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LESSONS PROM ENGLAND.
Brnrrlary Whitney Avoiding ttin lllitndnr
nt Ureiit llrltnln nml 111k Itopnlitlritn
I'i-imIciimsiim In AitmlnUtorlng 111 Do
TI10 lloaoh, Hobcson nml Chandler
system, which succeeded so admirably
in making our nnvy the scoff of tho
world ami In squandering millions of
tho people's money, without giving
nny equivalent, seems to have boon
adopted In England. A storm Is brow
ing over the heads of tho admiralty on
account of rocont disclosures that the
boasted Biltish navy Is not all It Is
represented to bo and has an unduo
proportion of leaking ships nnd burst
ing guns. Some of the fast cruisers,
says tho Saturday Ilcvicw, have provcit
to bo craft which will go very fast ovor
tho inoasurcd milo and then, when
they havo been kept at work for a
voyage or two, become strained, lose
their shape, moro or loss, and become
proverbially leaky and certainly com
paratively slow. " Perhaps such vessels
must needs havo some woakness which
renders thorn llttlo lit for prolonged
bard work. The description seems to
fit the Dolphin, or somo of tho other
notorious craft turned out undor tho
auspices of Mr. Whltnoy's predeces
sors. Tho present hard working,
painstaking and conscientious head of
tho Navy ljepartinent is sparing no
pains to rehabilitate tho navy and is
making tho bc-.t use of the moans
placed ut his disposal.
It will bo well to prollt by tho dis
closures which arc being made in refor
enco to the lh'itlsli navy, the leaky Ca
lypso, tho bursting gun on tiie Colling
wood and tho serious defects of tho
Plueton. Those vessels were of the
most improved and modern typos, and
tho guns were pronounced by tho Ord
nanco Department tho best of thoir
class. A searching inquiry is called
for, and it is fo.tred that the "invinci
ble" British navy will bo found to bo
in tho same unprepared state as was
the French army at tho outbreak of tho
war of 1870. It is decidedly sciontilic
work to mako a vessel which will bo
both switt and strong, or a gun which
will lire a very heavy shot by a very
powerful cbargo of powder without
bur-iting. Mr. Whitney is determined
to secure tlioao necessary elements in
tho building up of the navy. He
is bampeied by tho cumbersome
system which governs the dc
purtmont, and needs a thor
ough reorganization. It should bo
tho first step taken by Congress to
bring around tho reconstruction of tho
navy. Tho department can take ad
vantage of tho cpericnco of England
in avoiding the blunders which havo
wrought such mischief in her navy and
robbed some of her most vaunted ships
of their prestige. Tho Secretary of the
Navy has made tho initiatory move to
adopt a scheme which has proved of
inestimable value to tho BiitMi admir
alty, to havo a list and description of
merchant steamers prepared for tho
department, to bo regarded as avail
able in case of emergency, to servo as
auxiliary cruisers or transports. It is
a plan that is in oporation with tho
groat Powers of Europe, and must
work to advantage in caso of war. If
Congress will only do its ditty toward
tho Navy Department, there will bo no
delay in icp.iiring tho blunders and
rascalities of former years. Albany
THE PLOT EXPOSED.
A rtcpiibllcun Sclicmo to Injure 111 Do
imrtmcnt Thwarted by l'oatraaster-Oeu-er.il
The conspiracy in the railway postal
service, which has just boon ovposod
and puuUhcd, was about what might
have been opcetcd. For a quarter of
a century it was taught, and by many
people believed in this country, that
only one party had the requisite intelli
gence to administer tho Government
and fill the olliecs. Propositions to
tako by tho heels somo of the men who
had held place for a generation and
throw them out havo been looked upon
as verging on treason, and it is not sur
prising, all things considered, that
among tho oflice-holdiug class an im
pudent contempt of authority should
have manifested itself. Moro especial
ly was this to bo expected when, a now
party coming into power, it proceeded
to return good for evil by continuing
the great majority of the subordinate
ofiice-holdcr.-, in their places. Had it
turned them out by the hundred
and thousand, as probably some
of them should havo been
turned out, such of them as
were left would have boon more inter
ested in attending to tho public busi
ness in Mich a way as to moot approval
than they would have been in any
scheme to embarrass their superiors.
Siuco tho inauguration of Mr. Cleve
land there have been frequent rumors
of insubordination on tho part of tho
railwayman elurks. At one timo tlioy
havo been threatening to strike in u
body, and at another they havo been
"organizing" to resist any changes
which tho P03tmastor-Gcner.1l, in nis
discretion, might make. Thoco con
spiracies recently culminated in n woll
dciincd movement in the West to bring
nbout a eomplcto paralysis of the pos
tal servieo at any moment when tho
"uuion," taking exception to orders
from tho Government, should proclaim
a strike. In this performance tho rail
way clerks manifested that spirit of
political intolerance which undor Re
publican rulo made tho civil-scrvico of
tho country a groat party machino and
denied to one-half of tho people roprc
hontation therein, as completely as if
they had boon aliens. Chicago llcrald.
Sample Republican Reform.
Tho record of General Black and
that of his prcdoccssor in the Pension
Ofilco aro matters of comparison and
contrast, on which no judicious Repub
lican organ will needlessly concentrate
public attention. General Iiluok went
into oIMcq as head of tho Pension Bu
reau March 17, 1885. His record as a
Union soldier Is too well-known tonood
rehearsal here. His appointment was
everywhere rocognUod as one oml
nontly lit to bo made. Entering upon
his duties, what was tho state of atlairs
-which he found as to tho ofllceholdors
Hinder him? Tho oillco had been in
llopubllcau hands for twenty yonrs.
For more than half that time the re
publican party had been plodgod
publicly in all its conventions, State
suid national, to tho groat principal of
"divorcing patronage fioiu politics."
On tho 11th of March, 1885, tho day
General Black wont in(o oillco, there
were 148 special examiners in the Pen
sion Department, and pot one of tho
ttutiro twolvu dozen and four was u
IDemoerar. Thore woro 229 clerks de
tailed tP assist in special examination
work and of the entire nineteen dozen
and one there wore just 2 (two) Dem
ocrats. Adding all the othor employes
of tho Peiibiou Oillco to tuos ami tho
total number of persons borno upon
Its salary-roll was 1,G05. And out of
that there wero just seventeen Demo
crats. Seventeen in nearly 1,7001
That is just ono per cent. And this
was tho genuine Uivii-Survico reiorm
which as administered by Uonorul Dud
loy, was sanctioned by ovury Uotmbllo
mi Administration. Boston Ulooc.
Tlin Foolish, Onrolcn nml Injurious Log
Islntlon Which tho Sturdy Chief llxocu
tlrn It Stopping llcforo It Kills Into tho
V. S. Treasury.
The President has sent another batch
of vetoes to tho Senate. Ono of them
stopped a bill which was almost a gro
tesque illustration of tho carelessness
with which Congress passos theso
measures. It directed tho name of a
soldier's widow to bo placed on tho
pension roll, subject to tho pension
laws. It turns out now that her name
i.i on tho pension roll under tho law
already, nnd has been thero sinco Feb
ruary of tliis year, her pension dating
from November of last year; so that
tho bill seems to havo been drafted and
passed in sheer Ignorance of the facts
of tho widow's case. To send up such
a bill for tho President's signature is,
of courso, to say tho least, disrespect
ful. Another of theso bills puts on the
pension roll tho widow of a Commo
dore in the navy who died of hoart
discase ten yonrs after tho war, and
her application had already been re
jected by tho Ponsion Bureau because
of her failure to show that tho discaso
of which her husband died had any
connection with the war. Another
gives a soldier already in rccoipt of a
pension, 89,000 of back pension, for a
period of fifteen years, during which
ho had made no claim on account of
incapacity on account of disease, and
removes tho limit of timo fixed by tho
law of 187!), or in othor words repeals
it for the benefit of this ono man. An
other gives a widow a pension on ac
count of the death of her husband from
inflammation of the stomach ton years
after tho war, and disregards tho" fact
that her application is pending before
tho bureau. Another provides for tho
erection of United States buildings at a
cost of $100,000, at Sioux City, la., not
bocauso tho business of tho Govern
ment at that point calls for them, but
because tho population is growing rap
idly, aud there is already a consider
able number of othor buildings in the
town. Another orders a "substantial
and commodious public building, with
lire-proof vaults," at a cost of 8100,
000, with an open space around it to
protect it from adjacent fires, which
is to provide accommodation for the
post-olllce, and internal rovonuo oflicc
and pension office, at Zanesvillc, O.,
though tho only Federal oillco in tho
place is the post-ofllce. .
What gives theso bills importance is
not so much tho amount of money
they voto away, as tho careless, reck
less spirit in which they aro concocted
and passed. On this point the Presi
dent, in votoing ono of them, observes
"In speaking of tho promiscuous and ill
nth Iscd grants of pensions which havo latoly
boon presented to me for approval, I havo
suokou of thoir 'apparent Congrcslonul sanc
tion' In rcoogultlou of tho fuct I hut a largo
proportion or theso bills havo never boon
submitted to a majority of eltbor branch
of Congress, but aro tho results of
nominal sessions hold for tho express
jiurpooor thoir consideration and attended
by a small minority of the mumbors of tho re
spective houses of tho legislative branch of
' Thus, in considering thoso bills, I havo not
folt that I was aided by the doliborato Judg
ment of tho Congress: and when I luno
doomed It my duty to disapprove many ot tho
hills prosonted, I navo hardly regarded my
action as h dissent from tho conclusions of
the pcoplo's lcprcscntativca "
In other words, a largo body of men,
who aro paid high salaries for attend
ing to tho public business at Washing
ton, but who havo not during tho past
session furnished the country with a
single piece of useful legislation, or ono
instructive debate, allow schomers of
all sorts to got thoir formal sanction
for appropriations of tho public monoy
without their knowing it. The most
charitable conclusion one can reach
about theso bills is that a considerable
proportion of tho membors of both
houses are too idle and lazy to watch
tho business which passes through
thoir hands uhder their own rules of
This, considered as a state of mind,
is bud enough; but thoro is another as
pect of the case, equally serious, which
tho President also touches on when ho
says in vctolug the widow Do Kraft's
"Uory relaxation of prlnclplo in tho grant
ing or ponslons Invites applications without
raorit and oucournges those who for gain
urgo uonost mon to become dishonest. This
Is tho doinoiallzlng lesson taught tho peoDlo,
that as against tho public treasury the most
questionable expodiouts aro allowable."
That is to say, not ono such ponsion
can bo granted without diffusing
through a considerable portion of tho
community tho fooling that thero is
plenty of monoy in tho treasury for al
most any purpose, and that almost any
inodo of getting it out is nllowable.
What Congressmen think so lightly of,
their constituents do not long continue
to regard as very serious, and from
getting monoy to'whieh you havo no
claim, out of tho treasury, undor tho
forms of law, to downright fraud on
tho treasury is a very short step. In
fact, the polton of corruption lurks in
tho wholo business, and President
Cloveland has dono tho country no
greater sorvico than reprobating "it in
hard words. N. Y. Post.
Tho Committeo on Privilogos
and Elections in tho United States Son
ato have passed upon tho effort of tho
Republican ringsters of Ohio to bo
smirch tho fair famo of Henry B.
Payne, a membor of that body. Thoro
woro upon that committeo five llenub-
licins aud four Democrats. Upon
both sitlcs they were tho mon of high
est roputo in thoir respective parties,
the eroam of tho cream, as to ability.
personal integrity, party standing nnd
me-iong experience in public sorvieo.
Of theso nine men, such as are abovo
desoribed, seven declared upon thoir
solomn oaths that the charges against
senator rayno woro unworthy oi con
alrlAPn firm 7,'i. ,,i , ftii, .,
The announcement that tho
Committeo on Commerce of tho Ko
publican Senate Is making large addi
tions to tho River and Harbor bill
passed by the Domooratlo House, and
that it is like to call for two or three
millions m off) when tho upper branch
gets through with it, is an unfortunate
rospouso to tho Republican platforms
recently adopted in Maino and Ver
mont condemning tho Democrats for
their extravagant appropriations. Ar.
Tho task of defoating the ingonu-
ity of pension wolves Is doubtless an
onerous one, but tho Provident Is com?
lug out of it with a reputation for
quiet humor that, when yoked to
strong common sonxo and honesty of
purpose, is thoroughly appreciated by
tho American pooplo, Chicago News,
rhe Killed French Commnr.dcr Talk
About tlin Surrender of .Mcti.
An interesting conversation wltk Mat'
dial Uazalno, at present living In oxllo
it Madrid, is published by a morning
paper. Dcsplto tho volumos that havo
bcon written on tho subject, tlto con
versation Is calculated to throw somo
additional light on tho dramatic ovonts
of 1870. Tho Marshal is now sovonty
Qvo years old, bloated, wlilto-bcarded
and decroptd; and, according to his in
torlocutor, ho bears his dishonor and
his oxllo with tho utmost resignation,
not to say Indlfforonco. Ho bogan tho
conversation by saying that ho wns vory
llttlo known In Franco because ho had
always been in tho field, whero ho won
Ids distinctions stop by step, nnd fight
ing as a soldier. Ho was called "Tho
Man of Motz," nnd was mado re
sponsible for all that had taken place,
nlthough tho capitulation had bcon ad
vocated by tho council of dofenso. Be
sides, ho did not tako tho command on
August 10, bocauso tho Emporor who,
although ho was very ill, was the master
nnd arbiter of tho situation was pres
ent. Referring to tho chargo brought
against him of liavlng mixed up politics
with his dutv as a soldlor, tho Marshal
donicd this. His misfortuno after tho war
was to havo been on good terms with M.
llouhor, nnd to havo called on M. Thlors
instead of going to pay his rospects to
M. Gambelta at tho Hotel dos Reservoirs
in Versailles, whero the tribuno was be
ing made a good deal of by certain 'Gen
orals. Moreover, tho task of pleading
tho Marshal's catiso with uamuetta was
after ward dologatod to a M. do Valfort,
who, instead of doing so, drow up a
hostile report against him, which de
cidod tho tribuno to act. It was not
true that ho had dono any thing in a
lolitical way, except to remain lirm In
lis allegiance to tho Emperor.
1 "Tho worst of it was that after Sedan
Itho army was split up IntoBonapartists,
Orlcanists, Legitimists and Republicans.
'.For my part, 1 asked Prince Frederic
Charles ot Prussia what importance was
(to bo attached to tho Government of nn
itional defonso? I only know that It was
'composed of four or live barristers. Tho
.Prince replied that tho Government of
national defenso was not oven recog
nized by nil the powors."
I Asked whether ho had not erred by
thus corresponding with tho enemy,
the Marshal averred that ho had
perhaps overstepped his limits by doing
so. His object was to assemble tho
Chambers at Rlicims and to get them to
appoint a Government which should ar
rango tho treaty of peace. Ho was of
opinion that peaco should have been
signed after Forbacli. Again returning
ing to tho subject of Mctz, tlto Marshal
brought forward strong charges against
his collwiguo, Marshal MacJInhoii.
"MacAIahon it is who should havo
been most blamed. Why did ho givo
battle without a chance of successP His
defeat produced a deplorable impression
at Met. Instead of ordering out tho
Third and Fifth array corps ho opposed
to tho Germans tho First or African
corps, which is no good out of Algiers.
Ho should at least havo gono into nil en
trenched position at Strasburg, anil
after that all that was loft to him was to
fall back on Verdun. Had ho gono
toward Vordim I might havo attacked
tho rear of tho Germans with ono hun
dred thousand men."
Tho Marshal repeated thah-it was im
possible to got out of Motz witii safety.
Tho placo might havu been held a little
longer had tho garrison oaten rati., but
tho prolongation of the situation would
havo been useless. As to his sentence of
twenty yoars' imprisonment, tho Mar
shal seemed to lay tho blame of it on
Marshal MacMahon, for ho thinks M.
Thiers would havo pardoned him alto
gether. Finally thobroken soldier feebly
complained that he was penniless, anil
that ho might nt least havo been allowed
his pension to keep him Irom starva
tion. His wife, a Spaniard, had gone
to Mexico to look nftor somo house
property givon to him by tho Emperor
Maximilian in halcyon days, and his
rights to which wero contested. Part's
Cor. London Telegram.
SOME NOTED WOMEN.
Tho Difficulties aud Dlsiidwintiiges Under
Which They ltegan Lire.
Clara Morris' mother, writes Cclia
Logan, was a cook in a restaurant in
Clin eland when Clara was a lanky girl
at fifteen years of ago. Managor John
Ellslcr advertised for somo oxtra girls
(or tho ballet in a pantomimo ho was
getting up. Clara applied for a placo
Ui tho extra ballet. Sho woro an old,
toiled calico dress, much too short, a
ohin shawl and a ragged woolen scarf
tvrapped around her head. When tho
extra girls wero no longer required
Clara was retained for small parts.
That was tho beginning of tho career of
4ho great emotional actress, Clara Mor
ris, who, by tho way, is of Engljsh, not
Pretty Maud Granger, with tho gold
brown oyes and shnpoly form, lirst
earned her livelihood by running a sowing-machine.
Sarah Bernhardt was a
dressmaker's apprentice; so was Matilda
Heron. Adelaide Noilson began lifo ns
ehilcVi nurse, and Lady Hamilton as
n ioulerctald. Miss Braddon, tho woll
Vtowtt Sovolist, wis a utility actress in
ike English piovincos, performing prln
ripally in pantomime.
Christina WIsson wui a poor Swedish
poasant, am? ran barduot in childhood.
Jonny Liu3; also a Swede, was tho
daughter K a principal of a young la
dles' boaioing school, and beyond rath
er narrow circumstances had no espe
cial difllcultios in order to gain celeb
rity. The mother of Clara Louise Kollogg
Btraimi ovory norvo to givo Clara a mu
sical fftucation, and at ono timo was a
professional spiritual medium. Mibs Kol
logg failed three times. Eacli timo sho re
tired, not discouraged, but to dovoto
horsolf to tho still furthor development
of her voico. Finally sho took tho pub
lic by storm. Hor first failures woro
Mrs. Langtry is tho daughter of a
country parson of small moans, but tho
old provorbof her face being horfovtuno
proved trim in her caso. Nevertheless,
tho standing Mrs. Langtry lias acquired
upon the boards entitles hor to rank
uinong tho self-mudo womon of tho day.
Minnie Hank's fatlior was a German
and a shoomakor, in tho most strnltonod
circumstances, Hor volcu oarly at
tracted tho attention of ono of Now
York's richest men, who had it oultl
vatod, and thus oponod the way to fame
Wo. have had two great fomalo astron
omors, Miss Hurocliol mid Miss Mitchell.
Both woro slnglo women ami both took
up the study of astronomy in order to
assist thoir brothers. Miss Hoiochol's
pathway to fame was ovor v smooth
road, but Miss Maria Mitchell had every
thing to battle with. Sho was the daugh
ter of a small farmer In Nantucket, who
was obliged to eke out his incomo by
teaching school nt SSawook. Mirla
was constantly occuplod with household
dutlos, and alio dosorlbes her childhood
as "being all ontlloM washing dishes. "
MAKINQ A SALE.
now ft Dakotn Anrlculturlnf Soothed Hli
A man was driving ncross tho coun
try In Dakota when In camo to a houso
with a man hobbling around tho yard on
a crutch. A llno-leoklnc horso was Hod
to a post near Sy, and the trayolor
stopped and said.
"Is that horso for sale?"
"Well, now, I tell you jost how 'Hi
'bout that air boss; you sco it's tho ono
my wlfo drlvos and I don't know ni
sho'd want tcr part with It. It's a vory
gcntlo boss, vory gontle."
"That's what I want, a horse that is
gcntlo and kind."
"That jest hits thnt boss precisoly,
pardncr, no oaslor boss to handlo la tho
"Novor kicks, I supposoP"
"Novor know him tor hlsto Ills fool
'copt tcr walk."
"What is it worth?"
"That'o jest It don't b'llavo I can
soil him my wlfo would miss him so.
Tell you what Pll do, though: you givo
mo ono hundred nnd sovonty-livo dollars
for that boss and I'll try and break in
ono of tho colts for her to drive. Don't
b'liovo I can over get 'em as gontle as
ho is but scoin' you want him I'll let
vou havo him for that."
"Well, I'll tako it. What makes you
"Oh, rhcumntiz got holt uv mo ag'in
jest 'bout used 'mo up. I'll tlo tho
boss behind ycr wagon for you."
"All right. Your barn scorns to bo
scattered around somowhat, cyclono
Well, now I should say thoro did
rcg'lar twister uv a tornado jest spread
it all 'round. Thero you'll lind that
hoss'li lead up all right and bo jost ns
trentlo's a kitten. Good day, stranger,
yer'vo got a mighty fino barg'in there,
titat boss is bound anu wouiuac nun a
Tho man drove off and a boy crawled
out from under tho houso nnd said:
"Dad, It's a mighty good thing old
Bill stopped kickin' 'foro ho come
"You bot it wits, my son. Ho had
jest sent tho last board" of tho barn flyin'
ovor in tho gardon and tho dust wus
settlin' when the feller drovo up. I
guess ho busted two uv my ribs and put
my leg sorter out uv j'int tho lirst kick
ho made, but I reckon ono hundred and
sevcnty-livo will lix 'cm up. I wus
afraid he'd back up and begin on the
barb wire feneo whilo tho man wus hero,
but ho didn't happen to. 'Bout tho
timo bo planted his off foot in my ribs
I'd o' took ninety cents fer him, but I
s'poso it's jest as well tor got a fair
price.' Always remember, my son, in
future lifo of ycr sollin' yor wlfo's fa
vorite buggy boss jost own right up to
it and put on a good prico tcr sooth
yer wounded feolin's at scoin' It go.
Never forgot that tho straight truth
is tho bost in a timo liko this?' E3tcl
Why Sponge Woro at Last itelegated to
u Placo Among tho Animal.
Tho choicest sponges aro obtained
from tho Mediterranean soa. Many of
a loss fine grado aro oxportodfrom Flor
ida, tho West Indies and tho Bahama
Islands. All sponges aro marine except
ono, tho Spongilla. This is to bo found
in streams and lakes attached to sticks,
stones, etc. It has been known to find
its way into wator-pipcs, anil to ac
cumulate in sufficient quantities to make
necessary Its removal. Soft, brittlo
sponges of no commercial valuo are to
bo found nearly ovorywhoro along the
seashore attached to rocks, shells, etc.
Spongos assuino quito a variety of shapes
in their growth. Some aro branched, giv
ing them avorydocided plant-like ap
pearance. Others aro cup-shaped, snd
aro sometimes called basket sponges.
Very many tako on no dofinlto torm or
aro amorphous. So far as I know, no ex
planation has ovor been given of Iho
different forms thoy assume in their
As sponges wero for a long timo conoid
ered plants, it is interesting to consider
why thoy wero at last relegated to a
placo among tho animals. The char
act cts which identify them with animals
aro chlcily two: Tho nature of their
food and tho composition of thoir bodv
substanco. Animals live upon organto
matter; that is, upon other animals or
upon plants. Plants, on the contrary,
livo upon inorganic matter, such as
water, carbonic acid gas and ammonia.
Tried by this test, sponges aro animals.
So, too, ns to the nature of their body
substanco; it docs not contaiu any of
the compounds characteristic of plants,
as starch and cellulose; but its chemical
composition agrees with that of many,
other animals. And so, notwithstand
ing tho fact that some sponges aro vory
plant-liko in shape, and that nil, in hav
ing no power of locomotion, but in
being rooted to one placo, aro Hko tho
great majority of plants and unlike the
great majority of animals, thoy are yet
truo animals. After all, theso resem
blances to plants aro only suporlioial.
Thoro aro many species of lower plants
which havo the powor of locomotion,
and thoro are quito a numborof aninmls
bosldos the sponge which aro fixed, if.
Artists' Modols In Paris.
A curious bit of statistical lorn hss
como to light It scorns that In Paris
thoro is an oilloli list kept of artists'
modols und that thoir number for tho
prosont year amounts to 671. At! na
tionalities aro represented la Us docu
ment, but in proportions that ewmi at
first sight surprising. Tho Italians head
tho list. Of tho wholo 071 thoy consti
tute about a third. Paris horsolf only
supplies ono-half what Italy supplies.
Of French modols in the Purls studios
thore aro but 120. The Germans num
bor strong ut 80; and thon there aro 00
Swiss, 60 Spanish girls, tho samu num
ber of Belgians, 46 English, SO Amor
leans, 4 Austrians, 2 Portuguese and 1
Irish girl. Tho statistics (supply not
only nationality but ago. Of the 671
ItiO havo passed thoir majority, All tho
rest aro young girls from 10 to 20, Of
courso, thoy do not gain thoir livelihood
oxoluslvoly by thoir sittings. Most of
them aro ballot girls or, to adopt thoir
own definition, dramatic artists. St.
Govornoss Now, Tack, if I woro to
give twelve poars to Maudio, ton to
hilltb and three to you, what would It
bo? Jack (aged six) It wouldn't bo
Whr It Frore Fntnl to Indltldaniltr ftntl
thb 8wretcr Emotion.
Tho tromondous growth of citloj Is
ono of tho most striking phases of mod
ern civilization. London nlroady boasts
tt population of nearly 4,000,000 and tho,
great English metropolis still grow?
with tho rapidity which characterizes
our Woslorn towns. Pai Is contlnuos to
absorb a vast proportion of tho wealth
nnd onorglos of Franco. Now York will
soon bo to Amotion what London is to
England. On both sides of the Atlantic
numerous cities of tho socond rank con
stitute arenas in which tho groat battlo
of lifo Is fought with pitiless rivalry and
savago Intensity. Tho proper anil ndo
quato government of groat cities pre
sents ono of tho gravest problems of tho
timo; for, behind all tho splendor of tho
metropolis, thoro stalks tho specter of
tho mob, whoso fury Is over estimated
by tho contrast botwoon boundless lux
ury and hopeless squalor.
OOf courso, this pliaso of human lifo Is
almost as old as the laco Itself, but in
numerable olrcunistancos linvo con
spired to intonslfy the strain of city life
In our money-getting ago. Tho means
of Intercommunication aro so perfect
that the denizen of the modern metropo
lis seems to throb with all tho nativities
of tho great world beyond. Tho neces
sities of tho moment seem moro
imperious than rhoy over seemed
before. Llttlo leisure is left for thought,
action has almost como to bo tho cause,
rathor than tho conscquenco of thought.
In the modern city, as in ancient Rome,
"plain living and high thinking" hnvo
a oittcr struggle for a place. Tho ten
dency is townrd tho profitless luxury
and vulgar ostcnation which follow in
tho train of supei abundant wealth. In
cities moro frequently than in tho com
para'ivo calm of county lito is present
ed tho perplexing problem which Thack
eray has crystallized in tho phrnse, "How
to livo on nothing a year," ami tno no
siro to solvo this prob'lemlies nt tho bot
tom of tho frnntio speculation which at
tracts cagor thousands to the world's
great commercial exchanges.
Tho importance of tho city to tho
development of civilization is not to
bo denied. It is in tho great centers
of population that tho triumphs of hu
man genius aro most readily recognized
and most munificently rewarded. In
cities monoy wilt command luxtirlos
which tho country can not givo us at
nny price. Polish of mannor, tasto in
dress, cosmopolitan tolerance of opin
ion, quickness and penetration of
thought aro tho logical consequences of
tho daily rivalry of great bodies of
mon. Yet, after all that can be said
in favor of cities, it remains undenia
bly truo that tiio essential truth and
beauty of lifo aro to bo found boyond
tho limits of unylolding brick nnd
mortnr. A vast proportion of tho
world's poetry has been written in
cities, but tho true poet's heart is always
in tho green fields and by tho gentle
streams which ho has known in other
days. Tho country air seems to possess
a liner cssonco that fills tho heart with
nobler impulses than aro to bo felt by
him who treads tho pavement In his
round of ceaseless toil. Tho most
splendid pile can rouse in tho soul
no such sonso of beauty as that which
stirs us when wo seo tho moun
tains standing out against tho
matchless background of the sky, and
tho weary toiler will seek in vain,
within tho city's confines, for tho per
fect rest which comes to him who
hears tho lnurmcr of the winds as they
stir tho fragrant pines. City lifo is
luxurious and splendid, but it'is almost
invariably fatal to individuality und to
tho sweeter omotions which give to ex
istence tho only enduring charm. AT.
Means Used by Whtto Men Hold by SttT
aces to Got New to Their Friends.
Tnreo scientific mon, Emin Boy, Dr.
Junker and Signor Casati, havo for
two years been virtually prisoners in tho
depths of Africa. Hemmed in on ono
sido by the followers of tho Maluli they
retreated southward until thoy woro
stopped by hostile blacks not far from
tho sources of tho Nile. There thoy
now aro in tho Unyoro country, waiting
for tho succor which two partios sent
out under Drs. Fischor and Long are
trying, amid groat dillicultics, to carry
to thorn. Though c off from all hope
of escaping by their own exertions, thoy
havo, bcon ablo to send a letter to thoir
friends. Tho fact has been frequently
illustrated within tho past year or two
thnt tho'castaway in savago lands can
often mako his sad plight Known to tho
friends whom it is utterly impossible for
him to reach except by letter.
Tho messenger who bore tho missive
of thoso unfortunates to Victoria Nyanza
was probably just liko thoso who until
recontly woro wont to travel over tho
samo road from tho Egyptian outposts
to the groat lako an almost naked sav
ago cavrying his letter in a split stick
which ho bore high abovo His head when
walking through tho tall wet grass.
Postmon liko this havo dono a great deal
of lottor carrying through African jun
gles, and thoy havo proved to bo faith
ful nnd expeditious.
Tho missionaries nt tho north ond of
Victoria Nyanza for somo months past
havo virtually boon prisonorsin Rubaga,
and until recontly nono of thorn woro
poriuitted to set thoir feet outsldo the
town. Yet in tho dark days when no
whlto man could possibly reach them,
and thoy hardly dared to hope that thoir
lives would bo spared from hour to hour,
they managod several times to commu
nicate with thoir frionds in England.
Hiddon in tho garments of Arab traders,
their letters safelv reached the coast, and
wero read in England about three
months aftor thoy woro written. In tins
same way a number of tho white cap
tives of tho Mahdl havo contrived to
sond tidings from thoir prison huts in
Khartoum to friends in Europe.
Six hundred yoars ago tho man wlui
wished to sond a messago north front
tho south ondiof Coplifn China placed it
in tho hands of a courier, who was ro
lioyod when about twolvo to sixteen
miles on his way ',by a second courier,
aud thus tlw lottor was transferred from
post to post, tho couriers traveling nt a
sharp trot, carrying the lottor ns far in
ono day as tho ordinary traveler could
journoy in threo. Exaotly tho samo
method Is stlil employed to carry the
malls ovor this route. Along tho royal
road that skirts the sea from Saigon
through Anam to Huo tho couriers
still hurry ah an extraordinary prco
wth thoir mail snugly stowed awny in
Tho method of parrying tho mall ii
siiyago lands is bore aud thoro Improv
ing. It is now possiblo, for Instance, a
thousand miles up tho Congo rlvor, to
niilx to a lottor a postage stamp boarlng
the portrait of tho King of tho Belgians
nnd the words 'Froo Congo State," put
it into a civilized mail bag, and sojd it
on its jcmriioy to thp soa. This Is a do
elded improvement on tho black nutivo
With his uullt stick. N, Y, Sun,
READING FOR THE YOUNG.
I sat ono evening watching
A llttlo golden lietid
Tlint wns nodding o'or n lcturc-tiool
And pretty itoon I snldi
" Como, dnrllnjr. you nrn sleepy i
Don't you want to go to bedf"
" No," sho said. "I isn't s'eopy,
Hut I enn't hold up my head.
"Just now It foals so heavy,
Thoro Isn't any usoi
Do lot mo lay It down to rest
On dear Did Motlior Uooscl
I slia'n't shut up my eyes nt alt.
And so you uoodn't tours
I'll koop 'cm opon til tho whllo
To too this picture hero."
And, thon, as T said nothing-,
8ho snttlod for a nap;
Ono curl was rotting on tho frllt
Uf thu old lady's cap;
llcr nrra embraced tho children smnll
Inhabiting tho shoo.
" O dour." thought I, "whnt shall I say?
For this will novor do."
I sat awhile in sllonco
Till tho clock struck a "dlngdlng,"
And thon I wont around and klssod
Tho cunning llttlo thing.
Tho violets unfolded
As 1 kissed hor, and sho said:
"I Isn't H'eopy, sister;'
Hut 1 guess I'll go to bod."
A FORTUNATE FOURTH.
Aunt Mllnila' Target Shooting and
What Came of It.
"Old Scratch is at It ag'in," said
Aunt Melinda, looking toward tho
garden, whore tho family hen was in
dustriously scratching, ns usual. "It's
a good thing wo han't no vegltablcs
growln', fur old Scrnteh would linvo
'em up in less'n no time. This 'cro
soil don't grow nothin' but gold nnd
silver. Howsomovcr, I wouldn'tmind
hnvm' a good crop o' that," and with
a sigh Aunt Melinda set down hor iron
aud took a hot one off tho stove.
"Waal, no," answered Uncle Jona
than, taking his pipe from his mouth:
"a good 'crop o' gold and silver would
bo powerful convenient to hov, an' hero
in Colorado no moro'n we ought to
"You'd want it tor como up coins,"
said Aunt Melinda, with a withering
glanco. "You wouldn't tako a pick
and dig if you knew sartin suro you'd
strike it rich. Why don't you go up
the mountain prospectin'?''
"Mcllndy," said Undo Jobathan,
solemnly, "you forgit my wooden
"Fiddlesticks!" replied Aunt Me
linda, "I don't want you to tako oft
your leg an' d,ig with it. You're well
enough to walk to town for tobacco
every timo you can git tho money out
o' mo to buy it. Hero I stand washin'
an' ironin' to earn money to keep us
niivc, and mobbo up there on tho
mountain yonder is a gold mine jest
waitin' fur tho first man that has grit
cnougn to uig uown lur it. Hain't you
ashamed of yoursolf Jonathan Schriml"
"I'll start out airly in tho mornin',"
answered Uncle Jonathan, meekly.
"Kin I go with you?" asked Jim,
Jim was perched up on a barrel,
with a long gingham apron tied around
his neck. Ho was peeling potatoos for
dinner, and swinging his fcot to und
"You can go if your aunt can spare
you," answered Undo Jonathnn. "I
reckon I won't go fur."
"I reckon you won't," remarked
Aunt Melinda, significantly.
"I'd rather dig gold than peol pota
toos," began Jim, discontentedly.
"Peolin1 potatoes is girls' work."
"Well, you're all the girl I'vo got,
so I have to make uso o' you," replied
Aunt Melinda. "I can't do every
tiling," with a glanco at poor Undo
"When I'vo dono the potatoos, kin I
go out and piny?" questioned Jim.
"Yes," said his aunt, "when you've
pooled tho potatoes and pared the ap
ples and brought in somo wood and set
tho table for dinner."
"Jiminy crickets!"' thought Jim,
"'tnin't no fun to play bein' a girl."
Old Scratch was already at work and
throwing tho dirt in every direction
when Jim came out in the garden tho
next morning at seven o'clock. Her
owner put his hands in his pockets and
watched her admiringly.
"Sho's tho best Tien in tho hull
camp," ho was thinking, when bang!
bnng! wont somotbing right nt his foot.
"Hullo, Jim!" called out a boy on
tho other sido of tho fence. "AVhat
are yon jumpin' fur? Didn't you know
'twas tho Fourth' of July?"
"So it is!" said Jim.' "I clean for
got. Gim' mo somo o' yourcrackers."
"Jim Schrim," called Aunt Melinda,
"come right in hero and wash theso
And Jim went reluctantly into tho
"It's the Fourth o' July," ho ex
claimed, as lie entered the door.
Undo Jonathnn nearly dropped his
pipo in surprise
"I declare to goodness!" ho bogan,
"if hero I wasn't slartin' out to work
on a national holiday. I'd forgot all
about its bein' tho Fourth. Tho peoplo
in this 'ere country don't caro uutliin'
fur Sundays an' holidays."
"Kin I hov somo crackersP" beggod
Jim, who had tied on his gingham
apron and was industriously using a
"Ask your aunt," suggested Undo
Jonathan. "Sho used tor bo noted fur
boin' so patriotic."
"I hain't got no money to spend on
them kind o' crackers," said Aunt
"Novor mind," whisoorod Uncle
Jonathan to Jim, with a wink. "I'll
let you fire off mv nistol."
So, when Jim Iml finished tho dish
es and swopt up thu kitchen, he fol
lowed his uncle out in the gardon and
thoy nailed a board on ft troo for a
mark. It was fortunate t' ' '-ey had
plenty of cartridges, for . .a r were
very good shots, and tho balls went
flying many yards from tho target.
Finally, Aunt Melinda camo to tho
door of tho cabin nnd condescended to
make remarks on their skill.
"I could do hotter than that myself,
Jonathan Schrim' sho doolnred.
"Come on then!" said Undo Jona
than. So Aunt Mollndr. took tho pistol
firmly in her right hand and pointed It
straight ut the target,
tlion't kill old Scratch!" chuckled
But oven ns lie laughed, thero oamo
thu click of tho pistol, nnd Jim's pre
cious hen fell dead on the ground,
"What hov I donoP" criod Aunt
Molinda. "Why didn't you toll me
sho wbb in tho way?"
"Sho wasn't nowhere noar you,"
insisted Uncle Jonathan; "aud I
thought you was goln' to shoot at tho
Poor Jim was crying as though his
heart wus quito brokun.
"Nover mind,"" said his mint, pat
ting his head. "I'll buy yon another
hen, and wo'll oat old boratch for diiir
Her. Firlu' pistols 13 always danger
ous." Undo Jonatun picked up old
Scratch and carried hor off to pronara
hor for cooking. He was gono a long
Whon ho camo back Aunt Molinda
bad returned to her ironing, nnd Jim
wns sitting disconsolately on tho door
stop. "Look hero what I found," ho said
Thoro woro somo shining pnrticlcj
in Ids hand.
"Why, it looks liko pold," said Aunt
Mollndn. "Whore did you git it?"
"In old Scratch's craw," said Undo
Jonathan. "I'm goln' to tako it to Iho
assaycr's. Whatever it is, ltr como
out of our garden." .
Tho assaycr discovered that' what
Undo Jonathan brought htm was six
dollars' woith of pure gold, and in a
fow wcoks tho garden was leased to
mon who bogan sinking a shaft
By tho noxt Fourth of July Aunt
Mollndn, ns tho wlfo of a woalthy man,
had grown bottor-toinporod, and Jim
went to school and was as independent
nnd manly as though ho had never
worn a gingham apron.
"I toll you, Molindy," Uncle Jona
than used to say, "I wnsn't such a fool
as you thought whon I sot 'round and
smoked my little black plpo an' lot old
Scratch do my prospectin' fur mo."
The True Story of a Motlior, Cat
Throe Little Squirrels.
Mrs. Williams stood on tho porch ot
hor farm-houso homo in Indiana ono
day, looking for her two boys, who had
been out hunting. In a corner of tho
porch was a big basket, in which lay an
old Cat, with threo kittens aboutaweok
old. Presently tho two boys camo up.
Will had his hat in his hand, carrying
something, which proved to bo three
very young squirrels. Thov Itad killed
tho motlior, and, findLr tho young
ones in tho nest, had biought them
home, and moant to ralso them for
"I'll put 'em down here, and got a
box for 'em," and Will, taking tho
llttlo things from his cap, and placing
them on tho floor of tho porch. At
that moment, Tab jumped out of her
basket, and marched up to them.
"Oh, tho cat! She'll cat 'em up!"
erica Mrs. Williams, and was stopping
to rcscuo the
'.Let s sco
What puss did do was to walk up, go
around tho squirrels, smell them a lit
tle, and then lick and caress them,
purring softly over them. She.
stayed a moment, then turned
nnd walked away, when, hear
ing ono of tho squirrels crv, sho
tunica back, watched tnom a little,
then deliberately picked ono of them
up, and carricd'it to hor basket. Lay
ing it down with hor kittens, she canto
back and carried the other two in the
samo way. Whon they wore all in the
nest, sho cuddled herself down with
them, licking and smoothing thoir fur
as if they were her own babies.
Tho boys were delighted, but Mrs.
Williams was greatly alarmed, and
wanted them to tako the little creat
ures out, declaring thnt thoy would bo
caton by morning. Tho boys, howev
er, left tho squirrels and kittens togeth
er, and tho noxt morning they wore ns
contented ns if thoy had always been
And there they stayed, and iho good
old Tab brought thorn up with hor own
family. Thoy soon got largo enough
to run up the trees in tho yard, whero
they would play and frisk about, and
return, when tired, to thoir cat-mother.
At last one of thorn ran off to tho
woods, and a day or two later tho oth
er ones followed. Tho boys tried to
catch the ungrateful llttlo "beasts, but
did not succeed.
Puss whined and mewed after them
for a few days, and refused to be com
forted, but finding they did not return,
devoted herself to tho rest of hor fami
ly, and seemed to conclude to mourn
no longor for her foster-children.
This Incident actually occurred, just
as given, near tho little village of Har
monv, during the yenr just passed.
Mattie Dyer liriits, in Youth's Compan
What Became of the Cream.
The Filbert children woro going to
Farmer Wheat's for somo cream. It
was a milo to tho farm. Harry was to
tako his now wheelbarrow, to wheel
the jar. Thoy wore to have ico-cream
in the afternoon. At the thought of
this treat both Harry and little Holon
clapped their hands with joy.
"Walk carefully," said Mamma
Filbert, "for tho jar will bo full. II
you aro tired you, may rest in tho
shade. Como back as soon as you
Tho children sot out in high glee.
Harry frolicked along tho road, whilo
Helen picked wild Mowers by the road
side. Tho earthen jar was tilled with
cream. Mrs. Wheat tlod tho cover on,
and packed tho jar nicely in tho llttlo
wheelbarrow with somo wisps of hay.
"Now it will not slldo about," she
Tho children sot out upon their re
turn. But the sun now began to grow
"Let us go through tho woods,"
"Do )bu know the way?" asked
"I think I do. It isn't far!"
It was pleasant in tho shade, though
tho patli was rough. Tho squirrels
irisKou overuoau, anu me ontiaron be-
an to feel like frisking themselves,
esides, what can you oxpect when a
boy has a fino red wheelbarrow, with,
yellow horses paintod on the sides.
Tho horses wero standing on their
hind legs, just as if thoy wore trying to
jump up to the squirrels.
Horry forgot what his mother told
him. Ho bogan to frisk, aud than ta
gallop, while the whoolbarrow bounocd
over the stones in the path. The chil
dren raced till thoy wore out of breath.
Tho path was longer than they thought.
Mamma Filbert had been looking for
thorn fifteen minutes whon they readied
"Why, how warm you. aro!" sho
cried, as she took out the Ttr. As sho
opened it sho laughed and shook her
"You will have to go without lco
oroum to-day," she said.
Tho children began to wondor.
Their mother took a spoon, and, afto
n fow stirs with It, showed thorn a Una
jar of button
"Your wheelbarrow is a good churn,
Harry," said, she; Hunt when you go
after cream you must mind your moth
er, and walk carefully,1'
So Harry's disobedience oust th
qhjhh-m thoir loc-oreani that day,
Our Little pnes. M '
ploying over thli
offloo in Vienna em.
rty printers U ullowed
to do work on Btjgday