K. A. ItHATrOIV, 7
r r"r r nd I'roprlclor. $
' J TERMS ftl 00 PK K AIfU
f IN ADVANCED
TCU4L fP IXACl UfTIC TO ALL KEW, Cr WHATEVER STATU OR FtBStJASlOlf, EELI3I0U3 OH FOLrrtOAL,',...Tlioma J.ff-rion.
Volume 5. -
Ult-Arllmr. Vinton Co., 0.. Thursday, Jan. 24, .8110.
... - . - r w ,
f-T.v .-.. ' " Wj-' - .
nr: .. $ rrrrrv f.-. i i, v 'm .cvy . v - n r v
V THE raTliO DEIIOTR tT.
VDITKD AND Fl'Bl.lKlIRD BY
; Ej W A II Ik A . R It A 'I TON
. .VS'r "t door eait oj tie Court
.'. TEFiVS CF CLBSCRIPTION J
, . . 1.00 per ytur, tiuil ij uu! jivyt within tht
. yar, 2.00 in' br churtd. .
Thrnt TtrniH mint be itrictly complied
. vith. (i; no j.iij.vr u Ulbr ilitst.anliumd until
. nil arrrortipr urt paid, units ut llu upliun
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t ihh "e TFTiM mTi t c.
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T. - J.iij.'u tlttlucliiiH M ill Lt intuit lu vtr-
luni! M'Uct hiinii Oil tlUyuT, ' '
: Alt i(ii.7i(Hiii jmyublt in udtonce or
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Vfrt .I't! Illliillll II. lWil.ll 111 till
M..r''-'. I It III. Ill It t I lbllt tt.lltlillll III)
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Lvcutr. yAkiw uau
bill ijtdi.ft, J.i.Lim. i,(e liilU,
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. . CCS NVe iesieriluilv koiirii ilio printing
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Atl.lsfur Hit ' 'It Jill.tr Liu.uriut."
' Th. fuhdwiiigO.LUcn.tu l.nc.iv. ai d B.cilp
101 febbftO uukftkU. AUViltUlll..U.-, lOf liU 4-
ii, m V iiiu touniy. cuo.
J. J. iLUfVN,
- J. 1. t.Aa'iM, ,
Itbimteii Furnocf. .
lttmiii.il 'tuv iisIiiji
1 ivioa Cox,
Jmu. Ci.aiik, Sr.,
- J, (jll,H.t, '
- ttSlKESS DiEEOTOHY
... FOR VIMUN CUUM, OH 10
h. 1. tbVH T, JiiJ ol t'robue Cour
"W.L. iiDMISTOiN.tieik Com.l'leiis C'our
E. A. ft RATION l'roi.iuiHi(j Aituniev
Wii, TISUE, Slu-i.ir.
k JOStlMl MAG EE. AudiUu.
' i.VMKS MALONE, UeiuiJer.
- NELSON KlCHMONb, Surveyor.
(Vntatil,) Coroner. . t ,
C. ). GRAY, J- KINNEY, ft JN0.SWA1M,
-.0. T. UUNN1NU. G. W. SHUCK EY ami
E. A. JJUATTON. .
1 K U I1' U K ft A (J . a , ,
".Witli their oH OHite Adreaes.
. - - .
ClKI-INAAIi' t CUAAVt. tsitall, SlW'
ri to. Aiui.uiui.tu(er.s ol tl.u be b l
(Utility of l'ig lioti. ilun.iUt:, 1'eiuU
E.VULL i;c KNACK, SlulllFV, l'f II t ! y &
- L'u. .Mniiiiluttuirr til tli t'ct ijuulitv
ul Tig I en . Egle I't.n Ulin n.
Vl.SHuN It ltlACF, MfHIIf, C'Uik .V, Co'
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tlAliiifci!. l:t'i &Atk, VUt, iult tic Co
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Liu i'iiMi 1 ll(&.vvfc. Hurllrll, Llmm ()
Co., Aiuii ulm lUiriB ol tlif liebl itiulil
ol I'lj, llou. 1'oal Citlite hi Allien., U.
Mk.IH IIAT OP VlMUS, WHUAHf
I llicit ii, i l) lioj. iiuidwdiu, l.uttnwu, EooU
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V II KtMI LF. S. S. M.llM. Jul II (iillfll
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liif.iliriy. c-in tS Mi'ui..
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ler, Jtori'ii U niui.
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ii KiN iVl li.L. J . Uiorr.
L.i.k in, !n'5 AiiiL. W illinui 'l isiie.
HliMl I 1(1. 1; O O 1U s
Mcl!THCH. E. I'. lUiiliwell.
D R t ti Li I b 'J 'S.
McAiiTiicii. U. ti. Will.
iUtiUt.N. Ouvisik Collin-). '
V iLKttvu.LK. Clme & dbiilner.
DOOT ANl SLOL&IUKtS.
McAutii i k.-J. G. Seilunil. I). C. Cuwe
; . K BINGI.AM
Alio rite ai Ln,
McAKTHLfR. OHIO. i
-Will prnrtMT in Vmion u nil iirijuiiiiiie couii
tiff. Ollue tire iloort Ueei of ilie I'iI
- Kli.Ji, 1652. - 34 if
MII.10N L.tLAkK jiunp, ruu
ULAKK AND PLYLEYj
Alloritcjs al Law.
' ' , "McAKThL'fe, OHIO. ,
Will practice in ii&rtnt-rMiip hi Vinton Conu
ty. Ulhi e, lour doors east ol Sisson & Hul
bttxn Hotel. i. '
Eet). 165-t. lv-9. '
a t lo rney-a I La w,
' 1 " Mc'ARltiUR.OIlio. . . ,i
WILL practice hi Vintoi) unit mljoininx
. counties. Uthce, one door east ol the
SO, D. THtEKJl, y. si. babcock, jho, babcock
BAB UO G K & GO.
ICiiuliiissicii! Mcicliiiiils. i
1.0 tii i 6? wuttr Street, NEW : OKKi
Febuary 4.'&4.-ly. ,-. K .-... i j
CMAC'A.'M. ilAMABIB.'. LtWHcDAIAKl!
Cf ASA. M. DMAFiN & C0 i
AND DEALERS IN PEODljCE.
Ni. 85, Fboht Street,
PORTSMOUTH, OHIO. '. .
Delivered January, 14th 1856.
Follow-citizens of the Senate
and House of Representatives.
It lu pleased thp people of Ohio lo
rail mek tlirir sorvire in llif capacily
01 oopr:ior oi the Stale.
Belne etxeiiim upon the discharge
. . . .
mnned. lam required by the lunda
menial Iw tn take an nath or affirm
aiion to support ili.e Couslitnjli.oiis of
the Ui."itd Status and ofthia St.le,and
to take also an oath of office, j
'. ln4conipliance wiilr -tenerable
usage, not establifhed. indeed, by ihe
ConMitution, but recommended by the
examples of all inv predecessor, I am
belnre j ou lor tlie purpose of taking
upon myself the solemn obligations
w hich the CooHUOJiou imposs.es of
ueciaiing, i.iei.i), tne general pnnct
plea b whid', in my judgement, the
conduct ol public alVnrs should be reg
ulated, and ol indicating some of their
more obivous applications.
The Comiituiional diUv of cmnitin
..uiin th General Ansembly the
oiidiiion ol the State,, and oX'ei'om
mending measures by him deemed ex
pedient, devolved upon my prederessor
who lids accordingly laid helore you
Hie lep irts ol the several Slate officers
accompanied by such reccoimnenda
uontf as seemed to him most likely to
promote the public welfare.
. The duty which usage imposses up.
on me, rcnuires no detailed exposition
In the discharge ol that duty I shall
peaK with, ditlidence, and Irankness
A proloud sense af defective iutorma.
lion limbed ability will lotbid presum
)iion;wlii!e graditude to the people as
ue.'p as it is lervent lor I lie generous
confidence which their sulTrajes evince
will constrain me, irresistibly, not on
ly to the best exertion of all my facili
ties in their service but to the plain
est declaration ol'tlie views ol public
policy, which investigations and re
flection have led me to adopt, subject
always to the corrections ol reason and
ll 1 may not hope for general con
currence in these views, I may at least
expect, from the - intelligence. and jus
lice ol the people cantiid consideration
and Impartial judgement.
The sovereignity of the people is
the distinguished characteristic of our
Institutions. The People constitute,
tne State, Government is nothing but
the administration ol the a Hairs ot tiir
I'ople by the agents ol the People,
selected in such maner and invested
vutli such powers as are best adipted
hi their judgement to the security ol
heir own rights and, the advauceuit'tit
l their own interests.
'1 o the successful working of such
ntctutions two conditions are indis
..aiisablei The first is, personal Iree
.i.in; the second is official respoiisibil
ty Without personal Ireedaui.invio-
bl) seiurtd to cery individual, there
nd) be community of pnvliged super
iois und dt'grxded dependents; but
if le cannot be, in the true sense ol
uc woiO, a People. iihotit lespon--ibiliij,
coiistautly exacted and vigor
ua-iv nilorctd, th sevants oi'he Pe
j le aje but too apt to become their
musters ller iel vigilence, it has been
Meii said, i the price ol Liberty ii
our own fetatft personal Ircedoni is
tiiiran'eed by the lundanieiital law:
nU the lesponsilility ol public servant
is secured by the partition of govern
menial powers, b) strict limitations ol
auilmnty, and by Irequent elections.
To you, Senators and Rppresenta
lies, belongs excluiely the lunctiou
of legisiaiio;i, par of this power,
nd no control wiairver over your ex
en ise of it is contided to the Execu-
tie. loliiin Lelongfi the duty ol re
commending to your consideration
such measures as he may think best
Hdpird to promote the public weliare;
but there his duty ends. The rest is
To secure individual rights against
invasion; to liirnish adequate remedies
lor the redress ol injuries; to provide
the means and difluse the Lent lit s ol
edui ation; to rescue, from unhapp)
destinies, those children ol sorrow, the
deal, the dumb, the blind and the in
sane; to define the just course and lim
its ol individual and. associated adieu;
to develope the resources, protect the
interests and dejend the honor of the
State; to maintain the public laitli, and
make provision lor the discharge ol
the public obligations; these are some
of the high duties -a hi tht he Constitu
tion of Hie S t te and and the choii
ot the people devolve upon y ou.
For tht supply ol'th means necess
ary to the due perl'orniaute of these
dnties and to the proper administration
ol the State government, Ihe patriotism
oi the people may be - safety trusted;
but they will justly require - that n
more revenue be collected than is indis
pensably necessary- to these ends- and
tuat clear, accounts be. tendered ot its
laiihiul application' to proper1 nublii i
o9. 1 '
ahe.bufdtns of taxation have be-
cou.e very gruvous. Kelorm, bothih.
measure an J in mode, ii universalis
demanded; and 1 eamesly invoke
jour most icrioui auentoa jo ibi.i
ol llie duties to which I am thus ciim..T
" 1 l,t"
iniporrtant matter. As far as possible,
the aggregate of taxation should b
reduced by Oie introduction of rigid
economy into every brahcli of the pub
lic fervicer; and, the greatest" carf
should be taben to apportion, its bur
dens jqually upon all non-exempt pro
perty ol everv distription, by nlionniV
ever held. No lavor and no disfavor
i-hould be shown towards onedicscrijj-
of property or cNssof o-vners rath
.i. i .
Under instructions issued by t lay
late Auditor of State, the statutory
right of each citizen to deduct his
debts from his credits, in listing hit
rrojperty for taxation, has betn deniea.
n issuing these instruction, thelatf
Auditor was governed, doubtless, by
r fi pert lor a dicision of a majority ol
the Judges ol supreme Court by which
the section of the act which allows this
deduction was declared to be unconsti.
tutiomil. Notwithstanding that deci-st
ion lion ever, tjie Legislature has not
lIlAlli.Kt 111 In rara 1 1 1ia law anil it m 1 If
If doubted whether the couit, upun rejf
caivsid.ration, will adhere to the opin
ion heretofore expressed. Should the
present Auditor, under th,ese circum
stances, think it is his duty to conform
ins instructions to the statute, which
remains unrepealed, rather than to lh
opinion of the majority ol the court,
the riht denied by his preduccsscs,
will be restored. ' "
A sound and suIlnMent currency is
indi-pensable to to lite wel'are ol eve
ry civilized coiumunity. The best,
praticable currency in my judgemeat
would be a currency of coin, admitting
the u.e ol large notes only, for the con
veuieme ol commerce. Suc'i a cur
rency however is only attained through
the legislation of Congress, and the
action of the General Government.
Connected as we ara on ail sides with
States in which bsnds cf circulation
are eriallislied, our actual cu:reiuy,in
the ausctise ot edequate iwtiking cap
ital within our limits, mu.tf tn.-s.-Hnlv
be supplied, in great measure, by instt
tutious be) oud our control and exemp.
form our taxation. All at etnpts f)
exclude, by penal legislation, the bank
notes ol other States from circulation
in this, baved rrove ineffectual; and
the public sentiment demands an in
crease ot bankiDg capital, organized
under our own . laws contributing, in
just measure to our own revenues, and
sufficient to luruish the necessary fac
ilities lor the transaction ol business.
The Constitution ot the State indicates
tne mode in which this demand may
be satUhYd. It provides for authorize
mg usaociations with banking powers
by act ol the general Assembly to be
submitted to tno people and the next
general election and not to take effect,
unless then approved by a majority ol
all the voters. In framing such an
act should )ou deem it expedient to
exercise tne power thus vested in you,
tne utmost care snouiu tie useu to secure
the prompt and certain convertibility
of every note issued into gold or silver
coin upon demand ol the holder;to pro
tect the community against all abuses
of granted powersjand to gaurd against
the evils ot monopoly by extending the
tue benefits ol act to all who will give
the ample securities and guaraniies
which you will doubtless, required. No
general objection exists to a mixed cur
rency of coin and notes exciangable
or coin at the will of the holderwithout
loss; while all mere paper money sys
tems, pregnant with fraud and fruitful
of i uiii, justly incur universal reproba
For several years past the law has
allowed contracts lor intereest at the
ate of ten per centum. There seems
to be no valid reason why the capital
ist should be encouraged.to demand so
large a poportion ol the earnings ol
the producer and the profits of the man
ulacturer and the merchant. I there
fore respectlully eupeest a material re
duction of the maximal, rate allowed.
1 need not commend to your judi
ciotis consideration the Educational
and Uenevolent Institutions ot thestaies
Universal Educations is ourcheapesl
i elite ans surest sateguard and most en
during wealth, Cur Common Schools
winch secure lo the people this great
benefit are firmly established in their
allevtious, and will justly claim the fos.
tering care of their representatives.;
Our benevolent institutions are a no
ole complement to our educational vs
tern. Their existence honors the
Stair, and every patriotic citizen must
teel a deep interest in theis improve
ment. The duly ot the State will ut.
be lully performed until the Ipu-liis
ol these institution shall Lj t.Veu'j-1!
to all wihouf divineion who tutd
The organization and disipliua of lin
Mili'.ia will leiiuiie your early connl-
rrnliuu. Ins laws on lhi subjret nerd
ihori'gh remion to idapi idem to ihe
reqtiir mm I of l lie Cousliiutiou, Ad
-quale protisum thoultl be madr (or (hr
enrollment of ill cit'uen liable lo
military duty, iu order to secure to thr
S tale tier due uiO.oilhn ol. the public
arw.s.i Ho necesiiT, howetei. tea on t
demaad actual serTiia rum any who Uo
uwt-fcel. disposed.to perforni "it. Effi
cieucn energy ill probably be bet.
irr itcjitd by the judicious f ucouiat '
oitnlol TO.uutarr urgsuijalioD.. The
nairiotifm ul individual tiiiztu nr.,n.-
ly laucliouad and supported ty legisla.
uoa ui auuaueia nnnt .
cies oi police, and whatever more seri
ous contingencies may posibly true.
flie Constitution of the Stale piovites
for its own amrndmrrit, and aekigns to
ilif I.rgistalpr ilie duly ( . propnring
ni li Diodificetioi, as egtrienct sugge.t
ClmRes in the fundamental Taw should
errr he in tele with caution; but amend
ment! which ccr-mmeud the mstlt'es b
their intrinsic merits to the jurigtmef
of the Legislature, and item to be de
inanded)also by a general opinion among
the people, have a just claim ts be sub
mitted to the fiaa'Aest of popuhr decis
ion it the poll's.
That the . people are the siurce of all
ppli'.ital power is the principle of iem
ocratie Institution. To secure h (rue
4 ud complete expression cf the popular
will must therefore: be a leading object
in every stueraof reptesentalire gov
ernment. And this object canuot beat
taiued unlets lepreeentatiun beBoap
portioned among the dillVrtnt parts of
a State as to give I o. each its just weight
in Icniiilatinn and udiniiiistraiion. It is
obvious that there can be no complete
expression of the popular will unless the
ieiraentntivebe brought intolhe closest
possible relation of ey mpatliy and res
puusibility tvith hia constiiulents; ami
that '.hate cu ba no just a poriiin,mtn:
where the, rep resell to t i on of one pari ol
a State ia sa arrmgt I as lo give to its
itelrgition in Hie L ginlaiuro a greater
share of political pnwc lliau is given to
lha delegation of oilier pails of equal
itianiial well be denied that uni
form system of single ilistric's w ill bett
secure a proper choice cf represent
lives, and the i r due responsibilitv to the
peuqle and a fair dUlribuli-ju of polit
Whire one is chosen to represent one
'tisirici, there will necessarily be the
must caref u iicru tin y of qualification;
i hi lajsi libiTity to din'uiiilormtion and
tuikiake; the in mi vigiUnl obneryaiion
u( ri-presentaiive aciiou; end the live
liti si'iise of rrpreae ni4tive respousi
hiiity. Where more . .. rrpreseulaites
than one are tlingt-n from the same dis
it'cl ill these fcrurities are sensibly
itiiiiiricd. OtM-orUiyiiiy: is afTured., for
vimvjrMu'.iUr iointjiiMtian, among is
iioini am' their pai tiztiuii the people
ar (t'.ntb ei trom inlormjug themselves
tiiiir-.t. Ltiiy aa to .the character and
(lUsUucdiioiii of candidates; and the
iesision of the majority of a delega
Hun, conformed to the interests of par
iy, ore apt to le substuted, s guides of
KpiMiiiuiive kcifon for: the will ol
'ho constituency, deiermiaed by a. true
rtgatdJor lhe.iiitercU. pf .tbe-peopl,
ll will hardly b initiated, that this
sy s t in has puved saiisfacloy, to the
Il u founded upon no consistent
priu-iple, In much the largest part of
lai Stale it establishes single districts,
while it cieitei ilual and plural district
in i lie remaining parts, For the choice
of Senators, the whole State is divided
into singled'u'.ricts except Hamilton
county, Trut county is made a plural
district wivhlhre.a Senitori.
For the choice of Representatives,
fifty counties ore arranged as single dis
Iricts of one or more, counties euch;
thirty counties ara made tingle dis
tricts for some, and dual districts for ot
her representative term: four jcounties
are constituted permanent dual dis
tried; two counties are made sometimes
dual, mid sometimes plural districts,
and one -eonuty, Hamilton, is constitu.
led s permanent plural district,' vith
eight Representative eforeaihof (he
first foui Repreicstativ e tenni, and se
ven for the fift h.
Ytbile ihus defective in piinciple,
tlie tyjtem fail to commend iicelf by its
practical ope:at ion,
Let large plural districts, be composed
Hamilton county, be competed, for exsir..
ple.tt iihMoriow couuty.a single Jistiict.
Hamiilou county haseighl Ueprrsentali
tea, while Morrow county lias(bul one,
Lath elector in Hamilton, therelure.
votes for and repretenieii b each
drleeale. Each eifclor in Morrow
votes lor and is represented by bul one
, . i . ... .
r.atn elector in Hamilton tountj- niay
appeal, is a cuitstniii ut, to tight dil
it re ii I n.m.but i't the llouve ol lie pre
i-e ntali b, l.ile each elec.or iu IVlpirou
county can appeal to one only. 'the
littler in Hi ii:i!uri is thus prelerred in
poilical ton.iileialiun, to the eleclei in
Morrow. 'Ihe ini qi.ulity is agirava
leu uy me reuectioii mat ill majority
by w tilth the eight Kepreseulilives
from Hamilton are elected may he less
than thai nhivh elects tpe single lie pie
eenialite liom Moriow.
Lei the same plural district be com
pared also, with a limn ber of i:;gie dis
iricis- Having uiesame a pgrejate rrpre
sriitation in Uu mote numerous branch
ol tueUeiieral Assembly. Hamilton
county occupies ihe Sou:!! western nart
ut ttie a. ate. ritieeu Lonu'ie, in the
.Wiliu eetern pari ol ihe Stale, toiitti
tuinics eilu tingle (lislricts. The Hep
ief'iitj;'n cs ol iUitC districts, seperate
' 'lect.d m;,I f!ierately respoiiiible,
i-. ('en .livi.it-', while the Kepreseu
tativ'e tuMii liamiiton, elected together,
i l com j.-sia lively irresponsible:, act
ti-;;"Ui-r ii. i m concert. Y hil.tfif re
lute, in the cboiieof a Seriiot ul the
li:nied Slates, and up;:i puny p'het
questions, Hauiil'.)ti c'uuu ly. with her
undivided represiilaiiou, wiri Jia e.prac
ucally eight votes tha titteeii nori'iwea
tern counties, their repres entaiives be
ing equally divided, may have, " prat;,
lically, none, ..!.
For ihe sake of porsplcuity; i-limit
this cooiparisoa ti the arrangement ul
iha i Repreientalive- Districts. Your
ovi -rriiectiofls tvill extend it lo - iilr
aiiangemen'. of District for the eboie'e
It hardly need to be remitted that
lb existing lystam, wjiila thus unjust
to lha counties arranged in liogla dia
. .---m. tj)t Iriteiesls oil
in the plural
is to excite
of the State
it ijiis. siio, toiecure.
district, a utisfactory
iepref ents'ton of the various lo'rreste
and sometimes of the . reop! hi
County of Hamilton for example,
political minority, however ronsiJera
bla and respectable, cm have no tde-
. r . i- i
vv i ,r""Kr","l,7". "'P.
m arils, with nonulaiiunt u hn h. with
a system of single districts, would .en
title them to seperate Representative s,
are liable to have thir political intr
eats and views overlooked and disregard.,
ed under the presure of police extgen'
cies. C.aoiutueiiti caitnot WH kici
their prase ntatiyet.auu i? pre.ientati v-
es are absolved, in jtra.t meriure, from
their individual responsibilities to their
constituteuls. The demands of the peo
ple, under suca circumstances, will
necessarily be subordinated (o ths de
mands of political organ'uilion, the
public f"d mast often yield to party
That a system of single districts will
prove an absolute remedy lor all those
poilical evils.no one, perhaps will rm
lure to expect. 1 am fully persuaded,
however, .that it would secure a much
more purfect popular r'pjeselalion th-ui
we have at 'present and I therejur.
cornqieud that an amendment to the C n
sliiution providiug such a system, be
submitted to the people for their edop.
lion or rejection.
While the true principles of popular
government thus require the most com
plete and perfect representation of the
people which is attainab'e, they re
quirn also, no less i mueiatively, frequ
ent meetings ol iliir reprpen,iati,vs
for the througli supniiion of ad.
luiaistrative action, for the prompt
remedy of evils, an I for the due provi'
mil ol necessary means anJ measures
for guarding the public- ititerais and
prompting the public welfare.
The ex:sting Constitution . authorizes
only biennial sessions except incases,
when the Governor upiiu ejenordinsry
occasions, my deem, liimelf va tinted
iu specially couveuiug the Legisiauro
Under this provision the whole- ad
ministrative power of ihe State ia left
fo; two yens in the hand of the Ex
etsutive and Sudical departmeuts with.
que Legislative check or . imitntion.
Shere .can.be no impeachment orremov
al 'luring that period of any Slute officer
for any cs use, however urgent. The
CoustitUittMial responsibility of Stale
offici8 to theinimedlate J presents-
t,ive. ol, Itie peope.i ia I tut, iu. great
part, practically uullilied A profound
writer has well observed that evsrv
departure from annual legislative sess
ion is an approach towar-.is irresponsi
ble government and despotism,
. Numerous occasion must 'if ccessol-l
arise in a Slate so large ns ours, from
past legislative act? or omissions as
weU as from various contingencies
other descriptions, which, in the eg
gregatc, will imperatively require the
attention of the Legislature, sltiiotigh
no one of them may constitute ttuli
extraordinary occasion as will warrant
the Governor, Expediency, therefore
no Jess than principal, seems to rec om
mend auua! rather lha n bieiiuiul sess
ions. There are some colateial considera
tions, tertiing to the same conclusion
which should not be overlooked.
The present Constitution allows no
amendment of its provisions, exepi
such as may be agreed to hy three-tilth
of the members ul each House, and by
u majority of the elecloro voting el lit
next election for Senators and Kepreseu
(stives, t tollows that no uineudameul
of the Constitutinn can be made how
ever unanimously sanctioned by ihe
Legislature or demanded by ihe paople.
until two years after it shall have been
proposed, The substitution ol annua,
lor Liennial stsiiuiis -will lieressarii)
tequila annual elections lor Senator
ami Representatives, and will remove
this needles and disparaging restriction
upon the exercise of '.he popnir ,ocr
eignty. It eo happens, also, that the terms
of Sena'ors lrnm this Stale, in the
Congress of the Uuited States, expire
during ihe second years of the lainiaf
periods Eveiy election of Senator.
therelure while our S'ate Cmistitulipti
smu remain unamend jd, must, under
orilipary ciiiums antes, take place
more than a year before the expiration
ot ilie current term, anil nearly two
j ears i;eore the Senator elect wU tale
Ins seat. It may sometimes occur thai
a tsenator thus chosen, o ioug in advun
te of the to mm en ci-me tit ot his term,
will by no means lepresent the sentr
ments or will o t ihe people when he ac
tually enters upon ihe perlormance ol
his c-flkial duties.
Hhifo who are accustomed to look to
Hie State Gov-ernments for the muinteu
ante of State rigeis, vvill find another
reason lor a'preiere me ol annual to
biennial sessions i'n the obvious r. ii
sideraiion lha; while Urn seisions t,i
Congress are annual, and lliose of Hie
Slate Legislature ate only bien.iial.the
regaru oi tlie ,eop!e will be moe aad
mvie absoret by the iormer. and le.
ud less kiiiarie,! h iii 7i.it.. v.
well wither lo the permanence of Amtr
can in tii uliousi willUtkitft tu-anfi
...... . i . 1
-u. .no vruutrucv-kirenov in si,
luwaioa the absorplirio yi the State's V
leuiratueu aotl ccunjltdated Fetle.al
Uovtrunieut, . ,! .. :
The giate expenseof snual scrtlons is
someliine s luted a si, i i,n....i
voi pi buin.ikli ri
draw u from- --Ida; important principle il
pa blic. Ttonff try , is ta inly"' e'ni'iile.t
lo irsprtiu) cimsirieiaiioii. Lui 1 ihuak
it mv well t'etlTiimpii ,,,, :..
- ; - .i. , ui,
slam, iii ii....i ...
a Ot. valid. V iih.'.m v.. .-':.. .L '
. - . , u . in in rt niirtnv w
......rrw .in. iuiu am
------ " tun iu inra iia n, th-
, . . - .. . . - - ail;,-.
"'"iHn.iuiionof duration, and the q.ie.ti..n
, . . . .
rgitla.tion. it in u t ba remembered tht
the arrnmu'a lion, through two vear.
of busiaesi demanding the attention of
llia G.n,,.i Ais.imM. will
.,,,...,1 .,:,,, fl.r a ;.-.;,i-..
IIAn Till lint, n.nl.it ti.m .M-.h -..-1
i . ,.--.-... iui v anus,
sessions U not necessarilv, grratsr that
The argiiment from fipenne, therefore,
maf h readily obviated br a proper
pie choice, irrespective of expense, b'
twesn limited enil e;iun. atii urt
limited bianial wiih 'irc'i nal extra
nessip). Mr itiHu-teineiit It it .hor- ;
Highly saMafled upon ii.i who1 ma'ltr
that 1 raiinol Jieiia'to lernmenJ aa',
amendinenl of the Constitution, provid
ing for limited anu.al ssioii.: - ' .
Yur Ural inlmnu earneit aiuiition
gentlemen, will doubtlev Ve dirertai
io the important m ttier within the im
meiliategqhore of youi Ifai4lati pjv
ers; but jon caiiuol forget that von rep
rejeui sovereign Sute of ihe Aineraa
Union, third of thn thirlyxiue, in wealth
and power, population an I rerond to
none in pitriotic iUv itio v to. the.
fare of the w hole Cuiiutrv. The appoint
men t of a Senator to ipreieiu Ihe stata
in branch of ihe Ameracu Conire de
volve j upon' you, ami in making Ihil
i Pttoi.itmeiit you ill necenarify Ui re
quired to conii Jer ihi interesai of Ohio .
as a member of the Union. .,. T
Foremost among lhe iatereits is
the pr-servalion of ihe Union itself; Es
labliehed 'y wisdom ol our Fathers f.r
He sublimesl and noblest political ends
it descends lo us as "acred trust. Un
der its benign iiilliiem our country
!iu steadily nUund in atrengtb,
and from greatness lo great lie, exten
ding her border, enlarging her resour
ces, and augmenting her power, until
the name ot Americii citizen haY be
come a nobler distinction iha.i was th
name of Roman citizens iti'.ihsi pri ud
est days o th.a mightiejt repttbticol: am
liptiiiy. To iEla.iii;i'aini the tutisrity of
this Union; to dtlend, ih Constiiuiiott
which is its bond; c,d, tu gujrj agsiuit
all invasion from wluteve r puarter vhosa
Ameriau luaiitutions which the Vuioit
nd tin Cjiutltiilioii secure to us, bav
ever been, and I tr,u.st wi; ever bf,ac
knowledgeJ as sacred obligitiohi by lb
peole of Ohio. ..- '
.Cherishing these seu'timeuts anj'avtr
prepared to give full proof of unffirtr
wig Udelit to them it is not onfy' our
right but our daty to iunist that the
iulereslf ol Ohtoliall be .tuly regarded
in ihe d jniiia uiia pi' liie (Jeneral '
Goveiniiuut. Few Slates run i i.b.n te s
largely iu me natiuual revenue al our
ow n. The people of Ohio have paid to
tlie Fe.,ieiul Government or toils gam
lees, lor the soil ihj ocrupy in 1 null
iyate, njore iliati thtriy iiilliuns. Of the
rv,;i.i,e tieA liondiniei we coutrib
ute necssarily m proportion lo i.urnum
bers. i the population of our State is
about one tenth ot the entire popula
tion ol the Union, we pay about oue
tenih of that revenue. Its n. ire amount
tor the last year exceeded sixty millions
ol dollars. The proportion o. Ohio waa
nf course six minimis. '
While we have inn paid for the very
soil we live on, an amount which uu
o'her people has ever paid under 'like
cicuirisunccs or under any cireuinstan
ces, and while we still lomnbii le thus
amply mid Irre!; to the auu.ii reveiius,
ll U not an gree.ab;e retleclion lhat,
ol all Hie Slates in wlii.h Hie Generjl
Goveiniiieul has asser'nl a proprietory
riglilto Hie soil, g.liioi.aa rereiied lh
lugiaut ol lauds Ii.i eduistioa im
proueuieut, aii. otrirj like, purpo-i-a; aiid
Hlal while llill'li'iis are ex'.eu ii.., ,V ihe
pjoleiliuii a n, I becelit ol Ciinm-rce on
Hie Ocean Coasts ull Hie il-p'u ;., it, tlie
property an. I lives ot ,iUr. ov people
are exposed to roiitiiiu,.! perii i ,.,iiir
moiis ios upon our Riier.s.nio; u-i L.ae
lor the waul ol iouip..niiveiy m.igmif.
nam appropriation, ur il,e improve
uient ot tlieti ciimmeis an u ,r:iJf 3
the tnjjstue ot uuequ.l grjta ol laii'ta
is periiups beyond remedy; bet it will
be our ow il lault if out Rivers and Har
bor., iDiHiiiue io be thus neglected
n'e III lliesi! ap.l mcll,y ol,e. j,np0r.
Jan', ileuii o ailmiu'isuaiiun lna.
ieiestsul our own" Slate are deplafT
ected by the actum ol the Nitioual Gov
enimeiit, we are even more vital,, ron
criuea in -he great prnui,.e by vyhicli
thai action ami Hie pruresei.C, deeZ
opment ol our count.-) ,je reguiaHtt .ud
As man is more, than his i irrumtn
ies. a freed-tn is hetier than weal'h,
as rights ar more imi'oriaui Hun in
siiluiimis it lievoioes unlol.nl, w ta
the fundamental i.leas whic h determine
the clia racier oi Goverunieut ond the
course of its prurtii-al operation. '
- The basis of Ameriiip InstHntions is
ihe devioitaiic priunple of rqna.iir
a mong men. They rest ,10 the rbjid
founiiktioii c f i ' tilarcci:Ept. The.ri
niary t l jei t cl H eir f t tu L t ir 1: n.efif r
the dtlrme and prwectipn of yerffttut
riglns. It they gfcllr4 ,j.VM e,()
ll U U lluty ol the i route whe etS.
Iiii.l to tirrnd cr thapge -.tiaoi Tnior
R"iiii' and t!inin:stei r'tvMi n rnt opon
these principles U the irKe wori, 0f4 u
pub.'ican people. J ;
Whie the rlr iiucrii;, A...:
, ...... .M.,iUlfl.
the basis rf Ame.ican Insrilurioi.s vsri
rj.ff t'pns pnder the 'iVure ol re
"'T'd ?iUe?cies. hve been artu
fvl to un.veriu! .q,.!,Vs.f, u Anion, ,
the... Stave,, ,f trtatuie of rie.p,.,.
I..,, and the ,.e.;ur vrp0fite ,,(e
- W UVour M'uittif) 'ass.r.ed lei 'iri!,.-'
nrie m ..
"i !p!m of
trreioinil.l,. .,;... ,,
i c. ' . -
. nuLniariiiiiid i
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