Newspaper Page Text
THE PERRYSBURG JOURNAL, FRIDAY. SEPTEMBER 4 1903
Something About the Disease Which
Destroys the Fruit.
Come In July mill Aiirm"! nnil In
Sonic Ciinck riuy Wliulciinle
llnvoc In OrchiirilN IIiht
It May lie I'oukIi.
"Ugh," says the man ns ho bites Into
Ills applo and as quickly spits out the
bite, "that's bitter." Ami so It Is, for ho
has taken an apple which Is Infected with
tho blttor rot. With the coming of tho
now crop of apples to market, tho un
pleasant experience of the man who bit
lni6 the diseased pait of tho apple Is
quite a common one. But It Is not as
might bo supposed a case of ordinary rot,
duo to bruise, but the bitter rot Is caused
by a fungus which grows in the ripening
tissues of tho fruit and Induces decay.
Tho bitter rot appears In a applo or
chard at different times during tho
months of July and August, tho time of
Us first appearance varying with tho
climatic conditions during any particu
lar season. The first spots usually de
velop on the applo fruits when they aro
nearly full grown. From that time on
until the fruit Is entirely ripened tho dis
ease Is likely to occur with Increasing
Warm, sultry weather, particularly
after a rain, forms the Ideal condition for
the development of tho bitter rot. In
cool, dry summers tho bitter rot Is usu
ally present but sparingly. A short series
of hot, wet days in August may bring
about a sudden and very destructive at
tack. Nights with a heavy fall of dew
alternating with hot days are usually
followed by an extensive development
of tho disease. Numerous instances might
be mentioned where the disease appeared
In an orchard during the latter part of
August, after a few hot days, destroying
the whole crop In three days. A notable
case of this kind occurred during the
summer of 1900. Cold weather usually
checks the disease and may stop it al
together. The bitter rot fungus, like other
species of the form genus Gloeosporlum,
has an almost world-wide distribution.
In the United Stntes it has been found In
nenrly all of tho stntes east of and in
cluding Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
A careful search through the mycological
literature available at the Missouri bot
anical garden has shown that under one
name or another this fungus has been re
ported from Maine, New Hampshire,
"Vermont, Connecticut, New York, New
Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Vir
ginia, North Carlolna, South Carolina,
Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin,
Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma,
Indian Territory and .Texas. The states
A new ern in International sport be
gan with tho coming of the team of tho
Oxford and Cam
bridge Golfing So
ciety to the United
States. True, Eng
havo como and
plnyed, as did W.
In 1897, and Eng
lish and Scotch
exponents, like H.
J. Whlgham, Find
lay S. Douglas and
A. G. Lockwood
and others less
well known, havo
LOUIS. PHILIPPE, CROWN PRINCE OF PORTUGAL,
John L. Low
como and joined American clubs, adding
to the prestige of their particular clubs,
and professionals, especially from
"auld Scotia," have come In great num
bers, but this is the first tlmo an Inter
national flavor has been given golf
matches. Tho contests are liko tho
International cricket matches, and
tours of tennis teams, and are the first
International matches in tho country,
excepting those with Canadian golf
teams. The members of the team were:
J. L. Low, C. N. Day, H. G. D. Ellis,
D. F. Hanson, P. W. Leathart, C. H.
Alison, H. W. Beveridge, N. F. Hunter,
J. A. T. Bramston, T. M. Hunter and
G. D. Barnc. The Englishmen showed
up to advantage In their matches,
showing American patrons of tho game
several new points about it.
John L Low, captain ot the team,
has figured most prominently of any
Lot the men In the British champion
ships and big tournaments. He ha3
won tho first scratch medal ot tho
noyal and Ancient Golf Club, the first
scratch aggregate prize at the Royal and
Ancient, the Calcutta cup, Jubilee vase,
bronze medal in the British amateur
championship in 1S97, in which he was
beaten after a tie; won a bronze medal
in 1808, when ho lost after a tie, and in
1901 he, won the silver medal, being
beaten by a hole. The captain also has
won thirty scratch prizes at Cambridge,
Blackheath, Perth, Carnoustie and
elsewhere. His. putting' game Is said to
be almost Invincible. Mr. Low's wife
died last year, and ho has played little
golf since, so the undertaking of lead
ing the present team has given his
friends great pleasure. Mr. Low has
been captain of the Cambridge, Ciren
cester and Woking Golf clubs and 13
now captain of the Royal Blackheath
Golf club, tho oldest golfing society in
the world, which dates its ancestry to
1C08. Last year Mr. Lew was chosen to
represent Scotland at Hoylakc, but dirt
not accept. Mr. Low Is the only one of
the visitors who is not of the younger
. flMWK4U'i TO
BLOCK AND TACKLE.
Convenient Apnnrntnn for Mftlnat
llenvy Iiiiuiln Trlth Cmnpnrn
tltely Small l'owcr.
ABOUT PATENT LEATHER,
Jinny of (lie l'rocecii of ItnMninifnc-
turc Are (.niirilcil Very Cure-
fully from the I'ulillu,
As a result of the festivities at Lisbon, In connection with the recent v sit of
the American squadron under Admiral Cotton, the hone is freely expressed In tho
Portuguese capital that the young crown prince may visit the United States
next year, but as yet no otllcial announcement to that effect has been made. -Louis
Philippe Is the elder son of King Carlos nnd Queen Marie Amelle of Portugal. Ho
Is styled duko of Brngnnzu, and Is n giejidson of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans.
He was born at Lisbon In 1ES7, nnd reached his sixteenth birthday last March.
He Is described as u particularly bright ana lovable youngster.
FISH THAT CARRIES WEAPONS.
CORRECTED HIS MISTAKE.
"Specie Tliut linn Skin I.Ike Siuul-I'n-
pcr mill Armcil ivllli Tlirce-
Two of tho fish at the aquarium wear
armor and carry concealed weapons.
As tho police seldom visit the aquari
um and no complaints have been filed,
the fish have not been disturbed In the
possession of their aimambnts, says tho
Now York Tribune. They are tho or
ango flleflsh, which aro coated with a
Bkin that resembles sandpaper in tho
latter's most striking characteristic, and
In a hollow on the top of tho back they
carry sharp three-cornered files. When
not in use these lie along the back.
When a grudge is to be settled the file
fish literally gets his back up and vi
ciously tickles the object of his hatred
in the ribs.
Tho two specimens at the aquarium
were secured a short time ago in
Gravesend bay. The fishermen in tho
neighborhood of the bay havo other
Klondike "DentlHt" Got
Tooth I.uter On
ChnrKcil for It,
ant of the MlssUsliftt from which the
fungus has not yet been reported aro al
most unexplored mycologically. It Is ex
tremely probable that it occurs in all
states where the apple is being grown,
even In the most northern latitudes.
Tho first signs of tho bitter rot appear
In the form of a very faint light brown
Inoculation from diseased apple..
When Dan Patch paced a mile in 1:59
on tho Brighton Beach track, at New
York recently he
lowered a world's
record, which was
six years ago by
which made the
circuit of the
track at Read
vllle, Mass., Aug.
28, 1S97. in 1:G9.
This record stood
for five years, un
til Dan Patch be-
camo a factor In Dan Pi,eh
tho fight on Father Time.
speedy son of Joo
his snurs when, on
1902. on the samo
ho equaled the
High prices often prevail In frontier
towns, and those who live in new settle
ments become accustomed to tho charges
and think little about it. A man who
recently returned from the Klondlko
tells a good story which is printed In tho
New York Tribune.
Peoplo get used to paying big money
for trifles, ho said, nnd two dollars for
a box of sardines or five dollars for a
pound of bad coffeo came to be regarded
as reasonable prices. But onco I had
tho surprise of hearing an unexpectedly
low price named. It was like this: I
had a jumping toothache was nearly
wild with It and went to a shanty
where I was told there was a dentist.
A rough-looking fellow told me that
ho was tho dentist, and I asked him
to draw my tooth. He looked me over,
got liis forceps fastened on my tooth
1 Ml i 'Hi in
Inoculation from a canker.
APPLES AFFECTED WITH BITTER ROT.
discoloration under the skin of the ap
ple. The spots aro exceedingly small at
iirst, and as they grow larger they ap
pear circular in outline. The spots rapid
ly Increases In sizo, becoming darker
brown. When tho spot is one-eighth or
an Inch In diameter the area appears dis
tinctly sunken. The borders of these
spots are usually very nearly circular
and sharply defined.
Tho cankers found on apple trees In
Illinois appear as blakened depressions
on apple limbs of various sizes, from last
year's fruit spurs to limbs three to four
inches in diameter. Thus far tlie cankers
havo not been found on the main trunk.
The discovery of the cankers was
brought about directly by tracing groups
of diseased apples to these sunken areas
on tho apple limbs. Tho numerous ob
servations mado by Mr. It. H. Simpson,
orParkersburg,IU.,and by those who fol
lowed him seemed to prove beyond ques
tion that the cankers were In some wny
Tesponslblo for tho Infection of the ap
, pies. Instances were frequent where two
or more apples hung just below a ennker.
These were generally badly diseased,
-whilo all other apples in their Immedi
ate vicinity were perfectly healthy.
Although tho bitter rot has been bo
der.tructivo to applo crops for 30 years
or more, little If any headway had
been mado until recently toward
combating It successfully.
HERMAN N. VON SCHREUK.
Ho (feeling his ground) Br do you
er bollovo there Is any danger In kiss
ing, MIrs Mabel?
She Well, I think It all depends upon
.circumstances. For instanco, papa
might como In hero at any momont, nnd
then it would bo absolutely perilous.
"lie's engaged to ono of tho Bagley
"That's what he's trying to find out
'.himself." Chicago Post.
best effort of Star
Pointer was the first
pacer to get under two minutes, and
when he succeeded he beat the 2:011
of Robert J., which record was mado
at Terre Haute, Ind., September
11, 1894. To wipe tho namo
of Star Pointer oft tho rec
ord slate altogether Dan Patch has
his work cut out for him. The sheet
shows the quarter milo in :28 standing
to Star Pointer's credit, tho half in
:r7V, and the three-quarters In 1:28.
The quarter was made at the time of
the 1:59 mile, the half was done Sep
tember 17, 189S, a year later, while tho
three-quarter was reeled off September
i isns. Dan Patch's fractional times
were, :29V4, :S and 1:29.
Horsemen are now figuring on a cut
in the trotting record, which stands at
2:02 to the credit of Cresceus. Tho
sneed shown by C. K. G. Billings marc,
Lou Dillon, in ner inais against, uiu
watch this year gives the enthusiasts
hope and tho 2:02 already credited to
tho maro looks for her easy to beat.
With tho cut in tho trotting mark tho
three leading turf records will havo
been lowered this year. Tho thorough
breds liave twice beaten their best
Ailnn-a-Dalc doing 1:37 3-5, made at
Washington park, Chicago, and Dick
Welles later cutting it to 1:37 2-5 at
Harlem. Dan Patch's 1:59 fixes the
pacers and now the fans have their eyes
on tho trotters.
In tho last games of the tournament
of tho National Boque association,
played at Norwich, Conn., recently, C.
G. Cox. of Maiden, Mass., won the cham
pionship in tho expert division. Mitchell
of Philadelphia won first In tho second
division, and S. E. Davenport, of New
York, in the third division.
TiiHte In Art.
Kitty Hurry Dlx says you aro pretty
as a picture.
Clara Nonsense! Ho didn't mean It.
Kitty Oh, yes, he did. But, of courso,
you know Hurry's lasto in pictures isn't
anything to brag about. Boston Transcript.
HARDY PONIES OF CONNEMARA.
II I MWIW "' .II.IH
! " "'"- 1
Patent leather has become a rcaturo
In tho leather world, and Its making has
assumed considerable proportions here
abouts. Peabody Is probably the largest
patent leather manufacturing place In
tho country, though Newark, N. J., and
vicinity probably mako tnoro real and
imitation patent leathor.
All manufacturers havo their own tan
ning processes, much like those ot the
cnlfskln tanner, though somo patent
leather Is given a bark tanning. Horse
hide and colt skins are the chief leathers
mado up with a patent finish, and tho
process of producing the glossy surfaco
Is most Interesting.
The patent or enamel finish Is really
painted and baked on, as tho bicycle
manufacturer paints and bakes ennmel
onto a frame. Tanners are very particu
lar about keeping their processes a se
cret, and nobody but workmen aro ever
allowed Into the finishing rooms. Paint
ers aro especially kept far from the
work rooms. It la said that tho work
men have to drink much beer on ac
count of tho chemicals with which they
work, and the heat of tho baking ovens.
The hide or skin having been
Btretched and dried as much as pos
sible, Is first given a coating of a mix
ture of linseed oil, litharge, white lead
or similar materials, boiled together un
til they mako a pasty mixture. This
Is daubed on tho surface with a steel
tool, and well rubbed in so that the
pores of the leather will be filled up.
Then tho leather Is put Into the oven,
Its surface being exposed to steam pipes
at a temperature of about 1G0 degrees.
It takes about half a day for this finish
Next the surface Is rubbed down with
pumice stone, and then It Is covered with
linseed oil and Ivory black, about six
layers being applied, each layer being
dried and rubbed down. Finally a vnr
nlsh Is applied, and then the surface is
rubbed down and finished off as nicely
as a painter finishes a fine carriage.
The final gloss Is brought out by ex
posure to the sun. It Is a peculiar fact
that Old Sol brings out a better finish
than can any artificial drying or bak
ing process. Manufacturers of high
grade patent leather test every skin
before shipping it. The test is made by
folding the hide or skin at any point
seized at random into a double V. This
V is hammered with a mallet. If tho
finish cracks, the skin is rejected, and
if it does not crack, the leather Is sent
to the shoe manufacturer. A patent
finish is on a smooth surface and an
enamel on a boarded. Japan or lacquer
leather Is the samo as patent. A
"boarded" surfaco Is a surface whose
grain is raised by roughing it up with
a piece of board. Newport News.
MOTOR VERSUS CARRIAGE.
Familiar ns many peoplo aro with a
block and tackle, It Is not evoryono who
understands the principle on which that
apparatvis works, or why any advantago
can bo derived from Its uso. Hence, a
short explanation 1b permissible, says
tho Now York Tribune.
It may bo explained, to begin with,
that tho chief benefit comes from ft mul
tiplication of pulleys. If only ono pulloy
bo used, thoro may bo somo lncroaso ot
convenience, but nothing Is gained in
power. Suppose, for instance, that from
a point nbovo nnd outside an open win
dow bo secured a single pulley, over
which a ropo is run, so that both ends
touch the ground. Let a heavy object
bo attached to one, and lot a man pull
down on tho other. If tho object weighs
more than tho man, ho cannot start It.
It It weighs less, he can. For every ono
foot of descent at his end, tho attached
burden will ascend exactly tho samo dis
tance. Tho lifting force exerted on It is
equnl to tho pulling force at the other
end; that Is, theoretically. This may bo
Sclcutlllc Argument In Fiivnr of An
touiolle .Suppnrteil liy Authen
Indian ponies of America ar6 hardy little beasts, with much Intelligence and
fire but their cousin, the Connemara pony, of Ireland. Is a more placid compan
lonnblo creature, ns this picture from the Detroit Free Press will serve to illus
trate The Irish nag Is hardy und docs his share of work with a good humor that
Is characteristic. It will take Us master and mistress on a Journej to town with
never a thought of bucking. It will carry a heavy burden a long distance and
feel well recompensed with a little food and a few words of blarney, ana U
something of u philosopher In .other wajs.
names for them. "Old sow," "old maid"
nnd "foolfish" aie somo of tho designa
tions which they apply to them when
they sit over tho fire and spin yarns.
The shape of the head and mouth Is
responsible for theso nnmes. The
mouth opens upward, tho lower jaw pro
truding beyond the upper. Crustaceans
arc tho diet of this fish, and tho shape
of tho mouth and the sharp teeth with
in are for catching and destroying this
kind of food. Ono would say, judging
from thoir appearance, that their diet
was not well suited to their needs, for
and yanked it out after a couplo of hard
"How much?" I asked.
"Well, two dollars, I guess," said the
I paid him, although my jaw still
"That's tho cheapest thing I've seen
round hero," I remarked, as I gave him
"Well," ho said, "I thought I'd mako
It low, because on account of the bad
light I pulled tho wrong tooth."
I had to go tho next day nnd havo tho
bad tooth out, and ho mado matters
Persons disposed to call In question
the casy-rldlng qualities of automobiles
have their opinions disputed by tho fol
lowing from Automobil-Welt, as trans
lated for Popular Mechanics:
"There is the motor m ttio rront of
the machine, with Its easy, elastic vibra
tions. Tho vehicle itself swings with it,
but so softly that you don't notice It un
less It stands still. When going, these
vibrations actually reduce the shocks
from a rough road, which, with a horse
drawn wagon, hit the body suddenly and
Harshly, throwing it from one side to
another, hard and rude, even If tho
wngon has good springs. The motor
vehicle has not only good springs, but
also a lower center of gravity, besides
pneumatic tires, by all of which the
FOR LIFTING HEAVY LOADS.
a handler way to nianago the load than If
tho man was up in tho window and tried
to raise the samo load by a rope running
straight downward to the latter. But.
after all, there is no gain In power.
Now imagine a different arrangement
that shown In the diagram. Suppose
there nre two pulleys, one above and ono
below. Let tho weight (W) be attached,
not to the end of the rope, but to tho
block containing tho lower pulley. Let
one end of tho ropo be secured to tho
lower end of tho upper block, and put
the other end (P) in tho man's hands.
With these two pulleys ho can raise near
ly twice his own weight. To lift tho load
one foot ho must pull two feet of ropo.
and ho must work twice ns long as be
fore. In all mechanical devices of this
sort, whaf. is gained In power must bo
compensated by extra time and distance.
For the sake of simplicity, tho draw
ing shows only a single pair of pulleys,
one In each block. It often happens that
there are two or three pairs, two or three
pulleys In each block, but only ono rope
being used. Such an arrangement gives
much more power. A single pair doubles
(or nearly doubles) tho power, two pairs
will quadruple It, nnd three pairs will
multiply it sixfold, or nearly so. With
four pulleys, two in each block, tho man
must pull down four feet of ropo to ralso
tho weight ono foot; and with six pul
leys, three In each block, he must pull
down six feet to lift it tho samo distance.
Allowanco must be mado for tho fric
tion of tho pulleys In their bearings In
the blocks. No matter how good the
construction there muat be somo loss of
power from that cause. Possibly this
item may bo small, bay, not over one
tenth or one-twentieth of the power ex
pended. Still, It must not be overlooked.
The foregoing principles apply equal
ly, whether tho power applied at P bo de
rived from a man, horse or a steam en
gine. Tho advantago comes from a mul
tiplication of pulleys, Gnd what Is gained
in ono wny is lost In another. For load
ing and unloading steamers tho bloclc
and tackle has tho added convenience
that it may bo suspended from the end of
a moveable boom, which may bo swung
first In ono direction and then in the
other. Thus lateral as well as vortical
transportation is mado possible. This
other convenience, however, results from
tho boom, or derrick, not from the bloclc
liov Jmvn n ntnrvdrl Innlr. Tho Other
day a party of sightseers observed this j squaro by charging mo ton dollars.
"Hero's a fish trying tho starvation
cure," rcmnrked one, turning to his
companions. "There's something the
matter with htm. Don't you see how
thin ho is?"
CAN PLANTS REASON?
IIIm I.lpx Are Scnleil.
"Now, Willie, what will you say If 1
glvo you a piece of cake?"
"Please, ma'am, I don't know what to
say, 'causo ma told mo I wasn't to ask
for a second Uclplue." Chicago Amer.
Electricity In DentlMtry.
It Is proposed to use currents of elec
tricity In place of anaesthetics for opera
tlono on tho teeth. Ono pole Is connect
ed to an electrode molded to fit the tooth
and lined with wet asbestos to counter
act any heating effect on tho tooth it
self. Five minutes suffices to render ln-
ccnslble a tooth with n single fang.
Clothing heated by electricity will bo
worn by the duko of Ab-uzzl during Ills
next polar excursion. Ti.o heat will pass
through a network of atbestos-covcred
wire arranged in the lining of his ap
parel. His bedding wll be wanned in
tho samo way.
Ilnlilnexi from Slent lllot.
A BeUjlan physician declarcstjiat early
baldncES Is frequently caused by tho ex
cessive eating cf meat. He asserts that
he often checked cases of falling hair by
combining with local treatment a diet of
lullic, egss and fvuiL
Make the Tronlon Contribute.
Development of the great natural re
sources of tho tropical belt of the earth Is,
In the opinion of Hon. O. P. Austin, chief
of the bureau of statistics, a necessity for
tho futuro progress of the world.
Although this belt contains practically
one-half of the land area ot the globe,
It now contributes but one-sixth of tho
exports which enter Into International
commcrco. With tho growing popula
tion of tho world, and the Increase of fa
cilities for transportation, a change
should bo wrought In this respecc. Sci
ence has shown how life and health can
bo protected In the tropics, and India,
southern China, and other oriental coun
tries contain populations capable of la
boring, nnd willing to labor. In the trop
ics. Finally, Mr. Austin points out that
In comparatively recent years practi
cally all the tropics, cxccpttroplcal Amer
ica, have been brought under tho con
trol of temperate-zono countries.
Ililt InIi Coloulnl Territory.
Threc-sovenths of the total colonial ter
ritory of tho world, Ugypt and the Sou
dan Included, belongs to Great Brit.
SPEAKS LOUDER THAN WORDS.
'.Relative Ease of Travel in a Canlage and
chocks are much softened. And what
Uill remains of irregular jolting is
bridged over and smoothed out by tho
soft, undulating and uniform vibrations
of the motor. You can Imagine that you
are sitting In a boat gilding over a rip
nllnK. slightly moved surface."
Tho relative case of travel In a car
riage and automobile, as set forth by the
writer, is shown In the accompanying
vMngrams, of which the upper Indicates
the jolting motion of the carriago and
tho lower the relatively smooth motion
of tho automobile.
KntlKue of the MiiKOlei.
A scientific investigation of muscular
fatigue has been begun by M. A. M.
Bloch. From questions sent to persons
of many occupations ho finds that it is
not tho most used muscles thnt are most
subject to fatigue, but thoso thnt are
kept under tension, although doing no
work. The back, loins and neck need
moro exorcise to strengthen them, tho
irms and legs less. The baker becomes
first tired In tho legs, tho wood bnwyer in
tho calves of tho logs or tho loins, tho
ronil digger In tho legs, tho blacksmith
In tho back and lolne, tho young soldier
In tho back of tho neck, the horseman in
tho thigh, tho nrtlllerymon In tho neck
and loins, tho Immature violinist in the
neok, tho practiced violinist In tho left
hand, tho expert fencer In tho right
houlder, tho oarBmnu la the calves nnd
Trof. Slmlcr Think They Tlnvc Soma
Intelligence mill GSIen lleimoiiB
for IIIm Opinion.
That plants have intelligence Is main
tained in a thesis by Prof. Shaler, of
Harvard university. After discussing
the automata, he says: "We may accept
the statement that our higher intelli
gence Is but tho illuminated summit of
man's naturo as true, and extend it by
tho observation that intelligence is nor
mally unconscious, and appears as con
scious only after infancy, in our waking
hours, and not always them." In sum
ming up the professor uses ttoo follow
ing sentences: "Looiung towaru me or
ganic world In the manner above sug
gested, seeing that an unprejudiced view
of life affords no warrant for tho mo
tion that automata anywhere exist, trac
ing as we may down to the lowest grado
of tho animal series what is fair evi
dence to actions which we havo to bo
llevo to bo guided by somo form of in
telligence, seeing that there is reason to
concludo that plants aro derived from
tho samo nrlmltlvo stock as animals, wo
nro In no condition to say that Intelli
gence cannot exist nm.,ng them, tti fact,
nil that we can discern supports tho view
that throughout tho organic realm tho
Intelligence that finds Its fullest expres
sion in man is everywhere at -work."
firetit I.imM by Friction.
Tho loss by friction on tho world's
railways is onormous in tho nggregnte.
Dr. Haarman, a German, estimates that
It reaches 217,000 tons of steel In a year