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title: 'Hannibal journal and western union. (Hannibal, Mo.) 1851-1852, September 04, 1851, Image 4',
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Frora Hunt's Merchants' Magaxine.
- Study of Political Eoonomy.
T A fARMCM,
My first artkrft on the study of Political
E-onoiny having bern rritiied at tnmo length
in the Juno umnhcr of the Merchants' Majra
tinc, ! evidently misunderstood, I will en
deavor in thi to explain what may appear ob
aeure, awl W-e the anioiico of agricultural
r'vlti.4um on ila true basis. Tho theory of
Mr. M dthua, which was substantially adopted
by Ricardo and. McCulloch, is, Hint populntion
tniiuraliy iiierenses, from yer to year, while
tillage for the production of human food and
raiment trndi to diminish the natural fruitful
nes of the Birth and Hint the torcaaary effect
of the-te apparently conflicting lava ia to rent rain
the multiplication of the Iminiin family within
.rtai limit, not well defined. Un the other
band, tho theory of Messrs. Carey, B.istiat and
other i th:it food tend to increase faster than
populntion. creating a aurplua, which encourage
the withdrawal of labor from agriculture to be
employed in mechanical and manufacturing pur
suit. Having studied thi subject with ome
care, tho undersigned venture to express the
opinion that both of the above named theories
are erroneoua, and that the truth in this case, as
in in my others, lies between tho extremes of
contending partisan. Although " R. 8." fan
cies that he can detect inconsistencies " in my
- , , , , , ., . , . , . ,
statements uboul the chemical and mechanical
tom.hten'rto ""V hu8bandry' 00 "Uch;aH that the whole population of this country an-
. .' 1 , . ... . nnally consume from what they produce, the
. J 1! i in1uJrc' Yhnt' P"rft'on m ar i rich lcft wiU Dot m twe.fty-lBve cent, a
AffTiouIliintl annuo r M nr than iwn-thtrrt F I . ... .
C 1 1 , .1 T 1
the labor and capital of the Union are employed
n tillage and husbandry J but with what result.
mw T nj VI IUJUl.illg tllt .UIlPUIIIIUg Ileal.
There aro not for from five million, of farm
laborer in the United Slate, and they have in
pastures, meadows and cultivation, probably not
less than 120,000,000 acre. Can that labor be
regarded as truly productive, whose proceed.
'''kr) iiuufHcicnt to cover the damage done to the
soil while the labor is expended If A man who
merely loses his labor and the capital which he
, produce! by former more successful industry,
can hardly be said to injure materially any one
but himself. This is often done in disastrous
commercial and mechanical operations ; the cap-
r ilul invested is sunk, and the labor performed is
. lost. Bid as operations of this character really
arc, they are much less injurious to the commu
nity than a goo f deal of agricultural industry,
which most political economist, consider pcculi
arly productive. vMu. Malthus says: '-It has
, been justly observed by Adam 'Smith, that no
equal quantity of productive labor, employed in
- manura"tures, can ever occasion so great a rt-
" protection a in agriculture." Commenting on
the above, Mr. Ricardo remarks: "If Adam
Sm'tlt speak of value, he i correct, but if he
peaks of richtt, which is the material point, he
is mistaken, for he has himself defined riches to
consist of the necessaries, conveniences, and en
joyment of human life."
A common error perv.Jos the mind of each
of e above named author, in regard to the
. productiveness of rural in lustry. riot one of
V them tike cognizanca ot tho tact that vaiualii
t raw material is consumed a.i much in making a
- - bushel ot grain, as in making a yard ot cloth
"R. S. has fallen into the same error, and hence
foils to comprehend how' 'tillage alone, without
i .cropping, exhaust land, while skillful husband-
, . ry will not only maintain the virgin fertility of
the earth, but render it still more productive."
, I insist on the point that no writer on Political
Economy, of any note, whether he supports
Free Trade or Protection, ha attempted to show
the diflerenco between destructive and productive
. tarm-taoor. JNo ono who is laminar with Amen
can agriculture in any State east of the Missis.
sippi, will deny that the impoverishment of the
soil is the rule, und its improvement in fertility,
above its natdral fruitfulness, the exception, a-
mang American cultivators. Following: the
common estimate of the yaluo of crops, and the
gain in doiucsliu uuinialrf end their products, let
' ti assume the acjrrejtato product to be b00,
000,000 in the currenn year, 1851 ; and that the
agriculturists, as a class consumes 5b00,000,000
ot the fruit of their industry. This leaves a
' snrpHisofweuii.lt created in twelve mouths by
" them of 200,000,000. The important ques
' , tion now arises, how much will it cost to reno
vate so much of the soil as' has been damaged in
any way by the loss of fertility in grass and hay,
in grain, roois, luoers, nux, hemp, tobacco, sugar-cane,
rice, cotton, fruit of ull kinds, and in
all other field and garden crops, removed from
, tho gr Mind that produced them t Admit that
only half of the improved hinds in the Union
' ' novo lost by tillage, the leaching and washing
"i of rains, by the certain consumption of vegcta
', bio mold, und the volatilization of manure in a
Hundred forms, the equivalent of one good hna-
test. Now, what is the sum, in money or la
bor, that will replace in the soil the equivalent,
in manure, of sixty millions acres of train, cot
ton, and tobacco, so far as the atmosphere and
fains fail to supply tho elements of crons ?
- v It may be impossible to give a clear and sat
isfactory answer to this question, without ulso
giving a briei aecount of the thingg in tho soil,
eonsume.1, partly to form the substance of cul
Kvated plants, and partly to fnrnsih that consid
erable amount of the organio and inorganic food
of crops, which rain-water always leaches out,
' and removes from arated earth. Did "R. S."
ever turn over a large compost heap six times
- in mo course ol tho summer r If so, he must
have noticed that the mass "grew smaller by de
gree, and beautifully less." The stirring of the
' soil with the implements of tillage consumes
vegetable mold, irrespective of all crops, in a
similar manner, and it also dissolves out of the
ibose ground, salt of lime, magnesia, potash, and
o la, without which plants cannot grow. What
, jwlitical economist ha July cvuiJcred the fact
' that Nature never plow, nor harrows, nor hoes,
, nor cultivate the earth, in any way, to produce
hi-r largest and most luxuriant vegetable? Of
all the animal on earth, man alone tills it, and
, ignorantly impairs its natural fertility. "R. S."
call attention to the care with which manure is
aved un I applied in Great Britain and on the
Continent. I hope to be pardoned for intimat-
. fug that I am tolerably well posted up in the
, progress of European agriculture, reading regu-
s Ltrly tho Journal of the Royal Agricultural So
ciety of England, and of the Scotch Highland
' and A B-ricultural Society, of London Farmer'
"... Migazine, Agricultural Gazette, and Gardners'
Chronicle, not to nume French Mriodicil. .Ip.
...... .i ..." i : t
If the farmers of Entrland restore to tha anil
all the elciiicuts of tropi extracted fnwa it, and
' lill Cud it necessary to import 1 10,000 . tons of
quarto a y63') J m iniiaenae quantity of flax.
seeJ atil oil-cuku, indireutly for nmnure, while
- jfrowiojf neidicr cottuh, tobao, nor nuiye, (our
v not exhausting crops,) from wliat soun e, and
. at what cost, ahull wo obtain Uie raw material to
' renovate, for a irie harveat, only six million
re of otir jmjioverishi'd land ? V ill "il. ,S."
answer this plain question t Out experience in
using 14,000 ton of guano a yer, proves that
to obtain a single fair crop, from 200 to SCOO
pounds per acre must be applied j and thi Im
ported manure i now selling in Augusta, Geor
gia, ntfovr dollar per 100 lb. Hy the time
the cotton planters got it to their plantations, it
will cost them a dollar more. Now, 200 lb, of
tlii manure, eostinar .4(10. will not atmnlv to an
n t ii j
acre of land, by long way, all the potash need
ed to form a fair crop of cotton, of corn, wheat,
or other grain. Ihit assume Uiat it wH) !eet
every demand of nature in organizing one crop,
which must weigh at lonst 3,000 lb., and if
corn, more than twice that amount, the expense
is six hundred millions ol dollars for sixty mil
lion of acres. It will not do to cstifMe the
value of manure imported from Peru, or else
where, at its price in sea port ; but it must be
placed at it cost where consumed. Will it be
j contended that the uniform experience of age,
in an countries, maicaung me necessity oi ap
plying manure, i all a murfake, and that we can
go on for ever growing and exporting cotton,
tobacco, and breadstuff without consuming the
few well knowu aubstance in and near the sur
face of the earth, which form cultivated plants P
If o, no argument can avail against such an ab
surdity. Whatever may be the precise value, either
present or prospective, of the natural f ruitfull-
; ness of American soil, one thing is perfectly
t . : . i ...i.: i. .i... -H ...i
day tor the luuor that must be expended to
h ;, ag good a we found it, from year to
, ,n olhef wcnkh of' ' nt
eration is not fuirly produced, by proving the
raw material consumed, or by keeping the stock
in the surface of the earth good, by wise tillage
and skillful husbandry : but it is created by the
wasteful loss and reckless consumption of the
most precious atom which alone can form ha
man clothing, brains, muscle, and bone. One
third of the earthy matter in a buthel of wheat
i pure potash, and full one-half of that in a per
fect potaloe plant, including tubers, roots, stems,
and leaves, i the same alkali. Will any reader
say tnut me constant exportation of pot and
pearlashe from thi continent, for two centuries,
drawn from its forest trees and .oil, and the
constant waste of all that ha. been consumed in
soap, in cotton and tobacco, and in a thousand
oiuer iorms, na. not aiministiea uie supply in
the improved lunds of the United States r I as
sert, after tho patient research of years, that the
quantity of thi alkali annually thrown away in
privic and elsewhere, in this country, is equal
to the production of 500,000,000 bushels of
wheat, and yet no man has seen a blade of grats,
or grain, a potatoc, cotton, or tobacco plant,
which did not contain potash a one of ita natu
ral elements. Ammonia i. worth to-day eleven
cent a pound in England, for agricultural pur
poses, notwithstanding all the organized elements
of this alkali, in the 80,000,000 bushels of grain,
flour, or meal annually imported, and all that is
contained in the guano, oil-cake, seed, and pro
visions also imported, and all that is contained
in every vegetable and animal product of Brit
ish soil. Have 1 not said enough to show that
the science of agricultural production i. little
understood ; and that Political Economy i. less
comprehended by economist, themselves, .0 far
as national consumption and production are con
cerned ? These learned men see very clearly
how groin can be accumulated in granaries, and
goiu 111 money-Dags, dui wnen 11 come, to the
accumulation of tho element of crops in the sur
face of the earth for the economical production
of the great staples of a nation, their wisdom is
at fault, andnothing can be seen but "the gros
sest inconsistencies." This arises from their
neglect to study the cause, of fruitfulness and
barrenness in arated earth. With them the dif
ference between good and bad husbandry, is no
more than that between tweedle-dee and tweedle
dum. Having filled their mind with conflicting
meories aooui exenanges High tarills, low
tariff's, and free trade there is, unfortunately,
no room left for anything else pertaining to
political economy. I would say nothing in dis
paragement of the science of exchanges, between
persons of the same nation, or of different na
tions, provided it did not, like Aaron's rod,,
swallow up all other kindred studies, which are
of much greater consequence. If man cannot
create the elements of human food and clothing,
and these elements do not exist in the soil in in
exhaustible quantities, is it not plain that to
maintain the natural fertility of land is one of,
the highest duties which each generation owes
fo all surrounding ones P In fifty years the
United States will contain one hundred million
of inhabitant to be all clothed and fed j and in
view of this fuct,-vwhttt mortal right have the
twenty-three or four millions now here, to leave
the earth less fertile than they found it ? Is
there no force in the Roman maxim. "Salu 00-
puli Suprema Jxf" Jn what does the "safety
of the people," or republic, consist t Not, surely,
in desolating a million fields with the plow, in
stead of the sword P Professor Way, consult
ing chemist to the Englinh Itoval Agricultural
Society, estimates the daily waste of fertilizing
matter washed into tho Thames, in the city of
London, as worth jC 2,000, or $10,000. Here
is a loss in a singlo city of a million of dollars
every one hundred days. "R. S." intimates
that Adam Smith brought the study of political
economy so near perfection seventy-five years
ago, that there is very little more to be learned
or sam on me subject. In my humble opinion
the A. B. C. of the science nave vet to h in.
vestigated by the professors of this de
01 inunan Knowledge. 10 assume that cities and
nations can prosper without anv reference tn
1 . .. 1 ' . f , . K : r
.1 . . ..
mo sun, is, ooviousiv. uc extreme or roi v.
Doubtless, Babylon and Palmyra acted on this
principle; but where now is all their greatness?
rreciseiy wnere mat ol London and JNew York
will end under the guidance of their present fulse
system or public economy.
From th Dollar Newnanr.
Mr DtAa "Newsfapeb."
1 nave oeen a constant reader of vour
paper for the last five veurs. and 110 dollars
thut I have ever spent have yielded a more sat
ufactory return. Hope T .hall alwavs have a
dollar when the year come, round ; as long as
t am uuie 10 reau nne print or have children to
reaei 10 me. i wen recollect the time when you
inj. 1 .t J .'II .1 . 1
uie, n 1 uiuiigui, aim .1111 (uiiiK, uie magnan
imous offer of two column, per week for the
'.' u yu'"P" wwk lor u
u..ijii oi iurricuiiurai suuiecis, ana eratu
""fj your paper ior one year to everj
persou who would become au oucasional con
trihutor to Uiat deprtinent. How many have
availed themselves of tliis offer to obtain your
paper I do not know, but I do know Uiat these
eoluiiiis have always been filled with interesting
mutter. I have orte thought of contributing
something to that dvpartinent, and lmve iiimlly
resolved to do so, and I cUiin nothing iu return
beyond the satisfaction of having thrown my
mite into the generol fluid of inf oi mat ion from
JOURNAL AND UNION HANNIBAL, MO., SEPTEMBER 4,
which I have so lonjr and so liberally drawn for
the paltry consideration of one dollar a year.
I he question
Will. WHEAT TVlIf TO CHEAT?
Ha been pretty liberally discussed in your col
umns. I am not prepared to say that it will or
will not, but will state my experience and leave
those who may read it to draw their own con
In 1838 I commenced' to make a farm upon
entirely new land, in the wilderness in Ionia
county Michigan. I prepared a field of six
acre upon which no crop had ever before been
raised. My seed-wheat contained very little
chess or cheat, and not having conveniences for
separating it,- I sowed it a it was. The soil
was a sandy loom. 1 raised a fair crop of wheat,
with a sprinkli" tg of chess, at the rate of about
one bushel to twenty of wheat. I was delayed
in harvesting, so thut my wheat shelled in hand
ling, and left perhaps one bushel per acre scat
tered over the ground. Immediately after har
vest I ploughed up the same field and sowed it
again to wheat, this time with clean seed;
I worked it alone with but one team of
oxen. Considerable time wa consumed in
preparing the ground and getting in the crop.
After the ground wa. ploughed and before drag
ging commenced, I observed that some of the
wheat left by the former crop sprouted and
came un. per nans one-fourth a much as would
seed the ground, but thi. speedily disappeared
when the dragging commenced. To avoid as
much a possible the mischief of large flocks of
pigeons which constantly hovered around me, 1
used to sow in the morning what I could drag
in during the remainder of the day. In this way,
that which I sowed first got well started up be
fore I had completed the field. The pigeons ta
king advantage of several large fluid standing
clcsa to the tide of the field first sowed, and
which afforded them a convenient look-out, used
to assemble there in great number and then des
cend to the field and have jolly time. Owing
to the dust they kicked up, my curiosity was
excited to find out what they were doing, as I
supposed llial tliey never scratched. I succeed
ed in getting near enough to observe that with
almost incredible dexterity they removed the
earth with their beaks, seizing and throwing it
aside, until they had uncovered the kernel at the
root of the plant, which they bit oil and devour'
ed ; sometime, tearinz un the plant, but general
ly leaving it standing, with a portion of the roots
laid bare and the kernel gone. .During the lot
lowing winter, owing to the form of the land,
two targe and deep snow-units were formed by
the wind, which remained upon the field nearly
three weeks ofter the snow had left tho rest of
the field. When these drift, where gone, the
wheat, where they had lain, appeared entirely
killled. One spot covered nearly hull an acre,
the other not so much. I did not see the field
again until about the first of June, when, very
much to my surprise, I found the places where
the snow-drifts had lain, as well covered with
luxuriant grain as any other part of the field,
and just ready to push out their heads. After
the grain had headed I saw it again, and was
again surprised to find that, just so far as I had
supposed the wheat killed in the spring by the
.now, I now had a beautiful crop of chess, and
where the snow had tain heaviest and largest,
there was chess and nothing else. I also found
that where the pigeons had torn the wheat the
most, that chess was more plenty than wheat,
and there was generally through the field more
than twice the amount of chess I had expected to
Thus far I have given a simple detail of facts.
Now, how shall we account for them? I know
it is argued by many, and they think they have
nafure on their side, that every seed must and
will reproduce its own kind and nothing else.
I grant that this, in the main, is true; but it is
eqally true, that nature, disturbed in its prftpcr
functions, will often produce monsters both in
the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Why does
rye produce ergot, or corn a black, ill-shaped
fungus? Neither of them ore the natural and
proper products of rye or corn. And why may
not wheat, when disturbed in its natural and
proper course of vegetation, produce something
as different from its original as ergot from rye,
or fungus from corn?
The only satisfactory conclusion that I can ar
rive at in relation to my wheat, is this : thut the
general abundance of chess through the whole
field was produced by the wheat shelled on the
ground from the former year's crop, which,
sprung up after the ground was ploughed, and
wnH rtl l. Kv I Ita auKanrtilfit nratrlrinnr
That tho greatet abundance of chess found
whpr lm .ni. u-nl-Lnrl.
I of the iniune done bv them to the cron sown.
I Wntber with l. .nr..l mi,(inni.l
j The spots where the inow had lain producing
entire chess, mingling and gradually shading oh'
into wheat at the edges, was the result of iniu-
ries done by the snow. But the" advocates of
the doctrines that "like . produces like" will
doubtless fly to their old refuge, and argue that
cheat bcinK a hardier plant tlmn wheat, and the
wneai ueing partially or wnollv destrovea, tnc
chess occupied its place and grew in greater: .
abundance limn if the wheat had not been injured.
uut, 1 ask, where could it come lromr It must
cither grow from its seed, existing in the ground
in suiHcent abundance to produce the number of
stalks I found, or. else the few roots that did ex
ist must -have spread and thrown up a great
abundance of stalks to supply the- vacancy left
Dy me wtieat. jnow, the trtitn is, that where
the pigeons did their mischief, there was not as
great a crop of wheat and chess together as on
other parts of tho field, by about one third;
where the snow drifts had lain there was jio
perceptible difference in tlie amount of stalks
compared with the uninjured parts of the field
Nor was their any perceptible difference in the
number of stalks growing from tho same root,
either of chess or of wheat, especially where
th chess was most abundant, liesidet this, if
all tlie chess that grew on tliat field that year,
was the product of chess sown, some one else
besides myself must have sown it. Neither, if
all the chess that grew on the field the year pre
vious had shelled off on the field would it have
been enough to have produced so rrreat a cron.
Again, if chess seed was the oritfin of the chess
that grew, how did it happen that just as far
i .1 i .? I .. i i .
aim cAiuniy uvtere injuries iiau ueen none to Hie
wtieat, tne chess was found to correspond ex
actly in amount and extent, with the amount, e.X'
tent, and nature of the injury done.' n. h.
Jamci county, Michigan, 1851.
. II. aALSTON, THOS. SUNDKSL, M
LatebfOuiiirv.nl. Lata of Hannibal, o
ATTORNEYS AT LAW.
tLSCRAMESTO CITY, CJIUfORNM.
COFFEE 30 sack prime Rio Coffee in store and for
sal by noviiy - G. W-CAPLINGEB.
QIIOEH aad Hoots of all kinds, from the
KJ uietal up ta the solicit Kid Leather at
T. H. SELMES.
THAT AFPtALS TO THE
SOUND SENSE OF THE COHBIUNITY
7" (( i-(iaaUrW ttrnt . ftmilf
Mtditintt mtf t trptniti mpen wi(k
tkt mtwuit tenfintt. TVtf Sum
IA tfprttttin IA f pkf
(fet'mt in IA tnntrf, txi -
trt rectmmndei Ip til
wk kttt tcd Iktm
mt wperiVr t
ftRft i7jr mtdlcinti Iwca.
Tbejr have been before th Public
FOR FIVE YEARS,
During which lime mar lhn S,000 ctrllfcilri have bren re
ceived from eminent public men end oihen, and
are now oa Ale al the Company'a Office.
They are Compounded
With the ulmoit care end skill, and the Inf redlcnli
are Ihorouihlr triced by eclenllAc chemUti.au
that airdlrlnea of a anlfonu and reliable
quality are guaranteed In all caiei.
Are particularly valuable for the prevent Ion and
cure of Feven In general, all BiMIouj and Mr.
er Complaint!, Jaundice, General Debility,
Common and 8k k Headache, DyVpep
ala, Heart Burn, Coitirenein, Urlp
ing, Urinary Dleeaeei, Obnruc
llona of the Meniea, Ii; (ta
enia, Aathmn, and for
a variety of other
ea; in line,
for all ordinary farnlly uaea.
Full Direction! for the various DUea.se nccoinpaa
nyeacnuoi. rrlce cents a box.
A apcedy and Infallible remedy In Dlnrrlir, Dreei
tery, Bloody Flui, Cholera Morbus, Cholera Infan
tum, and Die Ami ne CnnLiRi, If tnki'ti WIM
the Dm ayinptomi, via: vomiting and diar
rhea. It never faili to cure the wont
poulble cava of bowel complaint!
generally in a few lioun, lei
doni beyond a day. It la
and taken in rflmoai
any quantity ia
Green Mountain Ointment
Invaluable for Burna, Wuundi, epralua, Chilblalmr,
Corm, Borei, Swelling! of all klmla, Bheuma
Hint, eryiiiM-laa , Bronchltii, Scrofula, Ul
. ce, Palua in the Bide and Buck imme
diately relieved, Inflammation of tint
Bowela, and for all casea where -0
there la Inflammation
Uterine Catholic on.
A certain cure for Prolapiua (Tier), .and for mnit of
the dumping complaint! incident! Female!,
rrepared by Dr. TIIEO. l'OMEKOV.of Uli
ea, lolcly for the Graefenberg Company.
The other Graefenberg Medicines are:
. 0 Eye Lotion. .
" Health Bitter.
" Fever and Ague Pills.
Libby's Pile Ointment.
THE GllAEFKNB G
MANUAL OF HEALTH
A Complete hand-buuk of medl. iuu for families,
Office 214, firvadaeay. A". Y.
7c.4,ic. re,H.Hd U, tear,, mind that eeceyl, ,;.,.
y Ik, Orurfmier, Cmpa,, , tkeir teal upon it.
Spvri.u. ar1ir( tare area ,ucd cb.cJ, rt,tmitit Ike g,n-
in terry parlicuUr ,ttrpt Ike ,cal und tke ntmoit tare
'kvuld teoiirrerd btfore pnrekating. o
fc.K. WOtllWAIlD, General Ascnt, St...,,,
J. V MATTIIEWH, Local Aeent, yl4a. (ll,artiJ
A Fin 'ot "f P inghams for sule onrea?onab!e terms
XX apr24y. by COLLJNS &. BHEED.
A - Ribbons.
Rihi n tsso''taieJ't."t Pri"ffadn summer Bonne
Itiubonsi also. Sattu anil Mmii, n:i.i - ..
i - mi Ban
COLLINS & BHEED.
TUbT opened a fine lot of BOOTS and SHOES
or all qualities, among which" yoii will find some
beautiful excelsior kid ties for the Ladies nt
1 S made'clo"!!,6,." Tth ll'o'reof B'a"ke,S' ,"d
J. W. SPALDING & CO,,
(COMMISSION and forwarding Merchants, deal-V-ers
hi Star Can.lles. Starch, Soap, Lard Oil, Cheese.
Butter, Eggs tc. No. 83 Commercial St. near Lo-ust
1st. Louis, Itlo.
Springer &. Whiteman, Harrison It Hooper, S S.
Rowe( Cashier), Cincinnot; I. It. St urges & Co., J. J.
iaiiis, Ptu uiuami iMker Renick & i:o., Cliotil. au fc
vane, nut. ni. Morrison, St: Lonu; H. U.Budell
NOTICE1 is hereby given lo all persons interested in
the estate of Geoige Settle, deceased, Hint lettera
irkiauirmaiy uave oeeu graiuea lo the undersigned
by the Rails County Court, bearing dale August 4, Isol.
All persons indebted to said estate are requested to
Jiaktt payment immediately, and all persons having
claims against said estate, are requested to present
Iheui, properly authenticated, withm one year from the
date of said letters, or they may be precluded from any
benefit of said estate, and if uot preaeuted within three
years they will be forever buried.
J'ETEK C. SETTLE, Adm'r.
dm tai'Eliaticr b Kctice.
NOTICE is hereby given to all persons interested in
the estate of Austin Gilbeit, deceased, that letters
of administration have been granted to the undersign
ed by the Ralls County Court, bearing dale August 5,
1851. All persona indebted to said estate aie request
ed to make payment immediately, all uersoni liuvniu
claims against aaid estate are requested to piesent them,
properly authenticated, within one year fi cm the date
of said letters, or they way be precluded from any ben
efit of said estate, and it not presented within Ihtee
years, they will be forever barred.
augli-3t , .MARY GILBERT, Admr'x.
BENTON SALOON TO RENT.
riMUS is the largest and best room for Balls, Public
J. Shows, Lectures, Political and other Meetings in
Hannibal. To rent by the day or week. Enquire of
jy" T. U. E13LMES.
r( IMLK BAKKGI.8IJPHK8T rUIMKHIJUAK HOUdK
tJJ MOLAS H.a 'juj ratuived and lor sale low lv
T. K fcl.LJIta
Smith S. Allen,
HANNIBAL, MARION COUNTY, MISSOURI,
WILL promptly attend to all profrasional h.iiineM
ntinlect to his cart in 1he counties of Ms""
Ralls and Fits. He will particular tei.lion , to
the- securing and collection of debts in any part of he
Slate. J-Otfice ot. Bird street, four door. i above the
corner of Bird and Main, is front of the Marshal and
ER ACE Dea Laines, a newstyle of gooda for la
diet d leasee,
COLLINS & BREED'S.
NOTICE is hereby given to all perjons interested in
the estate of Solomon Luctis. dee'd, that letters of
administration have been grunted to the undersigned,
by the Halls county court, bearing date Aug. 4th, A.O.,
!85l. All peroous having claims against said estate
are requested to present them for allowance within
twelve months, or they may be precluded from ai y
benefit of laid estate, and if not ptesented within three
years, will be foreve r barred.
augU JOHN M.JOHNSON, Adtn'r.
DRESS SILKS. .
Splendid lot of Uiess Silks. Call before they are
i!. tor sate y iiriy
COLLINS It BREED.
. Dm.- MHUEUITH & HAWKINS
TT A VE associated themselves in the practice of Med
ir inp. Calls for either, nt their oHice. on Main
treet, otvr the ttort of E. $ O. W. HauikiM, will be.
tten'led to at all nours. tei-ju
rpHOSE knowing themselves indebted to Mellon ft
J. Hawkins either by note or account, wil please
tome forward and pay up immediately, as I am tlie only
one autnon.eil to rereive ana receipt lor me same.
Hannibal May 28 ISM. ELIJAH HAWKINS
Hannibal Stove and Tin Store
' am Street, Hannibal, Mo.
The undersigned would respectfully cal) the atten
tion of the public in general and his old friends and cus
tomer m particular, to u is wen aetecteu ,vcii usauncu
atocKol Cook Stoves,ann especially tlie
which is the same pattern of the
(if not the original) which has been so very highly and
ueservedlv recommended bv some of our most respect
able and worthy citizens, and also to lha Heavy rur-nace-Made
Piemium Cook Stove, at least one-third
heavier than anv stove offered on the Wississinpi,and
willla-t as long as two of many of the light louudry-t
made stoves, tins is no jest it u downright sooer
irutn anu suotiiti oe inicr.esuiig iu iuoe wistimg iu m
chase a stove for service. His stock of tin ware is com
n Ipte aiiit will he furnished tt rtenlers ai St. T-otiis nrices.
and he will have also in season a fine lot of Parlor,
Hox,Coal and Ten Plate sloves, all of which will be
sold as low as any other house can alfbrd them.
But while so much is said about stoves, fcc, the fine
Iron, Steel and Hollow Ware
must not be overlooked, to be louiid at the y""
old stand on Water stteet
Do not Inritet . 5iW4r
the Hun ni bul Stove
and Tin SatrJI
Store, IVextdoorto block's Clothing More, iUauret.
J. C. WAUGH,
Successor to Wangh & Pogue.
rPHE largest and best assorted stock of Fashionable
1. Goods of every description ever brought to Han-
ntoai, now opening ai ine Boston Wholesale Ware
house. Walk up LadieU and Gentlemen, we are ready
and happy to show our goodi. oct 24 I
T. II. SELMES.
.v'fifir 'ooohst' .
COLLINS & BREED
TV OT having time to give a full description of the'
j. i suit greater attractions ol meir present slocli ol
- SPRING AND SUMMER GOODS,
Would respeclliilly invite the attention of their old cm-
toineis anil li lends, and the public generally, to theiras
aortiueut of Spring and Summer Goods, comprising at-'
.uiut iirrcssury ior i ne couiioit or conve
nience of Humanity, in attestation of which they libld
themFelves in readiness at all times to exhibit to the
piiuut; nil-it spicnuiu siocx oi staple and Fancy Drv
Ooods. HfiSiy '
'PHE firm of Saul & Dean was dissolved on the I2!h
i ?' ()ct0Der lasl- lue undersigned atill continues
mo maiuie uimness at tne oiu stand, formerly
occupied by Keebee, two doors east of T. R.
"Selmes' huil.lings." He has oh hand a irnmi
assortment of Italian and American marble, and bunes
all those wishing, to purchase wll call and see for
uicoiKivn, ne win sen cucaper lUan lias ever been
old ni the West, and his work cannot help pleasinir
lor cheapness and style. p, A. SAUL.
COME AT LAST!
MISS JENNY LIND AT HANNIBAL'
rPHE uiidersignd would takeApecial pleasure in an'
. !'"cing to the citizens of Hannibal, and the ad-
oc'kof0''16 Ulat 118 baSj"St rceeiveJ his Spring
and he can safely say without the least fear of contra
die. on, ,hal he nasi he largest and best selected -sor
me.it ot FuiuUy CiloCerie ever brought to
Hannibal, and is deierm.ned to sell as low as can be
sold in th, city, and warranted to be.or as good quality
as can be lou.id in any establish.net iu the Slate of M 7.
SOUrt.. BO all Ol VOU that llilur.r .,.,1 11, .-,, n ... .
.ubataiitialaof lite, com. unto m T ad bu v ... 1.1
drink and good articles and ch-ap bargains
. O. W. ijAI'I
W. A. MOflETT,
A. J. STILLWELL.
MOFFETT, STILLWELL & CO.,
COMMISSION M ER CHAN
a. R. GREEN
no. 11, Locust t.l(fL' Stairs,)
ST. LOUIS, MO.
E. M. MOFFETT.
fthe UI.D.llllim ivo n
A GENTS of the
take Fire and Man,,, ri.b.. ... X'. P"Trea to
term, in this well k0 " , '"'W
Hannibal, Sept. 2bth, 1850- f '
J. A. INSLEE fc CO.,
Commiasion Merchants, and Wholesal,
Healers iu Liquor.
11 "Ihikt fthe celebratetl 'Black BA-J
Uo, Brand' always on hand. SSLai
Vine'tr1'1 U' fa,""!r,., Clarified Cider
NOTICE is hereby given to all persons interacted Iri
the estate of James Shalioney, deceased, that let
t'ra of er)mlnllrlinri upon aaid estate have been grant
ed ro the undersigned by the Clerk of I lie Rail" County
Court in vacation, oearing date August 14, mat. Air
persons indebted to said estate art requested to make
navinent immediately, and all persons having claims a-
gainst aaid estate are requested to present them, prop
erly authenticated, within one year from tha date of
i i.i, I :r .. n. .. ..i u. : i i. : w..-
satu leuerp, anu nut vtiniii. iiiiw jm9
they will be forever barred.
aug2l-3t on aiiui tr, Aam'rx.
1 nnn bushels of good stone coat, for
laVylV ' which we will pav the highest market
price in trade. QUARLES 4 CALDWELL..
List of Letter
REMAINING in tha Poit Olfice at Hannibal, Mtf.
August 13th, 1831 1
Burnett Geo W
Brown Julia D
Brown Mary A
Barber R It
Cox Maitba J
Cooper Joseph J
Chapman J L
Carv Dr John C
Cline Jehu W
Dukes W H
Fitr.am Ric'd J C J
Geo Ada n
Hancock B F
Higgins Thos M
Harper Prof J D
Howard Thos J
Hall G W
Ma?fcall J A
Onstot Joshua c
Rhodes & SjftHi
Stockton ivnUisibiT E"
fitears John "
Swift JF 0
SI over E B
Shambling Miss Rosen ai'
Wooden R H
Williams Wm F
' Willis Miss Sarah E
Persons calling for advertised letters will please ask
for advertised letters, A. O. NASH, P. M.
Hannibal, August 13, 1851: augl4-3t
A FEW good saddle and harness IIOK
M;S wanted, in fine order between
this and the lUlh of September.
SHOOT fc DAVIS.
Cash for Negroes!
I TAKE this method of informing the
people that I am prepared at all
timet to pay the highest cash prices for
.v; u nous,
and can at all times be found at the
stable of Shoot & Davis.
Hannibal, August I t, 1851.
JAS. A. HUAKLF.8.
STOVE & TIN STORE.
QtTARLES & CALDWELL,
West side of Main St., in the lioaac for
marly oecuplerl hy IL Wlekeraham.
'PHE undersigned have perchased from Mr. H.
X Wickershain his entire stock of STOVES and TIN
WARE, and in future intend constantly to keep on
hand a well selected stock of COOKING and HEAT
Our Rtock consists in part of the following articles:
rriza Premium. Cook's Delight, Bucks' Double Oven,
Empire State, Ohio Premium, Irving's Air-Ti-ht. and
PR AIRIE STATE Cook stoves. '
We will also have, in time for the fall trade, a rood
assortment of the latest and most approved styles of
PARLOR and Heating Stoves.
many of our citizens are now using the Prairie Stat
Cook Stove, and all agree to its superior advantagea
over ull others in point of durability and speed and ex
cellence in cooking.
We have on hand and will continue to Manufacture
a! ktnds of wares belonging to the Tin Business,
which we stll at . Lout, WhoUtalt ana Retail
c (!?,'',,, W,' al PrePred ' do all kinds of COPPER
SM I j KING. Persons wanting work done in that line,
will do well to give us a call, as they can savethtf
tiouble and expense of going to St. Louis.
NT. B.-Old Stoves taken in part par for new ones.
u k, . QU ARLES It CALDWELL.
Hannibal, August 9tb 1851.
J. M. MARMADUKE.
CITY HOTEL, M
On Main, near Cor. Hill atrcct,
' MARMADUKE & 1IANCE,
miS well known House having recently been r
painted and thoroughly renov.fed, is "0 '
urmng the.r thanks to the community in ger.l Tot
their pa ronage, heretofore bestowed; anf how br
.trie attention to business and the' want. oHheYr
gues s, to merit 1 continuance of the same
liiiADY jai HOUSE.
corner of Mau and tenlM Streets
By ROBERT HANCE,
LATE OF CITY HOTEL.
T'nf nT't!0 Hou. taka. pleasur.
...tirely, in .f, ffi'', ". " r-ni.hed it
r..:.L:. I . u,,iins
hie long exneriene. in . I 2 v"lfeo.i. location
to meritT continual , "f h.' l?h!2?f " -hl F
iu'm lib inrrtuc.i rB.;i;.:.. .
lo.e given him. iairunago uereio.
P. S The office of tha f'r... m... .
P"y is at the Bradv H ""'eni stage Coro-
ir V . . "y nottse
Haumbal, June J3, 1851.
SA!;?'i::!(X"i,ck.' G A Ball instor. and for sat. by
- y OW CAPLlMJm 7
Has . . 'IVK.IMf
T i i.. - . , '
G. W. CAPl.INr.ro
lir -anlaa4 aafh
nL:iK'V FLOURhlK... ..... -
liaudbv ' "u pureat always
bS tV"SbtC -.".fjo not .way di.sat.
l)e" J- H. GEST i CO
,y c w. caplincTkT