Newspaper Page Text
DAILY CAIRO BULLETIN.
CAIRO. ILLINOIS, WEDNESDAY MORNlNfr, JANUARY 8, 1879.
NEW SEKIES-NO. 170
, Arrival and Departure of Trains.
ILLINOIS CENTUA1. KAII.KO.VI).
Ktyrvn a:iw p.m. 1:10 p.m.
Hall 4:il.m. 11 45p.m.
rnli'ht H:10a.iu 4:t)ii.in.
Krelht il:;ip.m. 5:1m p.m.
CAIKO AND VINIENNES KAll.l.OAD.
Mall 0:) p.m. 4:45 a, in.
HT. LOUIS, I. 11. AM 301THEKN K.ULKOAD.
Kipreiw .vnoa.m. 2:'np.in.
CM 1(0 AM) ST. Utl'M ItAll.UUAD.
Throng!! Kjepri 5:15 p.m. 1I:) a.m.
llarphynhiira Acromniodallon l'J:.'rii p.m. ii:ljp.in.
Except Sunday. tE.v.cpl Monday.
'ENKIIW, DELIVEUY open .::) a. in.; close
I Y tt::yj p m.; Sunday: s to U a. m.
Money order i.'epiutmeul opuu at B a. u.; cloae
ct 5 p. :n.
Through Eipre Mail via I 111 nolo OntrM and
MwiMipjil Central I'ailroad" clo.-e at U:'i p. in.
Cairo and I'ujiiitr iiiuff Thrutiu uud Wuy Hall
mine at !,':: p. m
Way M ail via llllno! Central, Cairo and Vln
eenne and Mimiupi Central Kailiojd. cloae at
:4fi p. m.
Way jUII for Narrow 0nue Kallrnail cloea at S
(Vroand Evnvlllo liivr Ilontc cioeea at fi::V)
p. m. ilaliy (except KriluT).
JLLLNOIS CENTRAL R. K.
Shortest and Quickest Route to
St. Louis and Chicago
' pi! K only road rnnnlnf two daily tralna from Cairo
1 making direct connection with huJlern line.
tkiiii lkave nuto.
1 :K) p . m . : Fit n ;jrf.it, arriving in St. Loiiia ":V5
. tu.; Chicago (l.ri)i. ni-
1.10 p. ra. CINCINNATI & I.0UISY1LLK
Arriving!:) Cincinnati alTOu a. m. : Loninville,
7-ni a.m.; Indlanapolia 4:15 a.m. Paervugi-r by
lliia train arrive at aoovc puinui
t 12 TO -M HOURS IK ADVANCE
Of any other route.
n. J !T p. m. Hat Mail, with ',reper atta.-hcd.for
Hi nr. LOl'ISand CUICAdU arriving iu ht.
. I.illii at t.'M a m.; t'hirajo at 6:45 p. m . conueci
I ai(aiOl!u or K Iiu;liam for Cincinnati, Luaivvlllo
FAST TIME EAST.
P 'V T?bY lhl ,inc f ""'"
4 ilOOlv.'tJiiUO,,,!!,,!,;,.! wiihout any
delay rned by Sunday intervening The Satur
av aftvrnoon train Irom Cain) rriv- in w York
Xrindny aionilnj at I0:5. Tblrty-ii boura la ad
( of an othi r rootc.
IfT Advi-rtio'mrnta of competing HnM that they
make better time than thi one art; iiiod either
tbrouirh Ignorance or a dclre to mislead the public.
I fur through ticket and information apply at llli
DOM Central Kallroad depot. Citro.
TKAlNi AliKlVK AT CVIKO:
Mall ' '' "'
JAS JOHNSON, 'u'l htiutbern Ak t.
J. 11. JONKS, Ticket A.'Ut.
0ucTst7lpuis n. u.
Shortest Line to St. Louis!
T'HE traina bv thl rod connect at St. Loiii and
1 KaM St. I.oiiIk Willi all otber liii'' tu thf KAM'.
NOttTU AND SUll II.
Ttirouih evpr- b-avi-a Cairn 11:1" a m.
I'liruuisti 'ii' r.' arrivi nt K.il St. t.oi:l H Cip.in.
Vurptivi-li'ini .ici iirnmiKl:iliiiii Irin-a Cairo K l i p.m.
Wurplivahoro ace. arrivrn at Mundiy.-l.iiro H Vip.m.
Through Bspn leave Kit St. l.ouiK. . . . H C. a m.
Throi"i i'jpri;H arrive, m iniro ...
Hnrilr.k!mru acc. lean M.irii)1itiru
Murpliyatmro acc. urrlvv ul i airo
1 I.Mf Pl.'l T1IK t'tiiro and Ht. l-onla
lilj.MIjVDIIWu..,!),.,, M the only AI.I.
RAIL KOUTB between i nlro and St. I.ntii u:idir
ene management; thereforo there are no (leUyn at
ay aiatluna awaiting conneetlon from other linen,
t'ey- 'iienjeri souii! North, Noithea.taud V et
b'Mld not buy their titketa until they have exam
ined our niien and roulra.
M. JOHN SON. General Manmr.
43. T. WHITMM'K, I'denivr AMit.
JNu. 11. WISsroN. Freight A Kent.
(JAIIIO VLXCENNES U. It.
irir vc tub mtioktkst routk to
47 Vn VQ TUB SHOKTKST TO ions.
M I lifiO VII.I.K. CINCINNATI, Ulr
TIMiyili AND WASHINGTON.
H AfTT VH TT1R SIIOHTKHT TO INDIAN;
tih ill Hi ho AI'iH.IS.l'iliLAUKU'lllA.MiW
yOKK AND HUSTON
SIX HOURS SAVED
Over train of all other ronton making tuo aainn
T"Paeneera hv oilier routeii to make Connor
lluna miiHt rule all nleht. wnltltitf from one to lx
r bonra at amall country Hlatloua for train of con
' 1 cuctliiK nmda.
1? V WV f U irTfTIIK KACT nnt take our 4 :45
Jilii)llj.'l.J)ljlV trn r,,Ri hlmr Kviim.
lllo, Itirilannpollx. Cincinnati and I,onlvllle Kinne
ilnv. Tmltia leave and arrive at Cairo an tollowa:
' Mall Inuvea 4:15 a.m.
1 Vail arrive K):nOp.m
Through tlcketa and cuer.ki to nil Important
K. A. MIl.I.KIt K0SWKI.I. MII.LKII.
Ocn'l l'n. AijpiiI. (ieneral Sup't.
L. 11. CUUItCll. raaeucr Agent.
ST. L., I. M. A SOUTHERN.
Kxpreaa leavea Cairo dally
Kxpreaa arrlvri at Calm dully.
UYE1N AND KKN0VATIN0.
youu OLD CLOTHES
CAN HI BttAUTirttLLT
DYED OH HKPAIUKD
At ft Trifling EienMr-C. ( D.
CHAS. SHELLEY, NO. 80 ZIU1ITH ST.
tW LtdlM Md OenU' U kid4i a
' riWft'kvW.iM I't.VU-
0YSTEHS AND TIKI!.
Wholctale anil retail dealer In
OYiSTEUS AND FISH,
OjsU'M in Bulk and Can, Sea Fish,
Native Fish, Celery anil Ounic.
Particular attention paid to ordera from abruad
and all alock Ktiarauteed vb(n (hipped.
Sisrti if the IiuCaiO Head.
No 1. Oliln I
K0EHLER BK0S., rropiietniH.
.IOK AI.JKI.Ji. A j;ent.
A full and complete aiiuple of the beat of all
kind meat alwaya ou band. Order ilkd at aur
buur, day orniKbl.
Eighth Street, near Conimereial Avenue.
V. RESCII, I'uoritiEToii.
Havin: Marled a flrM-rlaM Hakcrr. and placed a
flrl c! St. Lottia baker In cLar;c, I an prepared
CAKK8 OK EVKUY Dr.SCKUTION,
from the plalnent to the met elaborate kind, agit
able for weilriiwra, bi!, etc.; ai.o all kintla of
iiread, I'ii and i'aotrv. at the very lei rate.
Order i:i be pronipt'ly lliled. A delivery waon
ill nin daily to all part of the city for 11k- accom
modation of cnntomem
A ehare of the public patroLae l aolicited, and
WATCUKX JKWKI.UY. KTC.
Edward A: Euder
(Snt4cor to K. S: Rudori,
SI ASUFACTURI J E WELER,
And Vmktf In
Watclics, Clocks, Fine Jewelry
MUSICAL IK3TRU II EKTS,
Cor. Eifflitli St. and Wihinirton Ave.
Watchmaker & Jeweler
NO. 10 EIGHTH STKEET,
Itetween Commercial and
Wo1iIul-U)U avta ,
FIXE WATCIHYORK A srECIAI.TV.
tfHni;ravluxand nil kind of repalrlus neatly
T'Allkludtof SolldJeweln- madetonrder.
WW (iOOI)S. KTC.
Tlio larjest wliolenalc and retail Dry
(iooils and Clotliinp; House in tliU City;
arc recciviic new Goodn daily and are
o fieri no; o;r(at bargains in the most hand
Nome lines of CARPETS, OIL CLOTHS
and MATTINGS ; Silks, Ciudinieres, liou
retti'8, and a jrroat many other new
istyleH of Dress Goods, Kanfl, Kte.; in
fact in every department of their hnsl
o.ss, they cordially invite the, public
to enll and see their stock.
PW YORK STORE,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
The Largest Variety Stock
in tiiw crrv
GOODS SOLD VKt vi
Cor. Nlntoenth utreet and l ft..!.. Til
Comia.relaJ Av., llll'O, JJ1.
O. O. PATIEU tte CO.
Mayor- Henry Winter.
Trr:iurer-li. K. I'arker.
CleikJ. II. l'hltlia.
Counnelor- Win. 11. Cllbort.
Marebal C. I. Arter.
Attorney-W. q. Mctiee.
l'olitu .Vlaijii-tiuiu J. J. IMrd.
IIOAIUI OK Al.t)l:ilFl.
Klrl Ward -tieo. Vocnm. W nt. O'Cillahaa.
Second Ward -Wood Illtt-MiboUi'e, N. B. TbUtlc-'
Third Wtrd - W. 1 Wrlfht. John Wood.
Kou rlli Ward hurh O. Puller. I). J. Foley.
Filth Ward -T. W. llulilduy, Cbiu-. Luiicii.b r.
Count v Olliecrs.
Circuit Jiwlu-c--1). J. linker.
Circuit clerk -J. A. lt,-jve.
County JiuL'e It. S. Yotiiin.
Coiiuiy Clerk S. J. llumin.
County Attorney W, (.'. llnlkcy.
Coiiuiy Treaeurer A. J. Aldcn.
Slivrill- 1'eter Sauo.
Coidi.er K. K:t.t :u (..
Countv i.'oniiui.i-.ii ere-T. W. Ilal'.lday, M. T
Uiown. ti!. W. i:i.ini,iin.
VFKICAN V. E.-Hojitvc.ith atn-et. b-tween
Wttlnnt and Cedar alre'.te; nervlee Sabhulh 11
a. m. and 7::iu p. m.; Suuil'.iy School 1:110 p. in.
CilllUSTlAS- i:is!iteeuth Hrei t; meefiny SaV
J buth 10::J p. m.; prennhing ocimiotiuliy.
MintCII l.F TIIK KKllKKMKI! -(Hplernp.nl)
J Fourleeiiili etreet; Morning prayera isal.hath)
10:) a. in.; eeniii; pniyer'. ?;:) p.m.; Hubbalh
Hi bool U a. m. Lev. M. J.' Dillon !.' e. liector.
llKST VISSKiNAKY PAPTIST CHIM'U.
I I'ri.-uchiu at b:V a. ui.. :l p. n , and p. in.
Sabbath chool u'. T:iO p. lu. Kcv. T. J. blioi'v,
ICT1IEKAN- Thin. -enth urect; fervlci-a Sel
J halh 11 a. in. and 7:i0 p. m.; Sunday school 6a.
III. Jiev. Duerm hli -;r. uaetor.
METlIODIsT-tor. Eighth and Walnut t-e.-t;
J'reatLlii Subiiath lu::y . m. ami T p. ri.;
prayer meeliiii;, Wedneedav T:'i) p. m.; Suuday
school, :i p. m. Kov. A. 1. Morrieon, parlor.
1)KESIiYTEKI AN Elcbth utreet; preachln? on
suhhitlh at a. m. and 7:4'p. in.; irayer
meetiutf Wcdueeilnv at ":") p. in. ; Sunday Sc hool
at a p. m. Kcv. It. V. OeorLje, paetor.
CECOND FKKE WII.L BAHTST - Flfleer Ih
O rtreet. between Walnut and Cedar atretw; air
OT-JOSEPII'S-tUonian Calbol.,1 Corner Croe
O ami Walnut Htr-nta; aervieei' Sahbath 10:30 a.
in.; Sunday Si bool at t p. m.; Vep j 8 p. m.; er
vicen every day at b p. ni.
ST. I'ATKICK'S-Hltoman Catholic) Corner Ninth
0 elreet and Washington avenue; avicea Sab
bath 8 and ID a.m.; Ve.;er 3 p.m., Sandav School
1 p. m. ; aervicei every da) al a p. m. Jiev. F. Zabel.
J KSl'HAKCH AGENCY OK
A'i:lls it Ki-RTir,
OllOl'lW '- (Of Liverpool)
Royal Canadian c.?affliwd.
Commereinl ; aJZIIIm..
Ulliflll '0f Ftl'.adelphia; MtaV.lnhed In mw.)
I lllUllf Aweta. CI.lw.OO.
Fin'miiir1-. 0f 'on, o.i.
L 111.111(111 S, AeU ,U0.41.'j6.
(iVnil.'lll . . Freepnrt.III ).
KISKS WKI1TEN AT FA I K PaTES.
OflicH In A1xhik1i" t'outit;- Tinlc.
3 1 7
Decorative Paper Hanger
p a i x r r k ii i
A SPECIALTY MADE OF
Q lazing ami iilsominin.
Leave Order nt Ilar'cluy'a or I'nrkor'l Hook Store.
I'AIXIN, OILS. WALL PAPER, KTC.
J. F. BLAKE,
I 'a i nts, Oils, Vnrn islics, Brushes
Window (ilaso, Window Shanes, Etc.
Alwayi on hand lliu celebrated nxtmiHATiKo
Ail ro ni Oil.
HrW Hiillillnir, Coin-1
nieiclal Ave., I
HOOT AND SIDE MAKKU.
BOOT AND SHOE MAKER
'UvVi:,;:.:;1'! Cairo, 111.
'pAK E plenanrr lu annnmiclm to Kl patmn and
1 Ibo public generally that ho had recelvml tha
flnet and nitwt lelevt alork of Ualber uf every
flencrlptlonever brouijhttojithla city. All work In
hi Una cveruted prom pi ly and In tha beat manotr.
Kutlrfi.U.raclloBlv.ulnr; luatanco. I'rlcat
lt) wit lb tltuaa,
MARKETS JiY TELECIRAril
I.iVEKfooi Jauiuiry 7. 2:M p. m.
Wieut firm Winter, s G'!(?,'J.s; K . 2
Spring (J I0:l,'(rt8i :M; Culit'orriiii itvcr
ag". 1 ldf?Js 3.1 ; Caltfi.riita eluU 3a 3:lcd
11. 6d. C'orn new, 2,NiU32s !M; M, 2o's.
nkw vi::it oiiain.
Nkw YortK, January 7, 12:03 p. M.-Whi'iit-Quiiit-No.
2 Cliica,7D, 03(297;
K. 3 Mil w.iukw, 933 1 00 ; Rud
Winter, $1 OOvTJl It; Kj. 2 IL-d
Writer, (1 lOJi Lid; AwlxT, No. 2, $1 OG.
Corn Q-iii't nt amiT. No.
44j;,;No. 2, "((K:i.
CllfC VCiO (.ItAI.N AND PltUDt.'Cr..
Cir c.vGu, J itiutry 7, 10 a. m. Pork
Fel.rttny. s7 U2Jukd; Mareli, $7 72';
Wd. C )i n-Frlj! ii,iry, ; May
'Al,. Wli.:a'.-F..-!.ru-irr,8t L:d; M:;irli
CiiiCAt.O, January 7, 12:0,) m. Corn
-Januaiy, 2030; February, yO';
May UXGWi. Wl.oat-IVhruary, 8j;8
hid; March, 84 !y hid. Pork-Fohruary,
7 CO; Marc!), $7 70.
Chicaoo, January 7, 2 :M0 p. r. - Wheat
Ji.ntmry, K2?iWi; February, 833'
C-om-January, 2fiv,tt(,30; February,
3i!iMH May, a4.,,'(!ja4Ji'. Pork
h'hrui.ry, $7 "7ji; March, $7 (7J4'.
THE ILLINOIS CAPITAL.
Si'iii.NOKiran, II!.. January 0. Tim sf.-na-toaial
.spi-aki-rshiji amitiiilKirdinatP jiosiuon
siclvino; iiu.ii wa.4 greatly inrreaned this
morning by t'le urrival of tho trains on 111-.'
Chlrugo and Alton and Wahusii roads.
Front Chii::o cmi h Gen. E. 15. Sherman.
Eaton, of ihe Tinxi, and Ma..-o, of the
Tribune. From tin Wot rome Hon.
John Mon's i if tlie Jacksonville Journal,
Jlons. Viiilhm Uro.vn and John Gordon.
S'lialor T.-nt Merit", of Marion, a jireini
ncnt Dcmo.'rjt vl inenib- r of the last
houw, h is airivi.l. In regard to th(iSjenk
ers!ii'. It i-ien:ici'e(l Ihis morninv' that the
Tliomp-'oi Mot-k i-sriiiio;. It is now given
out that Mitelicll andJattiPs will poo! issues
with Thomson, having in view chairman
.f jin.frt4iit coiomittcca in onss of
Tliint'i)ii'a ucc(M5. Morrison's friends
stil claim for him tho largest united fob
lo"in(-.-, but ius a,'aii:bt a united opposition
tVy nn.' not sanguine.
lion. Thompson W. McNuIty, cliairman
of tlio di:!jio:-r..tie State central committee,
arrived in tlii city this evening.
The peneral talk uinnnjr the Democrats
now is that Hon. J. C. Uobinson, of this
city, will be supported by the Democrats for
United States Senator. General Kir-hard
Howttt, of Carlinvillc, has just arrived. Ho
is now, as in tho past, loud for Loyui, al
though 1m spoilt much time this afternoon
at the Ogh'fthy headquarters.
Senator Oiflesby arrived to-night and im
mediately repaired to llie Oglesby head
quarters at th" Leland, wherj ho was stir
rounded by his following, which mado a
very respectable showing- in opposition to
Logan at the oilier end of tlx.' hall. Ex
Congressman Farwcll was expected to night,
kut failed to put in an appearance, and it's
uily Logan and Oglerby to-night with Lo
gan in the lead.
The Republican caucus to noininat! leg.
islattvo ofll '.:rs is calhid for to-morrow
evening at 7 o'clock. Tlio D-'iiiocrats will
also hold a similar meeting at the sainc
time. Tlie.Stato Kegistcr to-morrow will
take strong grounds in behilf of the Demo
crats casting th-ir votes for Hon. Jan. C.
Kobiuson for United States senator. The
discovery, late to-nigut,of Cullom's purpose
to defeat tho election of Morrison, and the
certainty that Logan willdothc cheating if
necessary, is creating consternation in tho
Logan ranks and is unquestionably hurling
the hitter's chances. Thompson, of Cook,
a now ciimbdato for speaker, lias appeared
and is taking an active part in thin game,
making tho fight more and more, interest-
NO (JUOItUM E.VPRCTKI).
Wah.soton, January 0. It is by no
means t-ortain there will be a quotum in
thchoiiHo for to-morrow, as very few iii'Mii
bers from the West have yet arrived, and
trains ate not coming in on timi.
j TKXAS PACIFIC HILL.
Thorn will bo an effort made to get the
Texas PielUc, bill before tho Hjtiato. to-morrow
by in arniiig un int that will let it pro
cedo tlio bill for tha revision of tha patent
I 8CIIUK7. TO 8IIKKIDAN,
Tho tvply of Becretrry Scliura to Oenoral
Shsridaa will probably not bo given to the
prcw oarlior than tho 8th inst.
; INDIANA DIXEOATtON.
Nearly all of tho Indiana delegation will
remain at homo until aftor tho aenatorial
oloction. DemocraU in both' branches of
coDgrcai aro much cxorcined over Vhe
TUB NElll.ASKA ATROCITY.
Lincoln, Neb., January I). J. P. Oliver,
a block man of Custer county, with Fisher
Green, John Gant'in itnd tho "Kid,' herd
ers belonging to Oliver's ranches, wt ru ar
restud yesterday at P.um cr.'v-k, and are
suppiwed to be the men who barbarously
burned to death Ami Kctrhum and Luther
Mitchell on December 10. The arrests were
effected somrutc!y at the mii.zlo of needle
guns by three of tho dead Keti.hum'g
brothers and citizens of Plum creek. The
Oliver party are now confined in the court
house at Kearney. Sherill Gillian and his
assistant Dufrene, who gave up tho unfor
tunate men to the mob, wer.- arrested to
day. A speedy tiial and certain punish
ment awaits these outlaws, and law and jus
tics will be hereafter respected in this com
rOVEIITY 8 PA SOB.
London, January C The weather is
again cold. There has been a daily in
crease of distress in every quarter durii!'
the past we-k. At Manchester, Friday,
th ;ro were !),(i00 applications from heads of
families, r -pr s- 'iiting 1:5,300 persons, to the
Relief Commi; to, and Saturday 4.000 fn.sh
applications. During tho week 1,200
families have been relieved in Wolver
hampton. Considerable increase of distress
U also reported from Sheffield.
DAM AO E KXAGO EUATKD.
Reports regarding the condition of the
wounded by the explosion of the gun ou
board of the Thunderer representing many
dead and others becoming blind and er
roneous Admiral Hornby telegraphs that
the woundedare doing well and the life of
onlv one seaman is endangered.
Washington, January 3, 1679.
One of the remarkable num of the
country died yesterday in Massachusetts.
In any other state where personal inde
pendence otl'mds less than in Massaehu
s' ;ts the general sentiment, Caleb dishing
would always have had a leading place.
He was a man of great national ability,
untiring indus'ry, and of studious habits
to the end of his life. He was the conii
dential advisor of Mr. Lincoln's adminis
traiio:i, and of General Grant's. That the
latter president esteemed Mr. Cushing
highly is shown by the fact that he bent his
name to the senate as Chief Justice of the
supreme court and as Minister to Spain.
.Mr. Citshing hdd the rank of General dur
ing tho Mexican war, and but two of equal
rank among the volunteers of that war sur
Senator Ingalls, of Kansas is caught. It
will bo remembered that he succeeded Pom
eroy as senator when the latter was detect
ed, or was supposed to be detected, iu pay
ing seven or eight thousand dollars for a re
election. Pomeroy's friends here now have
letters of Ingulls, in which is shown a sys
tematic course of blackmailing of Federal
office holders iu Kansas. They will usa
them, they say, in time to all" -ct the coining
senatorial election in that State.
The public debt statement for Decem
ber shows an increase of one million and a
quarter over the previous statement. The
stated reduction since June, however, is over
Yesterday subscriptions to the four per
cent, bonds amounted to over $3,800,000,
being by far the largest mm tint so far. The
substitution of four for six n r cent, bonds
means, iis far as it goes, a reduction of one-
third ot the interest charge on the public
debt, and is in itself a gratifying fact.
The New York Sun, which p rot esses to
be of the anything-to-beat-G rant party, sug
getts Hon. K. 15. Washburne, of Illinois,
as the Republican presidential candidate in
1880. I have the utmost faith that what
ever candidate the Republicans may have,
ho will be disastrously beaten, ami that in
that respect there will belittle difference
whether Grant, Blaine, 15ob Ingersoll, or
Washburne be nominated. And it is clear
that tho Sun is of the same opinion. It has
some ancient grudge against Washburuo.
Last week I meutioned a report that
efforts wouid bo made, us soon as congress
met, to secure government aid for a line of
steamers to South American ports. Our
trado with these neighbors of ours is in this
condition. Wo buy enormously of them
and sell them very little. Wo pay them
gold for what they send us, though having
almost every article which they need. The
reason is that Great Britain and France pay
large sums to steamboat lines engaged in
trado between thusu ami South American
countries. Tho Hritish steamers, thus subsi
dized, carry to South America direct tho
manufactured articles of their own coun
tries, and on tho icturn trip bring to New
York tho products of tho South American
countries. It Is urged that our lines cannot
without government aid, succesflully com
peto with these subsidized lines, and that
our manufacturercs and farmers aro thus
deprived of one of tho largest and most
profitable markets of tho world. It is fur
ther urged that, while grunts, if given at
all, should Ira glveu for tit least ten yeans
so as to enablo our merchants and shippers
to got a Crm standing, they can by that
tlino establish themselves, and need no fur
Uier idd, and that, at Brazil and other South
, -.-r ' 1 i.-
American states aro pledged to give ns
much ns wo do, the amount required of rw
will bo comparatively small.1
THE REASON WHY.
WHY TIIUrtMO.MKTIcrtH niRAGREK A COMMUNICATION-
FKOU THE 61U.NAI. BiiiX-
Eilitor of tha Unllctln.
In your issue of the 5th instant we no
tice the questions "Why is it that the sig
nal service th;rmometcr marks tho tem
perature of tho weather at from 0 to 0 de
grees above the figures marked by private
thermometers? Siuce surroundings and al-
tuuiio cion t explain the matter, what will?" t
We presume that tho abovo Questions arc
indirectly put for the signal ofiice to solve,
which wo will kindly endeavor to do for
the benefit of your readers. We will stato.
that the thermometer used by tho signal
olnco aro Fahrenheit
- - w lUiMC C I T
all of which have been carefully tested and
compared with the standard thermometer
at Washington, D. C, before being sent for
station use. NotwithstanrJ ir)T l.'n'a f.M
they are tested on station every throu
months. The variation of l,6 to 9 decrees"
between the signal service thermometer and
private ones may be r.ttriLutYd t numer
ous causes. It miifct be remembered that
there are thermometeia of different manu
facture, a great many of which are not re
liable. In order that wo may have an in
telligible measure of tho changes of tem
perature, the tube of the thermometer must
be graduated according to some general
principles. We need two invariable tern- '
peratures for the determination of two fixed
points upon the scale. Tlio temperature
generally adopted for this purpose arc those
of melting ice and boiling water; and tho
interval between these points U variously
divided in different countries. Thcthermoiu- .'
eter used by tho signal office is Fahronhoitc
and melting ice is marked 32 degrees, and
boiling water 212 degrees, the interval
being divided into 180 equal parU Upon
GYntigrade's thermometer this interval i
divided into 100 parts, and Reaumur's 80.
In the two last named tho freezing point U
marked 0. The requisites of a good th-r-moiiieter
are that the degroes upon th
thermometer scale should correspond t
iqual volumes of Mercury if tho tube ol
the thermometer were througout of uniform
bore, then the divisions upon tho acalo
should be throughout of equal longth; but
if the tube bo not of uniform boro thes
equal volumes will correspond to unequal
lengths upon different parts of the scale,'
hence the unreliability of many of our
cheaply gotten up thermometers. Tho "sur-'
roundings and altitude" have considerable
to do with the temperature. For the pur
pose of measuring the temperature of the
air, a thermometer should bo exposed in
the open air, where the circulation is unob
structed. It should faco tho north,
and should be always in the shado. It
should be removed at least u foot from the
wall of the building, and should be elevated
about ten feet from the ground. It should
be protected against the heat reflected
by neighboring objects, and sheltered from
the rain, since drops of water, by their
evaporation, would lower tho teinperatur.j
of tho mercury in tho bulb. The differeii""
between two thermometers, onu whoso bulb
is kept dry and the other moistened, will
soinetiinis vary 20 degrees or moro in tho
summer season. All these liltlo distinc
tions are avoided by the signal service ther
mometers. Hy suspending thermometer,
nt different elevations above the earth from
one or two inches up to 2u0 foot, it is found
that the loss of heat by nocturnal radiation,
is quite sensihlo at the elevation of 50 feet,
and dues not entirely disappear ut the
height of 130 feet During the night,
therefore, tho temperature of tlio air in
creases as wo rise abovo the earth's surface;
while during tho uay it is the ntverso. I
trust, Mr. Editor, that your readers, ul'te.r
having read this article, will be convinced
that the signal service thermometer is tin
one to rely upon.
W. II. Kay, S. 8., U. 8. A.
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