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' THE DAILY CAIRO BULLETIN: SATURDAY MORNING, JANUARY 7, 1882.
ID, A.. BUD3DB,
f y vim VJ
JEWELRY, ETC., ETC.
Holiday Goods a Specialty !
104 Com'l are., CAIRO, ILLS.
THE DAILY BULLETIN
Offlce : Bulletin BuUdlns, Washington Arenas
gNTCRED AT TUB POST OFFIC IX CAJBO, IL
LIKOI8, AS MATTER.
oyKuAL PAPER OP CITT AND COUHT
SPECIAL LOCAL ITEMS.
Noticet In this column, eight cents per line for
arttandnte cents pur hue each subsequent Inser
tion, for one weuk. sWeouU per lino, for one
month, W cvuts per line.
A. Booth's Extra Select
at A. T. Doliaun's, 66 Ohio levee.
I have already received at hiy factory
a Cue variety of furniture that is now ready
for the inunction of the public, and for Bale
at close prices. My stock at 101 Commer
cial avenue will also bo kept full until Jan
uary 1st, and I desire to call especial atten
tion to my stock of folding and camp chairs,
doll carriages, cribs, tables and chairs.
at DeBaun'8,63 Ohio levee.
Use The Cairo Bulletin perforated
icratch book, made of calendered jute
nianilla, equally good for ink or pencil. For
sale, in three sizes, at the office.
A. Booth's Extra Select
at A. T. DeBauu's, DO Ohio levco.
Extra Select Oystera
at A. T. DeJJaun's, 56 Ohio levee.
w Billiard Hall.
Henry II afunjagers new saloon and bil
liard ball is now ready to receive visit
ors. Two b&ndsvme billiard table have
been placed in the large and commodious
room, which is expensively fitted up in the
Vincent building on the corner of Eighth
street and Commercial avenue. The bar
is stocked with the finest liquors, wines,
and the choicest brands of cigars. No
pleimanh-r place in the city could bo found
in which to spend a pleasant hour.
A. Booth's Extra Selects
at A. T. DiBaun's, 56 Ohio levee.
IN SIIKI.L AND MCLK.
Frebh arrival of Mobile oysters
in shell and bulk at
Rooms for Kent.
Apply tO , Mll8, FlTZOEHALD,
up stairs at Tiik Buj.kti.n building.
Southern Illinois Immigration Society.
Notico is hereby given that license hav
ing been duly granted authorizing the in
corporation of the "Southern Illinois Im
migration Society," books for subscription
to the capital stock of Bai l corporation are
now open at tho office of the undesigned
in Cairo. M. J. IIowley,
Com. for Alexander Co.
Koonis for Rent.
Three good toom for rent in brick res
idence, corner Fifteenth and Cedar streets.
Applv on the premises or at my store, cor
ner Eighteenth and Poplar streets.
GENERAL LOCAL ITEMS.
Notice In the." columns, ten corns per line,
sen insertion. JisrKna
Fon Sale. A two-bowl, marble-top
wash stand, suitable for barber shop or
hotel. Ceo. Steinliouse, 8th. street, lw.
It. is said that $3,000,000 of preferred
Wabash Railway bonds were negotiated on
Saturday last at 06 per cent.
Tho large ice chest which had stood on
Eighth street for tome weeks was removed
A now crossing has been laid over Tblr
teeth street, on the westerly aide of Wash
Just received: Car load fancy Michl
gan apples. Q. II. Jackson & Co.
: With the beginning of the year I have
ck'cklod to sell only to cash buyers, or to
audi of my credit customers who pay their
bills when duo. F. Koehler. 5t.
wilr fn 1 w ilnto 1!m t..f ...
it ' 1 1 a fc.i7i.ji-1 u h uwatn. ivniiu u iui nut. ii'iii imi
, ? r
ted stub, suited to any business, manufac
, turn And for sulo at the Cairo Bulletin
, . . ,. 1
, Of tho 440,000 foreign immigrants
who arrived at Castle Garden during the
yoHr 1881 being the largest number Binco
1817 Illinois received, next to New York,
much the largest Bhare, being 43,000 or
nearly ten per cent. Pennsylvania comes
next, having received 36,000; Ohio, 19,000;
Michigan, 17,000; Wisconsin and Minne
sota, each 15,000; Iowa, 12,000; Massa
chusetts and New Jersey, each 11,000;
Connecticut and Missouri, each 7,000; and
Kansas, 4,000. Tho remainder have scat
tered in smaller number through the other
states and territories.
One case of drunkenness was tried in
Justico J. II. Robinson's court yesterday.
Odo dollar and costs was the fine.
Ou the night of Thursday, tho 12th
instant, the ladies of tho Episcopal church
will give a sociable at the residence pf Dr.
C. W. Dunning. A real pleasant time may
be safely expected.
A five inch drive well is being sunk
'on the premises of the Halliday, at tho
instance of Major E. W. Halliday. About
sixty-five feet of the tubing haa already
Chief of Police Myers has a notice in
The Bulletin that should receive the
careful attention of all, irrespective of
politics or religion, age, sex or conditio
whose license to do any kind of business,
expired with the year 1881.
Messrs. Crowley & Cox, who have for
some time been running an auction store,
near the corner of Fourteenth street and
Washington avenue, have bought out the
stock of goods of Mr. John Reeve, at the
corner of -Tenth street and Washington
avenue, rip I have removed down there. '
Another presentation took place in this
city a few days ago of wYich nothing has as
yet been said. The merchants whose places
of business aie nightly guarded by private
Watchman Merryman, presented that
geut'eman with a handsome new revolver
on N;w Yea's day, as a token of appreci
ation of his good services in tbo past.
There is a promise of continued mild
weather for this part of the country. Ac
cording to Sergeant W. II. Rays, report the
thermometer was generally on the riBC in
tho northwest during the twenty-four Lours
ending at 2:11 yesterday afternoon, and the
wind blew in this direction.
The flag stone for the walk in front of
Mr. John Gates saloon was shipped from
Joliet Monday or Tuesday of this week.
Another car load was also shipped for Mr.
Peter Siup, which will be used in the con
struction of a new walk in front of the
Palace clothing storo, on Commercial av
nue. The people of Cairo evidently do not ;
have te be driven to vaccination. During this
week one of our physicians used up four- j
teen dollars worth of bovine virus. Nearly
all others have been proportionately busy
for several weeks past, ami may continue to
b for several weeks to come.
A lann'e audience gathered at Reform
hall last night to participate in the election
of officers for tho Cairo Tumnerance Re
form cluli. The election was held, songs
were sung and short addresses delivered, in
all of which much interest was manifested
by those present.
The case of Ritta Murray vs. David
Barry, to which reference was made in yes
terday's Bulletin, was again taken up by
the circuit court yesterday morning and
concluded yestarday evening, so that it
occupied nearly two days of the court's
timo. The jury found a verdict in favor of
tho defendant, Barry. Court adjourned
until 0 o'clock this morning.
-Two men' of a more or less drunken
crowd at the corner of Eighth street and
Ohio levee yesterday afternoon, got into a
war of words over some insignificant mat
ter which lead to a mutual assault. Ono
shoved tho other from tho sidewalk, who
clambered up again, and closed w ith his
autagon'iHt. No blows were struck, how
ever, and friends parted the rightists before
Information has boon received that
Jay Gould took formal charge of the Wa
bash, Kt, Louis and Pacific railroad yester
days president of that road. Gould and his
party, accompanied by John C. Gault and
other Wabash officials, passed over the road
yesterday', leaving Toledo in a special train
in the morning, for St. Louis. Orders had
been given to clear tho track, and the spo
cial ran from Danville to East St. Louis,
U)5 niileB, in four hours and forty-fivo min
utes, or less.
At a meeting of tho Castle of tho Ris
ing S;sr held on tho night of last Thurs
day tho following officers of that order
were installed by Lodge Deputy W. M.
Williams: Joseph Steagaln, commander;
Mr. B. F. Blake, vice commander; Mr.
Phil. c. Barclay, financial secretary ; Mr. A.
Blake, treasurer; Mr. Wm. Alba, prelato;
Mr. N. Meyeis, herald; Mr. James Biggs,
searjeunt at arms; Mr, John Koehler, ward
er ; Mr. Al. Husanka, sentinel. Tho meeting
was well attended and Interesting.
Mr. J. J. Schowles, advance agent of
Hick's Genuine Georgia Minstrel combina
tion, arrived in the city yestorday to ar
range for the appearance of his troupe of
artists at the opera house on next Tuesday
night. This troupe is a large one, is compos
ed entirely of colored men, who have made
minstrelsy a life study and have gained a
wide reputation undor tho name of the
"Genuine Georgia Minstrels," which they
are. The directors of the opera house com
pany have reduced tho price of admission
for Tuesday night to fifty cents in tho
dress circlo and scventy-fivo cents in the
parquetto and parquetto circle. For fur
ther particlars see advertisement elsewhere.
Several subscribers to tho telephone
exchange have withdrawn from the list of
subscribers and surrendered their instru
ments at the beginning of tbo year. The
imperfect working of the system during
the first six months or more caused consid
erable dissatisfaction among subscribers
and impaired its profitableness to mer
chants; hence some of the latter, judging
from this first year's experience, believe
that it has not paid them to bo subscribers
to the system. Such belief is not fairly ar
rived at, because tho experience of the
f rat year, when for several months, owing
to bad construction and carelessness on
tho part of the proprietors, the exchange
was of no practical use, is not likely to be
repeated. The system is now in good
hands and,- with occasional exceptions at
night, the subscribers always receive
Much excitement was made yesterday
afternoon, at first on Commercsal avenue,
above Eighth 6trect, by the sight of a
medium sized, dark colored dog which
gave evidences of madness. He trotted
slowly down the avenue in a dazed sort of
way, with thick white forth running down
both sides of his snout, snapping at passers
by und turning back to follow some of
them for a little distance. The alarm was
given, and Chief Myers, who is always oo
the lookout for cases requiring his atten
tion, caught sight of the dog as he was run
ning up Eighth street toward Ohio levee.
The chief followed him and a large crowd
followed the chief on both sides of the
street. The dog made straight for his
owner's place of business, which is a shoe
shop near the corner of Eighth street and
Ohio levee; but arrived there, he turned
back immediately, run down Eighth street
and when at the lower end of the Vincent
building, at the corner of Eighth 6trcet
and Ohio levee, the chief, who had followed
him back, shot hiin two or three times, and
thus ended a life ot a brute, which might
have cajsed a horrible death of a human.
The readers of The Bulletin will be
pleased to see once again the familiar cog
nomen, "Mrs. D. Green" in this issue of
The Bru.i-.Ti5, and will read her sparkling
communication with pleasure. She ridi
cules The Bulletin's suggestions to
farmers to raise Bhecp, and gives an inter
esting account of Darius' experience in
that line. From the characteristics of the
sheep with which "Darius" experimented,
as they aro set forth in our correspondent's
interesting letter, wo judge that Mr. "Da
rius" was badly fooled he got holo of the
wrong kind of Bhecp. The animal The
Bulletin had reference to is remarkable
for its harmlessness and timidity ; it is of
the snb-tribe ovu- anil family bovidsc; it
never.climlis fauces, and subsists Upon any
thing it can get; and when it runs at all
(which is seldom) it runs into wool. A
little farm stocked with this species of
sheep is equal in every respect to a gold
nunc and a government mint combined in
a paradise it is the consummation of all
human hopes, 'the perfection of human happiness.
A fox chase came off on the Missis
sippi leveo at thy head of Eighth Btroct
yesterday afternoon at 2 o'clock. Tho fox
was tho property of Mr. Joseph Steagala,
who had purchased him from a Kentucky
trapper. A large crowd of people of all
ages wcro on tho spot and crowded around
tho box in which the fox was kept. A
number of dogs were also present, eager
for the chaso and licking their fangs in an
ticipation of tho bloody sport Which was
soon to begin. At a given signal the box
was opened and tho poor, doomed animal
shaken out upon the ground. He had
hardly touched the ground when a burly
negro gave him a violent kick, sending
him about fifteen feet, right among the
pack of dogs. These tore him limb from
limb In less thaa half a minnto, whilo , the
crowd yellod and laughed with glee. The
raco was a failure so far as sport is con
cerned; It. was a brutal exhibition. Had
It been properly conducted could the
crowd have boon kept away and the doom
ed animal given, a chance for his life, there
might have been somothing to amuso some
people; but as it was, oven hard natures
found nothing amusing in it.
Tho city needs gravel with which to
repair tho gravel-paved streets. Tho streets
are in bad condition during this wet weath
er, they that is, tho gravel-paved streets
should bo in better condition than they
are, even in such miserable weather. Com
mercial avenue, from Eighth street down
to Sixth, is badly broken up on both sides
of the track and at frequent intervals ;
front Sixth street down, where tho city
authorized tho uso of poor gravel bocause
of her inability to get better, it is in an al
most impassable condition and has been
for a long time. Here it is a complete
system of rutts And hillocks, pools of
water and of soft mud, from one rain to
another. It is also much in use. While
Railroad street is quite a blessing to team
sters, in that it furnishes a good additional
highway to tho lower portion of tho city
during dry weather, it is, during weather
such as we have been having for several
weeks, and as wo are likely to have the
greater part of tho winter, also nearly im
passable for loaded teams. Hence the ne
cessity of repairing Commercial avenue, or
of paving Railroad street, or both. That
this is not tho time of year for doing such
work extensively is admitted; but it must
be also admitted that tho streets should be
kept in a passable condition, no matter
what the weather may bo, and this could
be done easily with Commercial avenue, if
tho material wore on hand. It
must bo also admitted that this is
a very good time of year for
securing material with which to make re
pairs Bnd improvements when the spring
and summer come, and this brings us to a
point at w hich we have been aiming. Capt.
Williams has received a number of sam
ples of broken rock -gravel, he calls it
but it is broken flint rock, which was
gathered about twenty miles above Cairo,
near the lino of the Cairo & St. Louis rail
road. It seems to be hard enough to with
stand the grinding of horses' hoofs and
wagon tires for years, if properly laid. The
captain says that it could bo brought to
Cairo at any season of year,, in any quan
tities desired and at a nominal price, com
paratively speaking. It would not be ad
visable, perhaps, to uso stono in repairing
gravel-paved streets, for the streets could
then never be kept even; fortius purpose
a barge-load of gravel should be speedily
secured. But for paving purposes the
rock referred to may be better than lime
stone because it is harder, and those having
charge of the matter of street improvements
in this city may find it profitable to exam
ine Capt. Williams' samples, at his office
in the Cairo & St. Louis freight depot.
Mr. H. P. Jone, of the firm of Livings &
Jones, left for the east yesterday on an ex
tended business trip.
Mrs. nenry Winter is in Charleston, Mo.,
visiting her daughter, Mrs. McGrscder.
Mr. James Campbell, of Springfield, III.,
is in the city, looking after some of his
11 A GIST ATE COMINGS' CODKT.
Shad Hawkins was arrested by Officer
Mahanny for disorderly conduct, and was
fined five dollars and costs.
John Snare was drunk and disorderly.
He was arrested by Officer Wims and fined
six collars and costs.
John Burns, for being drunk, was arrest
ed by Officer Wims and fined one dollar
A negro named George Washington
swore out a warrant against John Koehler,
Jr., charging that Koehler assaulted him
and beat him, on tho night of Wednesday
last. The assault took place in a down
town saloon ami complainant said, and pro
duced witnesses who swore, that it was un
provoked; that Koehler struck him in the
face and about the head with brass knucks
until he was insensiblo and bleeding cro
l'usely. The defense, however, produced a
witness who Bworo that Washington first
assaulted Koehler with a knife, and that
the latter fought in Belf-dcfense. Defend
ant was finod ten dollars and costs, but
gave notice of an appeal. After the trial
was concluded the complainant, Washing
ton, learned that tho witness for the defense
had inflicted upon him the wounds on his
head, by hammering him with a soda bottle
while ho was insensible from the blow re
ceived from Koehler. A warrant was there
fore sworn out for this witness, charging
him with assault, and given to an officer
ALL ABOUT 8UEEP.
INTERESTING CORRESPOND ENOB FROM "ME 8.
A splendid text for a practical discourse
appeared in your columns recently.
I havo forgotten tho wording, but not
tho meaning, which was that every man
who would provide luxuriously for his
family need mako no effort in that direction
beyond going into shecp-raising.
Did ho wish an occupation which re
quired so little labor it was positively a do
lightful recreation! Raiso sheep. Did ho
wish to raise the sort of stock that would
thrive, multiply and fatten for market ab
solutely without I take that back I almost
without feed, water or shed romt Raiso
theep. Did he wunt to grow a crop that
needed no fencing to speak oft Raise
sheep. Did ho desiro to enrich hit worn-
out fields, as tho poet puts it, "tttrew hit
lands withjgralns of, gold!" Rail theep.
Did he yo,rn to embork in a business
which would, though requi;ing small
capital in the outset, soon plac him in
nffiuenco, his wares being of a kind always
in groat demand at the highost prices!
I rsgret my inability to quote exactly
from an article so ably written and so
charmingly introduced to The Bdlletin'i
rcadors as the ono in question. Had Darius
been an editor, a bank clerk, a book agenb
or anything but a shepherd, I would have
given him no peace till he acted upon
its suggestions; and, for fear those flowing
sentences, worthy the pen of Eli Perkins
ralBlead some credulous body. I will tell a
little of "what I know of (sheep) farming
Onco upon a timo, we were afllicted by
evil spirits in the guise of government
agricultural reports, full of tho delights and
profits of sheep-growing. Whereupon Da
rius immediately turned from the plow, a
la Cincinnati, and gave up corn and
wheat for cotswolds. It was a hot season
and promised to be a dry one, which was
immaterial, hower, when one considered
that tho animals rarely tasted water, would
thrive on one blade of grass or a jimson
leaf in summer, and fatten to obesity on
two or three straws or a gill of shelled
corn in winter. Yet, we started in our
venture with only one-seventh the number
our land could carrj (according to our ad
viceprinted, mind you; wo took the word
of intelligent men, only), and beside, the
drovor, said they, would not need to water
oftencr than every two or three woaks if
tho dew was pretty heavy, and the grass
rank and juicy.
Grass and dew were all that could be
desirod, but after ten days Darius, proud of
his new enterprise and impatient to make
practical his theoretical knowledge, de
cided to water and count his flock. All
the books said to count frequently. Im
possible task ! With the desperate creatures
rushing along, piling upon each other in
frantic haste, the count varied every time
they were driven through tho gate, and to
rid Darius of the feeling that either he had
some of somebody elac's sheep, or some-
body had some of his, I suggested that he
number them after the manner of the old
uncle, "Once, two, free! dar goes anudder,
dar goes anudder," till he supposed he
had his full complement.
"No fencing to speak of." I can vouch
for the truthf that statement. All of the
flock stepped over low fences, hopped over
ordinary ones; and one bunch of fifty reg
ularly climbed tho highest fence on the
place. It was indeed a hollow mockery to
speak of restraining them. The leader, an
old, long legged subsided ewe, that could
neither be sold nor given away, finally
broke her neck in attempting to ascend the
hay-loft ladder, and an innocent in an ad
joining county was wheedled into buying
the remaining forty nine.
Prico-current wool, picked and washed,
was fifty cents in New York, with a pros
pect of ranging higher; but upon reading
that agents had been sent from the cast to
engage it by the million in Australia, we
rushed ours into market. It brought the
munificent sum of twenty-three cents. The
butcher refussl to give the best price
for the shesp, saying they were not fat
enough. Darius gave orders to feed high.
In a few weeks hay and corn which, in tho
fall, he had intended to sell in the spring
for twenty dollars a ton seventy-fivo cents
a bushel, had gone at a terrific rate, and he
again consulted his butcher, who said
"sheeps are not vanted so much like pork
nowjvait two munts." Which he did,
desperately pitching down hay, measuring
out corn, and chopping drinking holes in
tho ice from daylight to dark night, tho
only variation being to tend tho crematory
fir back of tho barn instituted for the
benefit of thoBoof the woolly flock tnat had
cither had fits and tumbled into tho water,
been over or underfed, or died from sheer
I shudder when I recall the manner of
cutting our eye teeth and getting our eyes
open. But the experience convinced us
that all written advice on the subject, was
a snare and a delusion, offered by men
whoso most intimate acquaintance with
mutton was at the dinner table. The intro
ductory chapter of "Tho Greens on Sheep"
will read something in this wise: "No
occupation will pay without labor; no livo
stock will thrive without care, nor fatten
without feed; no goods will always bring
prico-current figures; and, lastly, no one,
without actual experience, is competent to
Cache, January 4, 1882.
LETTER LIST. '
LIST OF LETTERS REMAINING UNCALLHD
FOR IN TUB POBTOFFICK AT CAIRO, ILL.,
SATURDAY, JAN. 7, 1882.
Andrews, Jossio ,
Mack, Carolina N
Masscy, O A
Valentino, Ella 9
Williams, Jessie (
Corrson, Mary E. ,
Holland, Mary Jano
Kane, Sal lie
Thomas, Mary B
Wright, Uellcn S Warner, Ida.
Duillins, W W
Easley, Peter 2
Jackson, G W
Kruno, J S
Leftwich, J M
Londin, F L
McDonald, M M
Peterson, C A
Storks, W C
Htroler, II J
Thomas, Wm II
Ware'ng, Wm J
Wiur 'kms, Andy
Burr, Charley 2
Conary, Mr '
J)abuey, Wm L
Dud & Co., R G
JonoB, John (col'd)
Keegan, J W
Kenney, Geo R
MacGuithy, II It
Sherel & Co., Henry
Taylor, D R
Wooldridge, W R
Warner, Geo W
Tenons calling for the above mentioned
will j lease say advertised.
Oho. W. McKeaio, Postmaster.
(JAUK) OPERA HOUSE.
Tuesday Jan 10, 1882
127 ienuino colored artists
For One Night onlr.
The riiicst Singers, the Best Dancers,
TiiH Large.t Band and Orches
tra, the Largest Vo
Admits on to rr(jutt! und rsnjictte
Circle with reenrrud test . 71 cents
AdmUmou to Drcts Circle with reserved
int.... W renin
Admlssiuu to (iilli-rjr....... 25 tcote
Doors open at 7 o'cleclc. performance begin tt
Seat ran he secured at box office en the dj of
"From Ttronto Dally Mail. Dec . , 11.
Royal Optra llhooin Tbe (ori;U Minttrtls
drew a Urge aiidlcm e iaat nlirVit. and lt-rr?o good
bomts during the balance of their hrtef enai;
meut. The erfnrmane cannot be lmurorcd upos
in anr re.pert and thnre are many nnTrltics In It.
The tors and lbtlrutnental music 1 excellent, tne
daucirp it np to the standard.
CAPTAIN B. F. CURTIS
list tartod his
At I Iodic"" lJark.
Capacity 20,000 Per Day
And It Prepared to fill all orders promptly.
JAMKS CIIKX I0V, Atr'-nt.
Corner ElgliU-cnth and 1'oplar Streets.
OK THK CONDITION
Alexander County I.ank.
t'Alllo, lu,., li'C. Met, IbHl.
Loans and Dltr.onni $n!i,i;ifl 7
Due from other banks f ll.'.nr "'I
Cah, on Land IV.Ui 3.'
Ki'til Knlalu and furniture. I4.M7 !'
Expenses, Inr.ludlnK taxes o5 SJ
Capital Mock paid In J-ri.ViO oo
httrplus fund 7,H o-Z
Karuln)s..... 11. wo (Kl
Deposits KW.UU 27
$1 17.K.I 29
We. Peter Neff vice prutldcnt, and Henry Wells
cashier do solemnly swear tlmt the aliovo iitaie
nicnt Is tmo to thu hett of our knowledge and bu
hef. I'UTKR NK1-T, Vice l'ri-etdeut
H. WKLL8, CaelU.-r.
Suhacrllifd and sworn to Ix-fure mn this tiih day
of -Im., mi. ALKKED C, inus,
lw Notury Vuulic.
Commercial Avenue and Eighth Street,
F. HUOKS. President. I P. NKl'F, Vice Pros'nt
U. WKUiS, Oushlor. T. J. Kertli, Ass't cash
P. Bro , Cairo I William Kluce...Cslro
Peter Heft" " Wllltum Wotf.... "
), M , Ostcrloh ' I o. (. J'utler '
E. A. Oudnr " 1I. Well "
J. Y. Clomsou, Caledonia.
A C1KNK1UL BANKING UTJSINKBS DONE.
Exchango sold and bought. Interest paid in
the NayliiK Department. Collections luadu and
all biiilnusit promptly attended to.
All persons doing business whoso llccnta ox
plrod December Hlsi, 1KH1. aro hereby notHVd to
renew their llcoust without delay and thereby sav
troubls and cost. LOUIS U. MV Kits, .
' Cain, 111., January Sd, 1883.
iK'.l'.M'rl.&u'.'i.OVvt .4 ,'. . .. ,.,..'.'''." 1 ' - ,i. .,