the
summer work is well under way, it is the
one we have placed at the head of this
article.
A disregard of its teachings is the rock
on which young farmers are most apt to
split Older ones have learned its value
by costly experience, or else have adopted
"bad luck "as their excuse for their bad
management The writer himself has paid
full price for his education in this matter,
and as he has mended his ways, he has
seen his chances tor success materially
brighten. The seasons in their ceaseless
round wait for no man's convenience.
Drouth, and early frost, stand waiting to
shrivel the hopes, and to cut off the
promise of all sluggards. Na'ure loves a
bold farmer, and holds her best favors at
the command of him " who sp aks first"
The laws of order, too the rules of
punctuality and system, which have so
much to do with good farming insist on
close observance, and punish the procrns
tinator with an overwheuiing confusion.
The only safe plan is to be beforehand
with all work. Our seasons are never too
long, and the enormous amount of work
that must be crowded in between the haul
ing out of the first load of manure, and
the planting of the last seed, is enough to
appall any man who does not know what
constant and systematic worK win ac
complish. As soon ss the land is dry
enough to allow teams to go upon it with
out injury, the manure which has not
been hauled out during the winter, must
be set going with all dispatch, and spread
at once. There will be a material loss at
this season from evaporation, and every
rain that washes its soluble parts into the
soil will add to its efficiency. It may
safely be left to lie until the time for
plowmg.comes.
The plow, the harrow, and the seed,
should follow in quick succession, and it
should be the aim to get all hardy crops
into the ground at the earliest possible
moment Corn, of course, being a trop
ical plant, should be delayed until the
danger of frost is past The same is true
of beans, and tender vegetables ; but po
tatoes, grain, peas and grass-seed, cannot
be planted too early, if only the land is
enough settled to admit of good working ;
aud these should all be out of the way by
the time it is necessary to plow for corn.
If they were all in, in the latitude of New
York, by the middle of April, it would be
better for the crops and much better for
for the work that is to follow. Even lite
potatoes which are to be left iu the
ground until October are almost invaria
bly better for early planting.
Mangels need not be set out in the field
until late in June, nor cabbages until even
later, but the land should be plowed and
harrowed in May, that repeated harrowing
may kill the weeds as fast as they germinate ;
and they should be planted in the seed-beds
early enough to be ot full size when the
setting-out time comes.
Almost the only crop that is benefitted
by delay is the carrot The seed of this
germinates so slowly in cool weather
that we have found it best to delay its
planting until June 10th, when it will
sprout in a few day a. But even for the
carrot the land should be prepared in
April, and should be harrowed once a
wees: until planting time, nnn uus
preparation its cultivation will be
easv. Without it. the cost of weed
ing will usually swamp the profit
of the crop. By the time the car
rots are in, and the corn has been once
hoed, it will be time to commence haying
but it is lust here that ninety-nine farmers
out of a hundred are at fault They wait
not only until the grass is in full blossom,
but even until the seed is nearly ripe,
whereas the first appearance of bloom
over the whole field should be the signal
for the commencement of mowing. It is
now too well known to need further argu
ment that not only is hay made from
green grass much more valuable than that
from a later cutting, but a second cutting
of nearly equal value may be taken, and
the land will sutler mucn less than from
a single crop of dead-ripe grass. Of all
the farmers who cut their grass too late,
three-fourths probably do so because they
know no better, and the other fourth be
cause they are behindhand with their
work.
In farming, as in other industries, it is
the early bird that catches the worm.
Early, not only in the morning, but in
the season as welL We entreat ail of our
farmer-readers, therefore, to start at once
with fresh vigor, and, in pursuance with
well laid plans, to make a desperate effort
to get everything done in time- rather too
early than a moment too late. Give every
crop that will bear early planting the ben
efit of the full season ; it will be none too
long at the best and the best preventive
against drouth is well-developed roots
(and this development takes time), while
the only safeguard against early frosts is
early harvesting. So, " take time by the
forelock " in everything. Hearth and
Mome.
Farming in Norway.
A correspondent of the Country Gen
tleman, in an article on farming in Nor
way, says : The amount of work necessary
to raise and secure their scanty crops is vast
ly greater than anything we are acquainted
with. The fields are small and irregular
in shape, so that labor is wasted in tilling
them. There is so little warmth in the
sunshine that they cannot make hay on
the ground, and the green grass has to be
hung up on racks to dry before it can be
put away, and the grain is all tied in bun
dles when first cut, and then strong stakes
are set in the ground, and the bundles in
pairs are hung on either side of those poles,
pair after pair being put on until the pile
is as high as a man can reach. In these
grotesoue looking shocks the grain is
allowed to stand until it is dry, when the
men and women carry it on their backs to
the barns.
The Orchard.
Tee soil Tor a new orchard ought to be
thoroughly prepared before the trees are
planted. If the land has been drained and
deepened in the fall, it will be ready to
receive the trees early in the spring. Sandy
loam soils are best suited for an orchard ;
for being situated on a porous sub-soil,
they are naturally drained. In stiff, re
tentive soils, draining is indispensable.
Drains in orchards are liable to be ob
structed by the fibrous roots of the trees
entering the joints of the tiles, and filling
the bore. Some drainers seal up the joiats
with cement, and hold that by this means
roots will be kept out of the drains, but
that water will percolate through the tiles.
Large tiles are better adapted 'for draining
orchards than small ones, as they are lass
liable to be obstructed by roots. Six inches
in depth of gravel over the tiles will be
found an effective means of keeping roots
out of the drains. Wetter Bural t
They have an eeoentric Judge in New
York State. He has actually refused to
accept the sum of f 2,500 for traveling ex
penses, on the ground that he cannot help
saving f 4,000 or $5,000 a year out of his
present liberal salary.
USEFUL AND SUGGESTIVE.
Ij von wish to keep your enemies from
knowing any harm of you, don't let your
friends know any.
The use of wooden boxes and barrels as
receptacles for ashes is said to be the cause
of nearly one-third of all the fires which
occur in American ciues.
To cure scratches on horses, wash the
legs with warm, strong soap suds, and
then with beef brine. It is said that two
applications will cure the worst case.
To Make Furnitte Oil Take linseed
oil, put it into a glazed pipkin with as
much aikanet root as it will cover. Let it
boil gently, and it will become of a strong
red color; when cool, it will be fit for use.
The Formidable Trio. Poverty, ig
nominy and death are accounted the most
formidable trio of mortal calamities. Let
us counteract their influence by their only
proper antidotes, occupation, virtue and
religion.
" The last word " is the most dangerous
of infernal machines. Husband and wife
should no more strive to get it than they
would struggle to get possession of a
lighted bomshelL
Asa Baldwin. Chautauaua County. N.
Y writes the Rural JVete Yorker that fifty
years ago a very lousy cow of his ate ten
or iweive odious, anu iu niteen hours at
terwards the lice had disappeared. He has
tried the same remedy many times since,
with the same result in each case.
Death to Lice. A correspondent
writes to the American Farmer's Institute
Club : " To kill lice, thoroughly wet them
with alcohol ; this will Kill both nits and
lice: thev will die as soon as the alcohol
touches them, and become perfectly dried
ud in a very short time. I his can be ap
plied without any risk of injury at auy
time, and Biddy says: 'It is the greatest
thing ye ever heard tell of for the heads of
the childer.-"
Planting Forest trees. For the
purpose of making tall, limbless trees val
uable for timber, close planting is advisa
ble say four by three feet apart. The
larch is planted three leet apart eacn way
in England ; in five and one-half years,
one-half is cut for poles for hurUle-lence;
and in ten years one-half of the remainder
is cut for posts. The remaining trees,
thus left six feet apart, are allowed to com
plete their growth. Mearth ana Home.
Horseradish for Animals. An ex
change says : Horseradish is an excellent
condiment to mix with the food of cows
to give them an appetite, and make them
sleek and thrifty. It should be fed freely
to all animals that are not well, and it will
be of great service to working oxen trou
bled with heat If given to cows in doses
of a pint a day. mixed with potatoes or
bran, it will prevent or relieve the cows of
the disease called caKe in the nag. i ew
animals will refuse to eat it, and some will
eat of it greedily, as much as a half peck
at a tune.
Grafting. It is an old idea that graft
ing cannot be done after the leaves have
started into growth. It often happens
that during the busy spring season the
farmer or fruit-grower cannot attend to
the setting of all his cions before the trees
begin their growth, and concludes that it
is of no use to set grafts so late. Trees
may be grafted when in full leaf if cions
have been cut before the duus start, anu
preserved in a dormant condition. In
working the trees while vegetation is ac
tive, care must be taken not to make bad
wounds. We prefer some form of crown
grafting to the usually practiced cleft-
grafting. Hearth and Mome.
Corn m Drought A correspondent
of an Australian newspaper makes the
following suggestions in relation to rais
ing corn in time of drought At times
the weather is so parching at the period
when corn is coming into flower, that the
pollen of the tassel is not in condition to
fulfil its office, and many stalks are left
barren. I am certain that barren corn re
sults from scarcity of pollen, and it can be
easily observed if the wea'her is dry when
the corn comes into flower. To prevent
mishaps of that kind, I would make every
third row about a foot wider than usual,
or about five feet wide, and when the corn
is about a foot high, and has been hoed a
second or third tune, I would plant seed in
this wide row; plant it close, and if the
pollen fails in the first planted corn, the
second may come to the rescue, and
make a crop, when otherwise there might
be none.
Best Milk—Producing Food.
T. L. Hart, of Cornwall, Conn, has
written an article for the Oermantown
Tdfgraph, from which the following is ex
tracted: There is no doubt a difference in the
duality of milk in different cows, some
being rich in caseine or cheese, and that
of others in butter, yet, as a rule, the miia
will be iu a great measure what it is made
by the feed of the cow. The milk from
the same cows may be varied by feed from
80, by the lactometer, up to 115 de
grees, the highest number being the best
and such as is produced by the heaviest
feed.
In a carefully tried experiment, which I
made last winter, I found that heavy feed,
such as corn, wheat, rye, shorts, fed to
twelve cows, pound for pound, did not
make as much milk as wheat bran, into
nine quarts a day, and I have no doubt
that for a time this would invariably be
the result yet I should not dare to con
tinue for any considerable length of time
to teed my cows upon wheat bran- alone,
as it would undoubtedly diminish the
strength of the cow, and soon reduce her
to a condition that she would be incapable
of giving very much milk.
1 am now feeding to twelve cows two
bushels of wheat bran mixed with one
bushel of corn meal ground in the cob,
with very satisfactory results. The milk
is good, the strength or the animal is kept
up, and a diminished amount of hay will
keep the cow in a good thriving condition.
I feed twice a day.
It is yet an open question whether the
feed should be fed dry or wet There is no
doubt that in cold weather it would be
much better if the water, which is required
by cows in milk, could be warmed. If
taken into the system while at a very low
temperature the process of digestion will
be retarded until the temperature of the
water is raised to blood heat
In warming this water digestion is not
only retarded, but there will be a loss of a
certain amount of food, which, like fuel,
is consumed in keeping up the heat of the
body ; and this accounts for the fact that
a herd of cattle requires very much more
food in extremely cold weather than they
do in warm weather. It will be evident,
therefore, that a large amount of food may
be saved by warm stabling in cold weather
and consequently a much greater secretion
of milk is secured.
The great mass of the community are no
doubt ignorant in regard to the great dif
ference in the quality of milk made by
the different kinds of feed. Milk made
from a cow fed upon turnips and buck
wheat bran or buckwheat shorts is totally
unfit for a young child or its mother, and
there is no doubt but that the mortality
among children is often cauted by im
proper food of which the milk is made.
The physician knows the importance of
having the milk from a new milch cow
assigned lor a young child; the why and
wherefore very likely he does not know.
He probably does not know that the
milk from a farrow cow is one-third
heavier and one-third richer in caseine than
that from a new milch cow, and therefore
not as well adapted to the wants of the
child, nor does the mother understand that
the cause of the child's illness is owing to
some improper food eaten by the cow. If
I was desirous of making a given amount
of milk the best adapted to the greatest
number of children, I would feed the cows
on equal part 0n pounds) of oats, wheat
bran, Indian corn and the best of hay and
apples.
Until we become accustomed to trying
experiments, we shall not know for a cer
tainy the quality of food that will, when
fed to a lot of cows, produce the greatest
amount of really good milk for a given
amount of feed, nor shall we know
whether the cutting of hay for our milch
cows will pay the extra expense of labor
in doing it Some of our milkmen who
have tried cutting are of the opinion that
it pays well for the trouble, and some con
template steaming.
Roots, especially carrots, increare the
flow cf milk aud of the best quality, and
tend to keep the cow in good health. Ap
ples will increase the Quantity nearly -m
mucn as turnips, aua ui mucn Detter
quality. '
In making milk there is nothing more
important than good early cut hay. With
out this it may be doubted whether milk
can bo made with profit
Domestic Use of Aqua Ammonia.
A " housekeeper" in the Michigan
Farmer, snvi : For washing paint put a
tablespoon! ul in a quart of moderately hot
water, dip in a nannei ciotn, ana wuu uus
merely wipe over the wood-work ; no
scrubbing will be necessary. For taking
grease spots from any fabric, use the am
monia nearly pure, and men lay wnite
blotting-paper over the spot and iron it
lightly. In washing laces, put 13 drops in
warm suds. To clean silver, mix two tea
spoonfuls of ammonia in a quart of hot
soap suds, put in your silver and wash it
using an old nail brush or tooth brush for
the purpose. For cleaning hair brushes,
etc. sininlv shake the brushes up and
down in a mixture of one teispoonful cf
ammonia to one pint of hot water; when
they are cleaned, rinse them in cold water
and' stand them iu the win! or in a hot
place to dry. For washing finger marks
from looking glasses or windows, put a
few drops of ammonia on a moist rag and
make quick work of it If you wish your
house plants to flourish, put a few drops
of the spirits in every pint of water used
in watering. A teaspoonful in a basin of
cold water will add much to the reiresn-
ing etk'Cts of a bath. Nothing is better
than ammonia water for cleansingthehair.
In every case, rinse off the ammonia with
pure water. Aoua ammonia should be
purchased by the pound or half pound, as
druggists ask an extortionate price per
ounce.
A Great Business House.
The tendency of trade from Lake to State
street, in this city, is apparently something
very wonderful. Only ttre years ago the
great crowd ana rusn were on LaRC street
and State street, down town, was as quiet as
a country viiiaite. rcvaay tne policeman
stands on duty at the crossine, and the crowd
sunres by from mornlner until nitrlit.
cut tranre aa this wonderful transforma
tion may appear to one wbo only visits (Jni
caeo occasionally, tne reason for it is quite
apparent to all wbo hare watched the pro
gress or events. Tne turning or toe tide be
gan with the removal of the great dry goods
house of Field, Leiter & Co. These gentle
men, foreseeing that trade wonld ultimately
drift up town, aa it haa done in New York,
were among the first to select State street as
the scene of their future operations. The
magniuceni marble store tbey now occupy
was built expressly for them. It is perfectly
safe to (ay that so costly an edifice, adapted
to tne occupancy oi a single nnn, would not
have been erected had not this great mer
cantile house been in existence ; for no other
firm doing business in tlia West could nave
made use of so vast a buildiotr. The marble
building itself was sufficient to create a furor
among property-owners, and set them at
wora rearing costly structures in toe imme
diate neighborhood. Built in the finest style
of the renaiuance, of Vermont marble, a
Hundred and one feet of frontage on state
street, and one hundred and fifty-five on
asnuigton, six stories in Height, it marked
an era In the building history of Chicago ;
and strangers visiting the city go to see it
with the same degree of curiosity that leads
tuem to inspect ine laae ana river tunnels,
But when .Messrs. field, Leiter & Co. re
moved from Lake street to this building they
brought their trade with them. Their vaot
wholesale trade reaches every city and hamlet
of the Northwest. The country merchant
finds here everything his customer calls for.
from the most elaborate T-iece of dress goods
to the simplest notion. The building itself
was constructed with reference to furnishing
every possible facility for the rapid transac
tion or business. Ana so it may be trnly said
that Messrs. Field, Leiter A Co. have
brought the army of merchants who visit
Chicago three or four times a year to this
part of the city.
If the appearance of a crowded street were
not considered snracient proof of ail this.
why, then, it is only necessary to state that
the annual sales of this great mercantile
house now amount to flf tee milliomof dollar.
The retail department of Messrs. Field,
Leiter & Co. is the largest and most attractive
in the country, if we except Stewart's, of New
York.
Strangers who visit Chicago to make pur
chases almost invariably go direct to i ield.
Leiter & Co.'s, it being not on!y the oldest,
but the best advertised house of note. Very
few of the readers of the Advocate who have
visited Chicago during the last two years.
have gone away without looking through this
palatial store, we have not had suilicient
space to give a full description of it, and
therefore may return to the subject again. In
the meantime we heartily commend the estab
lishment to alL It is a great business house,
managed with strict honor and integrity, and
the West rhould be proud of its existence.
from the jSorthweslern tnrutuin Advocate.
Fiftkks years ago a young lady of Cin
cinnati, while visiting a friend in New
York, left her finger nngs upon her wash
stand, and not hearing from her friends
relative thereto, interred that the chamber
maid had appropriated them. A few days
ago the Cincinnati lady received a letter
from an old bachelor uncle, enclosing a let
ter fifteen years old, written by her New
York friend, containing the missing rings.
The letter had been entrusted to the uncle,
and he had put it in his pocket, and from
that receptacle it passed into a mass of old
papers, where it had slept quietly ever
since.
TO A.VKRT EVIL IS OSB OF THB GRANDEST
triumphs of human skill. This triumph
achieved by Dr. Walker's Vegetable Vis,
eoar Bitters. Thy bnild up, fortify and reno
vate the feeble system, thus enabling it to defy
the elemental causes of disease. Hence their
efficacy as a protective medicine, in districts
where the air and water are impure. The
weakest and most susceptible organization is
rendered proof against all malarious disorders
by laKing one or two doses aany as a pre
ventive.
Patrsanro's White Wine Vinegar is a mott
tuperb article lor table nse. Warranted pare,
Decipedlt the best remedy that has ever
been dif covered for rheumatism, swollen or
stiff joints, flesh wounds, sprains, bruises,
cuts, and burns, is Johmon't Anodyne Lini
ment. We nse it, and always recommend it
to our mends. .
W should not hesitate to recommend to
any friend of ours, Partonf Purgative Pult
they are scientifically prepared, and are adapt
ed to all the purpose of a good purgative
medicine.
A tocjto doctor in new settlement, on
being asked to contribute toward inclos
ing and ornamenting tne village cemetery.
very coolly remarked that if he filled it he
thought he should do his part.
Thk Little Cobporal for May is an
excellent number, full of pleasing and instructive
reading matter for boys and girls, and older people
wbo have yoang hearts. Terms f 1.50 a year.
Send stamp for specimen nnmbcr and Premium
List to Johji S. Hiuuxm, PubUaaer.iCnlcago, ill.
Try It.
It is amusing that the feeble should totter, with
ancertain steps, over the face of the earth, in dan
rer every day of (ailing victims te the morbid in
fluences by which we are all surronnaea, waea
tested and proven vegetable tonic, capable ot en
dowing them with the vigor they need, is procura
ble In every city, town and settlement. It might
reasonably be thought that after the twelve years'
experience which the world has had of Hoe tetter'
Bitten, all would know that its effect la to prevent
disease.
At certain seasons the atmosphere is surcharged
with the seeds of intermittenta. remittents, rheu
matism, pulmonary disorders, bilious complaints
and the like. Persons whose nervous tystems are
relaxed are the first to succamb to these distem
pers. Brace up the physical energies, then, with
this potential vegetable tonic It is the most pow
erful reenperant which the botanic kingdom has
ever yielded to patient research and experiment.
Try It. The blindest deciple of the old medical
dogmas will at least admit that a tonic and altera
tive, compounded of approved herbs, roots and
narks can do no barm, while the testimony of
thousands invitee a trial of its virtues.
Vigor is the thing most needed hi these rases as
as well as in dyspepsia and nervous affections, and
Hosteller's Bitters Is the safest, surest and most
wholesome strengthening preparation that human
skill has yet concocted.
Hundreds of physicians have abandoaed all the
officinal receipts and prescribed this harmless
tonic as a preventive and care for all eases or
chills and fever.
Pzksohs afflicted with any of the diseases aria,
in? from a disordered liver, someeh, nenrone de
bility, dynpepsla or liver eomplalnt, honldtry
Perry Davis' Pain Killer. It seldom "
armre in a very short time. Thwe troubled wlin
ague or chills will find it a sovereign remedy.
-LRra-ITY.-l. r?, andtMC htasenii ssacan
J WT fJ(Cc H. 6. JOKE lBVrwT.v
A Good Spring Tonic!
Dt CASES or GENERAL debilttt.
A GOOD SUMMER TOXIC,
roa cent or
-Aqruo or Cliills.
.-'.
DR. S. 0. EICHAKDSOFS
SHERRY VlHt BITTERS,
tiib ranra.Tgp
SEW ENGLAND BE3IEDI
ro thb cnx or
Jaundice, Fever and Ague, General Debility,
and all Diseases arising from a Bisor.
dered Stomach, Liver or Bowels.
n A.1U. Am. TV T ..I.I ffv mtDT 111
the mcM prominent phyiician and Unigstat of the ptoce :
Xatabu, Sttu Co- Ohio, JtnwSl.
. ..... . - ... . T a t P1.Ii.hL
mnVsherrr Wine Blttera to wll on coniinieeton. They
..i.iJ I further mnnlr nt three (loZPIl hlt
received. I tlilnk I shall lie- more soon, u they lire in
mod demand and hialily pral" y soflerere ironi lndl)
JAMfcd L. LEEPEK, M. D.
J. N. HARRIS CO., Sale Prfrteter,
- - Cincinnati, Ohio.
For Sale by
rTt-I.FR, FTS'CH FULLER. Chlcaeo, TO.
RK'HAKDSOS CO. St. Louia. Mo
lr vt u l A H.vss Iftibouue. Iowa.
GI5KKNK BCTTOS Mtlwank-e, Wta,
1.01U iiUU3 S. Paul, Minn.
MUTUAL CONTRIBUTION PLAN
OF ITSTrilAJN" CK
AT ACTUAL COST
One-third the I'snaJ Expense.
The Protection Life Insurance
COMPANY,
152 Madison Street, Chicago.
CAPITAL,
$200,000.
$100,000 Brposlted with State Treasurer for
Beaeflt er Follej-Hoiaen.
. 8. SKET5TS, J0H3T Z. TRY,
President. ' Secretary.
OnensTnientorrwetve or Fifteen douareureiaPoBcy
Sjr abuo or $5,000, This Entrance fee and an Annual
Pxyinentar Four or Five Dollara is lU that U paid far the
expenMs of the Company.
When a death occurs an Assessment Is made on the
members, accordinx to ape, n 73 tfn to fci.OO. The
Company ruarantecs the payment of tne Aessments.
Br this svstcm the money b called for in small Minis and
only when needed to pay death tosac, simplicity and
economy ate onlted wun eeneci Bonmiy, mrai uaanux
obtained at jlrit cot, which Is kae Uian one-third the raual
exneme. 1
Tie Company has an ample uan lapitai ana oout ur-
poslt. and operates In each State antler the supervMon oi
the Insurance Department.
AGENTS WANTED.
IflUEGARt bow made in Is hoars. without dracs
ANTED AOBST?S f'JOer day)
we celebrate h OMB 8H 0 rTLK Sb INQ
MACBIKK. Eu the mJer-fmt. mak-e the
I Th. best andeheaDeritiamUv.-ew
a; inr Maculae la we macE'-w aaurr..V'"
BON, CLA-BK CO, Bcton,
burtK ft- Ctucaco, ill- or BL Loula, Mi
Pitta
FERRATED WINE
or
WILD CHERRY
roa
Drupe aula, ladlgtstum, JterveasBem, c
This asreeable and highly efficacious Wine Is prepared
as to present to Invalids a rotable combination of the valna
hleelcments of Cbmrkt. PnrwHoeors axd Iaott, in
form more acceptable than the ordinary prrparatloae
Iron.
An Iaoit Tome aire 8xtftTtv specially adapted to
aeitoiw conntltotloo of Luxnin cases of eeneral weak
nen. Ions of nervous enerjry and impoverished blood.
promotes the appetite, gives renewed strength and energy
to the whole system.
TILDES fc CO
Pbarmacennsts and Chembta,
Kew Lebanon, N. T, and 176 wmiam 81, 5ew York.
FarialebyDrasttetesenerany.
REDUCTION OF PEICES
To conform to
REDUCTION Or DUTIES.
Great 8avin t Ceaaweaera 7 eetllna
Clubs.
... - . T I. m . rtnli fan,
accompany It enntainlne full dlm-dons, nukine a larne
saving a ooneaaw. m.m
THE GREAT A1EEICA5 TEA CO-
P.O.BOX5M3. 3 1 and 33 Vesry St, Sew York
White Rose Potato
MORE NEARLY BTJO PROOF
Than say ether kaewa. variety.
Every Farrow ihonld secure eootteh this spring to raise
als seed Xw another year.
We have a small quantity which we will sen for tntro
ductnoat 50 cents per pound by mail, or $5 per peck
expre.
haul
orders at oscsj tir
nO'VE'y c co.,
Wholesale and Retail Seed Warehonse,
07 PUmte 8t Chtema.
CUT THIS OUT
And send twenty -five cents for a octet, and get a
rTalch, Sewini? Machine, Piano
or some article of value. Six ti-kes forft Oft SbbltntU.
CincinnaU, Ohio.
SEND FOR . 1. 1 VT-MEfUDH
ciRwutf PARKER-SH02JLat'!1-. p
THE ESTEY ORGAN
I fh o3ixy Oram vttli
Cebratnl Vox Jub41antc
and Vox Hnm:tr Stpn.
Prices frvm tTiO.OO arrwinb.
8oH on Kmall tr:i.men
bene Jar lafcuocur to .
H. L. STORY CO.
Reed's Temple of Mode.
47 Dearborn St.,
Chicago.
THEA-NECTAR
BLACK TEA
wMt the 0 . rs rtuwr. War
ranted to sail ail tastes. br 'trie
mrrvtlun. Aim lor sale w
rr. liv the lirent Alias.
tie and r'nriflc Tea Co.,
t'hmrh bt, Kew i ork. V. 1 .
33116. bead fcr Tnca-2eaa
Ctrcuuir.
FAHMIRS, MECrniWTC) WORKERS
can make 8-M im siou per mouba, iui
THE TEAR OP BATTLES,
And mtr Mam. futures and ("tiromoe.
GoosercxD'tf jcriaa Hook a.nd Mat Hot sa, CmCAeo.
Write J. Bentley, Wayne, Itl.t A. O. Bower,
St. Ctisrlen, 111.-. T. R. Janes, Batarta.
and J. tUnne, (newest lke street, Chicago,
It roa aave cancer.
They have remained cared lot years.
YOUNG MEN
flrsTitPir a sue
eeMnii start
Business L 1
attend Eatft-
min folri-re
TisdrW Kt aawl mnarr n sr.ihlr NartlritJ SCbVL
the only one providing situartons ibrpaduaiea. Auirrss,
Jur Cuaincuo of in basiir,
H G EASTMAN. LL. D PoQghfceer4e, X. Y.
gold com.
A Fertaae far all,
a.i. iiaiu rn nnrsisj rr
t. - i-s APIU nUFV IU Uolius
Mm and wearies, wttheot mfonrenlepfe tfielr dally
bmlness, owi id g"d csisie. and at um same time snake
Pamphlets rootairanc full aartlealars bow to obtain
snubyaddr-au . M.HFyirr. .
P O. Box 58, Omaha, Xe hraska.
BI00MINQT0N SUSSES Y, III.
lttftj Tear, no Acres. IS Greenhnoaes.
Lsuwewt Asaarnaeat all ataea. BeatHtaek!
Law Prleeal
Woold yen knew wnat. Woea. How to Fisat Fran
Shade, Biemieeu Trees: Boot Grafts, Seedling Osag
Fhutsc Appte Seed; lUrtv Knse Potatoes; Burabs; Boses
Oram how and tttrdeii Plants, ae.
- Fl.wer aad Vexetaale Seeasw
Finest, Beat CoDecOoo-fiorts and Qoaltrr. Bred
senta tot Kew, IUasiated. Descriptive Cataloeue
pares. Send stamp, esc a, lor CsialoeiKaor 8t1,wU
ialn 9recOona-4 pam Bedtn ar.d ewdea Plante
I para, aod Wholesale Price List 3t pane.
Aadnsa, I. E. FHOKMX. Wnnmlnpna, rUtDOta
i.
no
a
of
It
sip
HU
by
the
n
Li S
I1L,
in
f e
and
It
1C
t
K6-N. O.
k CHEAT MIDICAL DISCOYEBT
WTXL.IO', Ber Tntfmf t their
Wnaterfwl Cwrmtlve Effect,
DR. WilKESS CALIFORNIA
Ther are a Tile FANCY DRINK
Made of Poor Rom, Whi&kt?7i Trt Spirit
Bad Refute Iiqara doctored, tplced and sweet
ened to please the taste, called " Tonics," Appetis
ers," -Restorer, C that lead the tippler on to
drankenaees and rula, bat are a true Medicine, mada
from the Nat! to Roots and Herbs of California, fre
from all Alcoholie mtlmnlanca. Ther are the
GREAT BLOOD PURIFIER and A LIFS
GIVING PRINCIPLE, a perfect Uenorator aa-1
Inrigorator of the System, carrying off all polsonona
natter and restoring the blood to a health T condition.
No person can take those Bitters according- to direc
tions and remain long unwell, provided their bones
are not destroyed by mineral poison or other means,
and the rttal organs watted beyond the point of re
pair. They aire a Goatle Partatire aa well aa a.
Tonic, possessing also, the peculiar merit of acting
aa a powerful agent In relieving Congestion or niflam
matlon of the Liver, and all the Visceral Organa.
FOR FEMALE COMPLAINTS, whether la
young or old, married or single, at the daw a of wo
manhood or at the tarn of life, these Tonic Bitters
no equaL
For Inflammatory and Carenle Rheoma-
tiftm and Goat, Draaeatita or Iadigeacioa
Bilioaa, Remittent and Intermittent Ferers
Dlteaoe of the Blood, Liver, Kidneys, and
Bladder, these Bittern hare been most aaccemfhL
tSeca Diseases are caused by Vitiated Blood
which la generally produced by derangement of the
Digestive Orgs as
11VSPCP4U n TXTITfiPSTTON. Head-
arne, in in the Shoulder. Courtis, T latitats of tho
Chest, Dizziness. Soar ErwUUons of th Stomach.
Bad taste la the Mon-h, Bilioaa Attacks, Palpitation
of the Heart, Inflammation of the Lungs, Faiu in tho
r7iort nt tht Klfinpv. anti a. hiinilred other D&llalul
symptoms, are the olfsprings of Dyspepsia.
Thev teTfimrate the Stomach and stimulate the v3r-
pM liTer and bowel, which render iliem of unequalled
iflrirr In rleansini? the blood of all tmDoritleS. and
Imparting new life and vigor to the whole system.
FOR SKIN DISEA SES, Eruptions, Tetter, Salt
Rheum, Blotches Spota. nmpica. Pustules, BoiJs, Car
buncles, Kin if- Worms, cald-Hcad, Pore EyesErysip
elas. Itch, Scurfs, Disrolorations of the Skin, Humors
and Diseases of the tkin, of whatever name or nature,
are literally ting op and carried ont of the system in a
hort time ov the use of these Bitters. One bottle in
snch cases will convince the most incredulous of their
curative effect.
Cleanse the VI t fated Blood whenever ven And Its
Impurities bursting through the skra in Pimples. Rrup-
uous or sorc! cieanse it vurn juu una it uiKiruntu
and slngKish tnthevelr-S: cleanse it wben it in foul, and
your fee. inn will tell yon when. Keep the blood purs
and the health of the system will follow.
PIV T 4 JVL anrl rtthr WORT!, hirklnr tn tho
system of so many thoufands. are cllectually destroy
ed ana removea. for iuii uirecuons. rrwi cBmany
the circular around each bottle, printed in four la
guAgt English, German, I" rencn and Spanish.
J. WALKER, Proprietor. R. BT. McDOXALD A CO.,
Druggists and Gen. Agents, Ban Francisco, CaL, and
82 and 34 Commerce Street, Kew York.
ITSOLD BT ALL DRFfiGISTS AXD DEALERS.
-4-
T)Ti CROOK'S vnvE OF TAR Is a mnertv which has
Stood Pie test of the public (or 10 year, and ben pn
iMMinced reliable by the 01.101 w has cured, and by Uie
drurzi'ts of tlic country. Will roil kt prejudice prevent
joa irum bang cured also ?
TAKE Dr. Crook swine of Tarn roa haveaCoosh or
Cold.
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar a your Throat or Lonj
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar lfyoa wish Adhma
Cured.
TAKE Dr. Crooks Wine of Tar tor Bronchitis.
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar If your Appetite to pocr.
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar if your Stomach Is out
of order.
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar if you have the liver
CouipUinC
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine ef Tar If joa have Urinary
troutkks.
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar If yon fcel Weak and
DebiluateiL
TAKE Dr.Crork's Wmeof Torlf yoa have a Chronic
Couh you WLsii cured.
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wlneof Tar to strengthen and build
np your system.
DR. CROOK'S WDE OF TAB will core your D
pep"-
TAKE Dr. Crook's Wine of Tar IX yon. are BOlooa.
TAKE Dr Crook's Wine of Tsr if you wirfh to be
heallhy. Fursale by Druist everywhere.
MAKUIED LADIES win and Dr. Crook's Momln?
Sedative tomre Morning Sickness, even in Us most
Violent tonne of Vuuutinjr aod Nausea.
TUST PUBLISHED.
DOWN lflA SALOON.
By the author of the new $600 prize book,
"BOTII SIDES OF THE STREET."
Thejiero of oar story Is lint Introduced to ns as
a circos boy In Mother Brag's saloon ; and the
reader is kindly Invited to follow the fortunes of
this orphan, aa unfolded in the finely written work
announced.
Beon'ifnlly bound hi gold and black and sent
prepaid by mail. Price, 1.50. For sale by all
BookBeil2rs. .
HENRY JTOTT,
Ha. 9 Carafcill, B -..
FEED GBINDEBS.
OrTHtD raved by rrtndlrjr rrabj frstocfc A3
kinds ol live stork improve oae-thlrd fester, awl ijro
hcnl tliier and In aU raspecta better, U fcd on ground lood.
Theedeurated
CHALLENGE "IIILS,
which hare taken the hlshert premiums at every Fatr
whOTehiblted, grind from 20 to 50 bustids per hour of
any kind of (train, in any condition.
Price trans S ta S100.
Send for Circulars to to the
CHALLENGE MLLCOMPAS
WIKTDIIliLS.
The eeiebrmted srlf-eovemtmt Wind Mills, which caV
WOT ur blow now, will pump, and Urim!,
piVcV-nu more work, of any kind, thsn otner Wind
Mill miute, and la the oai.1 rasracrr, aau-eoTXiaaa
Wind Mill known.
bond Jor Circulars and fun Information to tne
CHALLENGE MILL eoMPAST.
Balavla. lfnnola.
AGENTS! READ THIS!
WE WT1X PAT A SALARY
of er weekaiHteTnrtirteaoraiU.wala
comukraiuo. ko eril our nrw w(Jokerfui tnvennoDa. Aa
aa OP 1AffD a I I liasehall Vlfh
Omil. m. FT AVJ. Als as. aaainsHsis. .aa,.
Jfl $100,000.
BOW TO OBTAIN IT I
A namohletor l.ehe pears. sJvhe: theh
' formation turn is v:duable to every maa,
woman mvi child in the U. 8, will be sent
I fnbyauurasang ,
Jk. ST. BM4Mj9
f. O. Box 14, Chlcaso.
4 8PLKKDTD tTIANC'F.! Aaents Wanted!
Two articles ua-d in every fsmilr. Price low. prof,
iu iarae. Circulars sent on application. Samrleeon re
eetptof II. Addtcsal.. Wasd Co.. p.uehkeepie,N.T-
FRAGRANT SAPGLIEHE
fws Kid Gloves and allrmds of CtorhsandcJothmr; re
moval Paint, l.rrane. Tsr, Ac, .ultntlf, without the leant
uijiirv to the local ihhnr. hold br lrirr.1t snd Fancy
Goods dealers. PI! AGHAST. SArVUKSK CO,
SJ iSarclay St , X ew York, 4 LaSalle St.. Chicago
INVESTORS who wrh to tk ont Letter Patf?rrt
areartviseii uomnri with ti Editnra of the aMTtTirio
Am aic vx. who ha v rvrrsftrri rtM claiinit Nore the Patent
OfTicr ior '2' ar. Trtrur AiutTrriUianil fcUiropcan Pauut
Agency j tie inont ntmrtve lathe world, tharvv less
than ar.j other rellabia ateermr. A pamphlet aUH lull
kiMrticti'., to .rrmurl -H-ni ffratte. Allraa
JtirSN & CO., 37 Park Row. Kew Ywt
THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN !
A rtiteaa weekly dewted to Mbchajtits. Mast -
PArrCREb, lHVaWTlOX, CHWIItrntT, EX13JXL710,
AKHTTicrru and Pomjia ttcixxca. Full of aplea
did EntnTlDgs, Term. $Uft) a year. Spocimea wim-
ber Beat frpe. Address,
I C5 N Oc CO- 37 Parh Row, V. Y.
DUTCHER'3 LIGHTNING
PLY IvIIaIaIR
DEADCSHOT
POH X3T3X BUGS.
Try them, and Sleep In Peace !
F V WISH E.vlFLOYMEST, address
L aneioina-amp,J. WaAVLS a CO, Cleveland, Otn;
3'
my iji ; j w " ! ewjsji -sj. a a-m as i

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