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A-N D W E S T E R N IJ:-N I O N .
1 11 : .1 VI
Editor and Publisher.
0 U. F. LAKENAN, !
Attorney at Law, and General Real
( fc EST ATM AiKT,
Office on North title of Bird, between M and 2d its.
WILL attend to the collection of debit and other
professional kuinet entrusted to hii care.
Hi has complets Abstracts of Title to all tliereal as
tate in Hannibal, and will fiiiiiith to those desiring tt, 4
an abstract or all the Conveyances, on record, of any
lot in the city.
He i eemiMiseioncd to take Depositions, Acknowl
edgement of deeds, ice, for the States of Virginia and
Mestts. Woods, Christy &. Co., St. Louis, M0
Messrs. Doan, King 4 t'o, " ' "
Messrs. Collins 4r Kellogg, n"
it. hi'.-, lYicafc Co., PhiUiriv-Kia, . t
' Morris L. llallowell 4r Co. " "
" Atwoud & Co., O
' ? Mollett,Hawe & Co., Hannibal, Mo.
Mr. T. II. Sehnes,
Mr.Ceorge Schroler, (ocl31-ly "
Smith S.. Allen, r
Attorney at Law, . y
HANNIBAL, MARION COUNTY, MISSOURI,
"VSJLL ptwicptiy attend to al! professional business
, Clin uniTi iu 111.1 mr in me i.ui.iitii-9 ui IUII
BEKAGE Ufa. Laiiie.e, a newstyle of goods for la
tltesV dresses. . anr'!ty
COLLINS & BREED'S. '
1. 1 ' :
T t T 17 T 1 V
ms iormr stork, the
rcwcivcti, 111 itiiiiuui.
-AS- rirniinli I LI .
tal. He inv.te. I,U customers to t1 at. ,l''e 'b,ov
stablishinent, where they will alway; fmu . .
and most extensive assnitmcnts of Watches and
elrv, Silver and Plated Ware, consisting in part ot lic'd
and Silver Lever Watches, Breailphisj Earrinics, Fin-
.eer Rings, I'encils, Lockets, Gold rob, Vest and Guard
ana riKe. n- win-cive lumirinnr aueiuion 10 Hiko nlna nf that r inn Wnrrkwnrth. Smilhor
e securiiie nnd colled ion of debts ill any part of the r ..1 . r :.i . x.- . .m ci. .11 .... 1 .1 ..1
Stale. WOlfice 01,. Bird street,' loin doo.s above the , V , , -TP ' "
tornerof Bird and .Muiu. in front of the Marshal and '"icr hi'nd, 1 think him, far inferior to Burns,
Chains, CiScelets, told and Silver Spectacles, Card.1,.,., r..UmUV, but 2 mere drelier, Vet
Cases, Silver Combs, Tea Pots, Castor.s, Candle Slicks,
Accortteoiu. Guns, Shot Bags and Pouches
jryfjood Wttiiirn of every description carefully re.
jiaiied and warranted to keep tima if well used or
4 lie fiioney returned. marUtf
' "thos. s. miller,
(Suocttsorto Miiltr 4r Bo.etr,)
Forwarding anfl Oommlssion Merchant
.(SROCKR AND PRODUCE DEALER
; ; H4NS12AL, yio.
' Liberal Cirii rf'lrancet xii'iic on Consignment).
0tU WM II A H KLVSSTOII D.
.1. U. RALSTON,
.Late of Quincy, 1)1.
Lale of Hannibal. Mo.
ATTORNEYS AT LA
KACRJ11EZT0 CITY, CALIFORNIA.
LACK Lace Veils, Freoca Worked (Vllars and
t aiwi, very Inree lot, SHlline awful cheap at
apr24y COLLINS 4t BKKKD'3.
Received, (his day, a lara addition to our stock ot
floys'Clotliiti)r, atl sizes, consisting of Sacks, Jackets;
white and brcwu, Drill Pants, Cottonade, ditto Vests,
tc, Jcc. finayl5'5lj
HIRAM McVKIGH to Co.
Hrowu Muslins of all kinds,
Twci'ds, Casjini'Ls and Jeans,
. COLLINS fir BRKKD'S.
O ADDLFRY.and Iardware, an assortinet
t. tor sale very cliea.T br
apra ly ,1,11. r.Li.tics,
A Fine Ibt of G inuhai i fr !-ale onreasonable terms
api21y by COLLINS & BREED.
A FFNP ac niitifTBitn cnmtnor Roitn
lUbboiij also. Satin ui. d AUntnii Kibbons lor fault
.It.. t svfil I IVC a. U I) I? LM t
of all i
ipeiieila line lot ol ft uiiu onww
finalities, tmiene hi.:h you wilt hnd some
baaulifulexceUioj kid IK' tor U' Ladies at
WM. HAWKINS. '
OTEP in and examine those fin.
Blankets, and Ready
O made clothing at the store o f
w. SFtLDisa, (KT .,,. nuaws uiaLra
1.l,,4LP.ha. jBTioni.. , Im-IHHATI.
J. W. SPALDfrJO & CO.,
,-iOM MISSION and tbrwarduiR a Merchants, deal
KJtiB in Star Candles. Starch, Soap, Lurd Oil, Cheese,
'Butler, Eggs ic. No. Conimeicu d ft. near Lo"ust
' Be " - st, IOHtsMo.
SprluRer &. Whitenian, Harrison a . Hooper, b S.
How (Cashier), CiiKittnufij J. II. Sim ges ; ., J. J.
Adams. Acie Ordain: Lokcr RenickAtC Choul.-aufc
V.lle. WBf.M. Moir.M.n. St. tmin H li.Blldell
'Co., AVw lurk.
BENTON SALOON TO I lE'NT. r
'fTHia is the lareest and best room for B allt!, Public
argest and best room fer B aim, r..u..c
tures, political aud otlier N. ' tniRS in
reut by the day or wefc. I ' of
T. ft. Sit. M KS.
X- Knows, lect
IHannibal. To rent
CALICOES. . .
CALICOES of all colors and descrrptions, . '"r.rwe
cheap by UprMyl ' COLLINS ti RE.
- TJONNETS-fioinr offfast and for sale snusL .
lhUby ap,fy CO.LIN8 ttEEl
TEST now received from that celebrated Tua
tricLToyaug Uho.slso soma ol Linn loo ic W0
.emf, fcc. 6 loct 24 T. H. SKI M! tS-
. .WIHIawt Hawkins
TTASiu.loiend his stock of 8TAPI.K AXk'
IT FACV IIUV JOOIS-Heady mad- W0lh
Mngboots, blmes, Queeuswsre aud Groceries. CJ1
-and examina our roods we think our nricei will auit
you ih'i. si.
- ..I - m
ways received, and no Uort hu!l b waiitine or
TprllS svbcnlier lias now on nan.i aim it ra cy...
JL daily teceiv lug the large1 aa e as- r.Jl l,i . wl, HUCO
sorted stock f COO US, suitable for this mails tktvt; ( ,.' lie belli'
"roiigiu io rVorlNeni Wiswjin. lie remrna vt mvj I VJ UH 0f
aiucui-a liinnftq lur lie liu rniff minimi -. lluu.l in.,"- .,
A Gliriipse of the Elephant.
waiTTER roa trlt jousnal and ckion.
fj J ON E OF THE INITIATED.
"And to with myself," lie said "for I rtr.vji
always derived great pleasure from reading those
verses, but I am not an enthusiastic admirer of
Campbell,: his talents, or perhaps more proper
ly, his poeticsd feelings were of a high, out not
nearly of the highest order; his conceptions were
many of them beautiful, but they are by no
nK';in . imprest vc in fin fullest sense to fbf
I reader. They were not forcibly depicted upon'
Lltia nu.-n til! ml fr )m nnnvovi Ilia iilia Ira 1 a 1 am
"t v T is iiiiuuj A V II V ,,v,Vf J asaii uvs-r v 111
reader with great lacility, and ms versification
is harmonious, but Gn tlir whole, I confess I es
teem Campbell inferior to many of his competi
tors in tfie flowery paths of Purnassus."
"And who are they that 'excel him? The
Lako School?'' Tyndall inquired.
"No," replied the critic, "in my opinion,
Campbell far surpassed all who may be called
Scott, Moore and Byron.
ei , .jusrnow, yomsworin, ar.u oomney,
f 1 " iir 1 . 1 i o .1
...::y, art-rcgar-jca uy many, gr-a-.vr po-
ets than the oldr masters, Dryden, Pope and
Thompson," Tyndall said.
"Tii-t mi,y he,' said his companion; "but fa -
shion ijeit.'cr, makes nor detracts from a poet.
The son 01 Nunnez infornied Gil Bias that
he and his coter.'e were higher in public estima
tion than Saavedra CT Low de Vega, vet the lat
ter were men of the lofti't genius the former,
asses. Thore w.n a time i''en Shakespeare
was considered antiquated. In the 'u-";- cen,ury
j . .Ltl " lit 1' l uuilliruil LVJ UW IIIC
1...1.I l m.n l -,.."Um:UU-
I. as Well as -.literary excellent.
... . ,.,, -T..hino- r. Johnson to lhc
highest seat Upon Pnrna-stts nay, his metrical
effusions in tho decision of posert art "Ule
admired, w hile the works of Noll Ooldsmilhare'
read and admired wherever fbe English lan-eilnc-e
is snpfeen. Pone himaclf f otmd tntiny cn
remjps and detra'ctors in his life rime, and when
'Bowles first jmbUshed his strictures, lope5S
Imemnry was almost withetrt a. chain pi on, until
J Byron appeared'? so you see t-atlvsimo amiqo
what it is not present popularity whioh oonsti
Itutes a noot." '' "
"And Pojo wss tho; groMest poot of 'em air,
at least there was unr philosflnlry about Irim
than all the btdutfee," quolh Flint, who needs
must set np also, for a Daniel oomo to jmlg
ment. "Yes,ttCliuloner respondod. "Pope i enti
tled to the .precedence as the most philosophic
bard. His works show on intimate acquaint
ance with the full scope of the human mind, and
the foibles aiid prejudices by which it is swayed idom, which so well beliis the free Englishman,
aud diverted from things of greater mommrt. land to the fact 'tliat .the cause of Hungary is a
Pope imitated Horace 'to a considerable extent, just cause, strongly and intimately connected
and yet not too servilely, fori think that his sa- j with the maintenance of the principles of free
tiros and epistles lose nothing by comparison dom all over the world. Loud cheers. Now
with those of the Latin. linstead of any vain attempt to give you an elo-
Tyndall, unwilling to abandon his proteges as jquent speech,' perhaps the better way will b
yet, said: . I to give you in a plain, unvarniehod manner,
"Well, Harry, what place do you then assign 'ome information respecting the great- cause
to Wordsworth in your scale of poetical cmi- (which I have so much at heart. fHear hear. I
" - .
"His posl Is a low one," was the answer.
"I believe in Byron's creed:
"Thou shalt Wlievs in Milton, Dryden, Pope,
.Thou halt not tru.'t to vTHrdsworth, Coleridge, Soc-
Because th fiist is erazed beyond all hope,
The secor,d drunk the third so quaint and moil
Tvndall was beginning to answer, and insist
upon the number and magnitude of the works ot
his favorite hards, when Uiaioiiev interrupted
him by saying: .
"If voluminousness of matter is made the
standard, then Sir Richard. Wackmore and Sir
William D'Avenant are entitled to greater fame
'than anv of their Hiccewops, but
"A bard may sing too often ati'l to long,"
oo lint I, SJ.Mitlmv mid Si'ott have oroven to their
I cost." .
"Southey'a qHaintness ought taform no ot)jec
tiou to you, as 1 think you profes erct vMiera
tion for Chaiiu.r aul fcrWtieer, and the elder po
ets," replied Tyndall. . . . ,.
"But his quamlness is oj yery. n lueui
ciiardCtur. ill ew
l IT- ! .
is epi luk about a knight ot
Inn n i i,el.entli ettnturv dikht in the
the armor his
ancestor wore during the tune ot me u,ru ies,
V" " t . - ... f-i , ,1
replied Lhaloin r. .
V ou mentioiica eh Ju;' "w ' ' .
suppose, aiuxrn wui rv..
lyndall, demure y.
tmul i,naiontr, i nm .....(, "" .
l.;. ixrA nlaee umone the poets
IU ..III. .11 i u .
eentury Ut equal to Byron and Moore, but
little their interior.
"Well, I am glad to find there have been some
poets in these latter days, but I hope my dear
friend and fellow pitcher," Mr. Tyndall pur
sued, "you surely do not hold JJon juan equal
to the Lady ol" the Lake, or Marmioiii"' ,
"No, I do not; nor do I hold Soott s effusions
,.t ,.i Hon Juan. The style is essentially
different ; we hud as well compare Don Quixote
to Bown's but I do notuiinic n j
- , - . .1 I 1 . .
an by any means u run i -
ly prefer tha IfUand, the Gaiour, and the C
t, . ..,a.toiniiri. 1 mtlllll
sair, and particularly wuiuo noiu.u. o
..v ... .,t ihn. aueh an enthusiastio vota-
,'rv of Bvron, Harry, a. t. be , b una P
t hat he had some defd: ts, obsen.eu 1 j iuUU.
i...ii i. V.nd manv anu ercai uu-
pcrrecUorn, boUi as a man una .u .
1 : . i". r.ianA v education.
iVlls Of 1.1. tempera , 7" 't wWft
were indeed irrasc.bu,, anu .
Irom me ioiin." - 7 '.
.i ,nnMA uassions mmttled and
'aintcd with the full majestic tide
' WCJ out o profusely, but Wh
P. . . . ... i : ...l.M.dor of
pouiunciu., a. .. tijao,o.,g. He
here since Alii-
toil v : t.....',..it, ot the pulaauons oj
I. Ill CllUill in -i . . ' . .. a
lespeure, - .n.Apm rfim.
Id every scene with tho ey of a
' 1.. U..a .i.-tpven
Ion N 111 1111 liisaa. - ----
the wouning. he has pur, ray
ho has dcseril
' leue.;ue nd natural, romantic and
charaotcri bo fv .?Z.7Z:ZiA.. confused us to bo nearly
HANNIBAL, MO., NOVEMBER 27, 1851.
and this I conceive to be the noblest art of tje
poet," Chaloner said, enthusiastically.
"And do you regard Tom Moore as his
equali',, inquired TyndU
"Not as his equal," responded the other, "but
Moore, beyond all question, was a treat Doct
the best of all modern lyrical writers; his fancy
was exuberant, but too nomadir, and his ima
ges lavish and highly drawn, though they are of-
lunumcs 100 luncuui, ana scattered too abund
To be conlinutd.) 0
o Kossuth in England.
' KOSSUTH'S GRiEAT SPEECl'l.
Yi.C Mayor of SuivhamptoA gtvu to M. Kos
suth an elegant entertainment, on Saturday, the.
25th, at his country house,' at which were pre
sent, among others, Mr. Croskey, the American
Consul, Lor(j Dudley Stuart, Mr. Cobdcn, and
M. Pulsky. The usual toasts to the Queen and
Prince Albert were .drank, followed by others
to the "President of the United States," and the
"Sultan of Turkey."'
' The Mayor then rose to propose the.health of
their illustrious guest, whose presence 'amonir
them was a source of enjoyment to the whole i
O t t -- --'S""V 1
august! pcopie. j 10 was ueiigiuea to'see
iiffiTiii' iim uriiti iiiiiirrnrpn ii'cpp ti a
'unanimity with Which he was welcomed, as the
lUUlupion uf CuUblilutiunal llUitv jaiidho tru
cd these demonstrations would have effect in
the proiKr quarter. The Press, which is the
and Tnost powerful agent in all reforms,
I would; he hoped, be unanimous on this subject.
He would not dilate to them on the claims which
Kossuth had upon all the friends of freedom.
He had, as one of his first acts of power, eman
cipated 4,000,000 of serfs, who could never be
cnthValled again, and the day, he hoped, was
not far distant, when he would have the power
Jtn rin:il. nn O K (Will rUlll m r.ro
..... - .......v...v . 'j v..u,v...u ijiuiw
10 -emancipate M,UUU,OOU more. I Loud checrsj
1 --viuiout lurtncr preiace, lie wdiild give them
.i-f'-e .''calth of Louis Kossuth, anil prosperity
of Ids u,,Jer?ak"-Ss" tLoud oheers."
' M. Kossuth diSU arose, ud in excellent En
glish proceeded io acUwthotwcmHiigt a W-
Bfa. Mayor and Gmhem : inS
tliank yoii forth noble, kiftd and gene.""11; cn'
' ..11 1 . ' 11 . m ni
tuncnU rt niiiti nave Deen so wu e.xprwasru,
f... 4 1 1 e y 1 1 t-m fulinit fr" nnv fliRnlnTnL pin-
quwnce. lWidws, 1 ras quite unpfeparod to
meet so distinguished at: assemblage as thai
wlach I liave tlo honor, pf adaressing. Not
much accustomed to address pubj.'e assembla
ges in my own lauguage, I foel I sha.'l have
great difficulty in addressing you in EjigJish,
and therefore must in the first instunoc claiiri
lyour patience and generous rnduWnoo.. fllear
ItwS I l.nlinvA T m nttril,,. ihe .renerous
Hear.l I believe I way attribute the generous
sentiments of wliich I am the object to nothing
cls than t3uit svmnathv with a strurele forfrcc-
1 wish the neonle ot Lncrland to know the true
state of the past troubles in Hungary, in order
that we niav nreserve the irenerous sentiments
. ..' ' - . . . 1. 1 .'
'already displayed towards us, and I believe that
tli-. ,.ti i,, nn vi -iv h an vsell Hnne ns bv
plain statement of facts, without any other un-
"-v " " V .; . .
necessary flourish or artificial pomp of word.
Hear, hear. .
i To understand fully the Hungarian question,
iillnLr(vrian .institutions. You all know that
it will be necessary to say a lew wonts about
nun)-iry Was tor more than H00 years a const-
tutional monarchy, and that alone is" no small in
dication of the elements of strength existing in
1 m 1 1 . 11 .
my nation, iiiear, near.j i,ibcu you khwi
.1 - I I . ' f 1 . . 1
, , f .
'r.ifLir,, tliiit tll
: Masrvar race arc Asiatic people,
'men thrust into the middle of the European ja-
ces. without friends and without kindred, you
'must give credit to the firmnesa and inherent
'strength that maintained the national institutions
so long a period; We were, in fact, surrounded
by despotic powers. On tlte one side was
Turkey enr-raehiii on us for centuries, and
i-i 1 1 i . 1 :J 1
it i... i.,,,,.,,,!- nf r.imiie nm nnlv of civiliz;rtion.
nirainst WHICH vc nan ior offes ueeii cunsiurreu
-..,;. ',i .,7,.,,),,.; w. w,
J i,, p m,liil
re. ,""u' " r "V" r
ins irrown pr(Mlii?iousty during ine lusi eeniury.
' rirJ:.i i tl.ir.i KMi iv.. Anutrin. not ih
liirire empire it now is, but the prrj)er domin-
emnire it now is, but the proper domin-
, - ftll0 iIousc of Hapsburg, not one of the
!sons wluCh, if historv speaks trath, wcro cv-
, ... . .,;, ionffree,iom. Ume of them,
, i.,.w 11 il.a rvnrf ..f reliirimis
I ''"' '- "- - r.
freedom, and ol the social freedom or me peas-
1. ....... ' T,,t i. i Via l.ntt ,if tlm Aiisli Lin
'dynasty, was strenuously opposed to any exten-
( W 1:.: 1 .. . W.mli i. ... . I.n. 1
v . v . . . . - - -
Sloil OL poilliew iriviieji-. .iiv. - w". I
'lion, surrounded bv Turkey, Russia, and
Idomiuions of tho House of Hapsburg, and, be
sides all that, we had an internal state of things
which has always been considered a bar to na-
tional greatness, namely, that the people of the
country were excluded from political privile-
i - s , . nutionai ,te, but
Still, with all theso difficulties, the juag-
- ij r-v"-; "-.: : r.. . -i '
- their national institutions, near, near.j au
not, then, justified in saying that in sueli a na
tion there arc elements "of a future, and that
.....1, . natinn lllrV.S to llliVB r'lL'ht? TLoud
I U. I have already stated that the original
u J. , , , . h n cous,ilulirn.
al rights. , ...
Ti... .....oi tut nn of llummrv was arisiocrauo
but an ariftocrutic ronstit.utiun in nungarv was
ITorcnt from the meaning wiiicn
attached to the word in England. In Hungary
the word is not synonymous with power mid
wealth, but simply means posuioiouiauicu up
birth, so ilwi II & man were oora no!", M c.::.
dru and his childrou's children would be noble
ulso. What was tho oonaequenoc'i1 Nalluiis,
a i.uiivi.hinla. urn aubitwt t many cnunges,
W I - J . . '.. -
eu r"Zr.S and h
. r i. ,.i.i ,!, . riiunkitrv
rcul, l.o pro;
t0 . .
people themselves, and poorer than the peasant
ry, because the nobles had the ambition not (d
work, as If labor were not the highest honor of
humanity, Loud cheers. Therufore we found
that this poor aristocracy was not only in the
condition of the people, but actually poorer, be
cause not so industrious. Hut one prominent
feature in Uiese f"cts is. that our aristocrncv is
not so opposed to the extension of constitutional
rights as even th pthcr aristocracies of the
middle ages, and as was formerly thd aristocra
cy of this country. 'I say was. because I con
fess the aristocracy of England havelcnown how
10 meet the exigencies of the time, to share
their nriviletres with the neonlfl. and to bear
fWiththcm their proper (.harp of the fuiblic bur-
uens 01 me country. Ana meynave naa tneir
reward, for the aristocracy of England has re
mained firm? while other aristocracies have
been scattered to the winds. But iu Hungary
the nobles were diffused among the people, mere
agriculturists, landlords, manufacturers and la
borers, and therefore the word in one cuse must
be taken with a meaning different from its ac
ceptation in other countries, and I must add that
although the people were not by 'the ancient
enntiitution allowed to speak for themselves,
still we always found among th aristocracy
generbfls and valiant men, ready to stand forth
jas the champions of their coiftitry, and of the
rights or numanity. Hiieens.j xocnaLiie mem
to do so. tliov hnd framed two institutions one
was what I may Call'the parliament of Hungary,
and the other was the county municipal instilla
tions) which latter, more than the parliament.
are the safeguards of the rights of the people.
Besides, these county institutions, were -so fra
med that tlry could be the only media through
which the government .-could convey orders" to
th,c magistrates and other officers. These coun
ty meetings were own posed of noblemen who
resided iu the counties, and in some counties
amounted to twenty-five or thirty thousand, ev
ery one of whom had the right of voting at the
elections for magistrates, who were the only ex
ecutive .power of the country.
If the government wanted any order execu
ted it must b dona by the municipal magistrate
but he could not come into immediate .aontact
iwitli the government, .who in the first iilstancc
must send their orders to the county meeting.
Such meeting had the right to discuss the or-'ders-of
government, and more fhats ona oase has
1 ' 1 L .1 1 - , . i P ..11
occr'rrou :n wnicn-inc oruer was noi, iorwuutu
e mscistrate for execution, but a ronons-
count-yhas needed SHtfn- a jarrier more than
Hungnrv, for more tlvfia -tarcC ci.'""-"-.-" '"S
House o"f Hapsburg has not had at its head -a
man who was i friend to political freedom.
rLoud cheers 1 . Now, The House of Hapsdu."-?
Iia ruled in Hungary for these three centuries,
not i'.Y Conquest, but by the free choice of the
nation; not without condition, but urmiy bound
by treaties, the chief feature of "which was, that
trance wa; c" b"v " ; jiuaixnis was a condition contrary
'tl.:. r.-i( hB irone' Imfrlei airainst lanit V. i:... .r
m .Anr tfi 1 nn iwivorm ont lm mnthnr I
thpf nhnnr-lnnHhl of'e eovcrQinenM arid no 0f "h&n-. hear.''
when the ' KJng was aumiueu to puwer 111 ure or- 1 we proposed that this powt-r should be mdspen
der of his li.'ie'd succession, he was to rule and dent of the will of the landlord, but were op
govern Hungary by means of its own public posed by the House of Lords, until at last, by
insiuuuons, anu m-u-nii.i, ..... , ..
swore solemnly to 16 ?o, and prayed to the cter-
nal God to bless him aid his race, and he was
t rue to his oath. Thirteen Kings we have had
of this dynasty, and noma.'? can charge me with
cxamrcration, when I say that the rule of these
thirteen Kings has been a cont Jnuous perjury.
Great sensation, caused by tlie w on u-riui
'crpy which M. Kossuth threw into the delivery
jof this sentence. Yes
perjury, that-is the
. Gentlemen, f um a
a..!word. fRciicwcd cheering
I i - . .. ., , i.-r jj..
.plain man, ona can ipmgs oy uicir ngm n.
Cheers and laughter. Now, when the llunga-
jr'iin nation elected the head of the house of
' Hapsburg Uer sovereign, the country contauied
upwurtis or i,vvu uerman gcugiupuii-ui quurc
'miles, wliich I am informed is equal to about
,100,000 English square miles, and liftccn mil
liis of people, no small or insignificant realm,
yo will admit. Hear, hear. .t that timc,levcry net, and corrupt every troublesttne mem-
,1,A ftf 1 f .'nislklirty rillnfl PAnStitllf inn. Lop in t.Trvr J tt ut Ka itnmilontl tnitrFit luttninii til
.iu uw nvinv
. ' . ' I J- .
I . II.. . ..II I lima 1, n hKm-lnnOS rl Tr C 1 1 II nviT
, iv inese provinces iu men ngiivounvi,
he whole of the three centuries, the- 'strength, of mind an body, but with no narrow the House of Hapsburg bad been eompeUt0
of the house of Hapsburg lus beett to View to' the privileges of our oven class. We jbe iust. It was one of those curious rum
i .1 .1 1...., .T ' ..11 ..i.i i - i , , . ' I . J. .... . . .
: obtain undisputed,
uun.iiuuii uin ui.
Shortly alter tho PestU struggle thcte w;as
nit a single province of tlie Austrian empire
that had a institution the ambition of the
I.. ...... ..f tV..nu1.,.- l.oviiirv filiv.lH..l tliA f.nilti
,um3 v. i ...pi-uni ....
tutional rlirhls of ill. Our constitutional rights
were not idisorbcd beeauso we did not bclomr to
tl.a Austrian nnnire. nor had we anv Connec-
r ' " " ...5 ... ....i. .1 tir .
iion wiui u, cn-i-in dv;u .I", u. nui..i.
with tins countrv. with tine exception, tliat the
line of succession is not limited in" the same
line of succession is not limited m the same
manner. We administered a coronation oath,
setting forth that thero would he no connection
between Hungary aud any other province, and
that while we acknowledged the same sove-
. . ... 1
reign, our ngnia wnc wi jiivii..u, .u
w ere to beeoverned solely by ouf own laws and
, c ' . . f . .
customs, ive utso provwea unu, in case inc
sovereignty should, in the line of succession,
to tall into the nauas or a cnuti, uic same course
suouiu noi oe pursueu w in im- ui u-ii ia.
i i . i . . .. i 2 : i r a
,in sueli a case me regrni or .iumuu wouiu ua
some cider member of , the royal family; but we
'provided that a Hungarian palatine should bo
ionpointed, so as that our constitutional right
snouui noi oe ausorueu. n ngm wcio
so protected by our municipal institutions, whuh
i t.:,1 :..i... ' ,k !,.. -....1.1 V-
i iwuu un nu.eicui
coninletelv broken, steadily resisted the en
croachment of the crown.
Perhaps I nuy illustrate the defensive strength
of these institutions by alluding to the siege of
irWagossa by Napoleon. When Napoleon had
battered down tho walls,' he was as far from
success as ever, because he had to fight single
io.uuea wu im nieii ... -i..
is was in Hungary wun uer muiueipai insu
Cheers. I remember un occriior. whert the
I J lapsDlirir, III qvuuih-v iu iuiua-
lutirt, levied troops and raised the taxes from
one to two and-t-half times as much as they
were, before, and when the majority of over fif-tv-t.).
nf nor onmiiies. inrlueneed bv terror aud
'everv other means at tho disposal of the Gov-
- . . . 1 .
submitted to uie s-ueronoumuui. jy
. ..... ... A.
tliat time there were only ten or twelye counties
ornmeai. suutuiueu io
the ;thut resisted, and the resistaKiee et even thete
few was as effective as that of the people of
baragossa. I Loud cheers. J J5y these means
we preserved through all encroachments some
shadow of independence, but the Austrian Gov-enUri-nt
hcving obtained absolute power in their
otheL provinces, took every means, from oped
violence to the mosti insidious frauds, to over
throw our municipal institutions. . They foment
ed our quarrels, undermine our national cluir
acter, impoverished our country, and corrupted
our nobles. O
Our parliament tjliif h ought to bo convened
oneo in three years, was hot convened for twenty,
and so arbitrary government went on, until at
last we became aware tliat from 300,000 to 500,
000 nobles would not be iiifllcieiit ti defend th
rights of the country from the despotic t$nden-
oies of Austria. Front this point dates our
struggVs, which liave tioWolasted for about
twenty-eight years. We decided that our best
safeguard Wouf3 be to Inspire all the people with
the sentiments of patriotism, by giving all an
equal Interest in constitutional rights. Loud
cheers. This was the direction of public opin
ion in Hungary in 1825. We felt theneccssity
the more, because, although ve had a board or
council of government which bv law was respon
sible to the country, and were'bound not to car
ry into execution any order even of the sover
eign, which was contrary to our laws, still we
knew that there was no real responsibility in this
council, because no corrupt body cn be made to
feel responsibility. Individuals jnsy be n.add
responsible, but when the government becomes
collective responsibility vanishes. We saw
therefore that our rights and privileges were
Vanishing tinder the machinations of the Austrian
government, in which Metternich evas then all
in all; and feeling that 500,000 nobles could not
effectually resist such encroachments, we pro
posed to give the whole fifteen millions of our
people an Interest constitutional righls,.and a
motive- for defending them. The peasantry
must form an important consideration in 'every
c&uh'ry, but doubly so'in IIuHgary, which was
and is chieily.an ugricii'fUral country, hc con
dition of our peasantry became then the firsij.'opie
with pur ref orrncrs. who felt that bur countrv.
so highly gifted by nature, could never be made
the earthly parauuc' it .ought tj be except by
free lubotors enjoying constitutional rights; and,
seeing umt- our peasant haU to work for his
landlord oiie hundred and-fourdaysln the year, to
which must be added Snnday's, Tcstivals and
winter., and had tS irive the ninth of his croduee'
to the seigneur, the tenth to the bishop, We felt
to human rights
a m W.
I - . . . - rvvaaa tiuilti 1V lit V, UIU
rtiv 4 linn iro A'A
wag to emancipate tfie pcopfe. Loud cheers.
1 ne reiorfn, however, was only effected by slow
degrees. . .
In theX,on2 PurliamenL kAA sat frrmi 1R52
; to 1830, it was proposed m the lower house,
iW1i,Cl'; consists wholly of elected members, that
every peasant should haVe the right to make
, himself free of his feudal and seignonal burdens
by piling effthe capital of his dues. At first
luuueucu 01 uovernqjem, 11 was reuucea io
the privilege 6f purchasing freedom with the
consent of the landlord. That imxlified measure
J was carried by the Commons and Lords, but was
refused by the Kegeiit, who was thus at issue
with tho people on this ereat question in 183G.
(I should state that the members of the Commons
cn-ivoieu as ttiey were instructed by the conutants,
iand therefore it was towards the latter tliat tho
jintrigues of the Government were principally
directed. They could not corrupt them by
jm-ans i uicuwiii raiaune, who c-eing Dy
.olhce President of the House or Lords, could riot.
iinlriguo with the county meetings, and therefore
jother persons were selected to carry into the
,couniy jncunngs every apecics v corruption.
jljear, near, j x uvy ojijiomieii an uMiuiuisiraior.
im everv coimtv. who should never leas the
'countybut be present a! every meeting, control
""i"ivi vv ...v
. . . t- . , '
I,. m ns-n i r t s m nfl lm. a ma takwnn aV
u was um icin we opposeu wun n our
;aiueu inese insuiiuions io oe luuepenueiu in
order that we might reform our system for the
bencht or the entire people. Loud cheers. J
; But the more We developed our views of reform,
tlfe mote activly the government set thqir ad-
!m!n!.l..l.m ifl v1r i rti let, rtxtt tliA .Miv.twr
,w unv,i.uuv ... wuiuij,
and that was our condition i up to the diet of Oc
!tober or November. 1847. a vear or so before the
! French Uevolution. I wish to show that in
!ii.. . ..-i...:....:... i
..umi;iii c mio inn itiumuminn . uu.
blaminir revolution but the Uuntrarians were
lengaged in no sercret conspiracy, but ct public
(engaged in no sercret conspiracy, but ct public
meetirgs, utid in an open and constitutional way,
j struggled mani-illy for their rights. Hear,
hear. 1 myself had the honor to be elected a
Imerribcr of this Parliament of 147. for the me-
... i.,l I., rt
nupiiimu roumj m i i-m, wiicn mc uovern-
ment of the day did every thin? ttossible to nre-
. . t - r
vent my election, i ne gooa sense ol the nobles,
ihowever, tarried me in triumph. Cheers.
me ursi quesuoni proposea, according io the
.: n.j : f r .
iiisiruciuiua i uuu rcct-i,cu irom my corpiuueniv
was that our municipal institutions should be re-
stored to their original purity, that the system
of administrators should be abolished, and that
until these measures should be earned no taxes ,1 can appeal to the public knowledge 6f iuy na- -should
be voted. The Houses of Lords and .ture, of niy enemies, and of my friends, ihat I
Commons were at issue ou this question, dis- always considered power ts a burden. Before
cussing it for upwards of twaioonths, and re- Ve went to Vienna for sanction to tha lair api
maincd in disagreement. I should mention that pointing responsible miniaUrs, i addressed the
I h was necessary that both Houses should scree Unr.l rf Presh.trtr 1 4. t.XA
upon a measure before it was laidv before the
rung, um n.c.c m, umu io inu communica-
tion between the two houses. The measure bad
not a majority in the Lords, because it contained
so many functionaries appointed by Government,
and persons aspiring to be functionaries, but still I
have the gratification of knowing that it was
supported by msny of the moat independent of the
Lords of Hungary, among whom was my lamen-
ted and unfortunate fneud Louis Buthvanv.
Still corruption went on, and I ielt at last that
jour only course was to apply ourselves to the
cruet source or evil. Urt the head of the Kir
of Hungary rests two crowns, tlie one. constitu
tionol, the other absolute, und these two oould
never agree together; Whieh ultimately pre-
Vailtd iu the struggle, hstorj tells in many a dark
VOL, 2NQ 13
ipnge. I proposed, therefore, that, as the f otis
of Hapsburg declined to restore nhe right, of ,
Hungary oiit of deference to the people of VUrV
na, it was our duty, as the elder brother in th':
national family, that the people of Vienna should
alto get franchises. I believe no just man will any
I was Wfong in that propoHion. which wa,
universally accepted. 1 was not planning revo
lution; that is an accusation which I knovv will
find ho echo in the breast t,t any just or gene
rous tnah. Lutid cheers. My speech on the
subject was read in all the Hffeei-hnus of Vien
na, news of the French rrwolulion arrived, anf
the Viennese .rose". TliAt was the Austrian
revolution, and I must frankly own that I imme-
diifily fleridrl 1ot to carried away by the
excitement of the tim,"biit to take Vt reins of
government into my own hands, and to avail trfy
seir lhc opportunrty that Ood had given, not
Hungary made. Gibers.)-. .
Ihe Grst thin? I proposed was the emancipa
tion of the peasantry,- and of course, untie? the
circuiflstanceS. it was carried unanimotialv bsr
both Houses, rflear. hear.l StilH waa anx
ious not to hurt the interests of any person, but
rather to spare those who, although not quit
national in their onem, had ret in frmre nf
;me become interlaced with the fortunes of A-
great many people. I proposed," and my preJ
posal was adopted, that peasants should be free
from all duties free without pavinz liberty i
not a thing to be paid for. . Cheers. But I
proposed at the same time thai in awtgnore -
should irel indemnification, not from the peasant
but the land. Our country has la'ire resources.
which by cood management would be more than
enough -to give full and entire compensation to
nobles. I engaged my lienor and my oath Ui
give this indemnification, and it was carried irt
Parliament. rHear-l As I stated before, the
poof people hnd every duty hut no rights, and I
proposed that rights should at once be conceded.
and that every man possessing the franchise, ac
cording to his means, contribute to the public
meetings. This was carried unanimously. The
third plan was, that the people should be admit- -ted
immediately to all rights of franchise, not
only as the election ot members of Parliament,
biit also for magistrates and othrj- public funo'
tionarjes. But now, when all the people were
admitted jo "the franchise, luut a million of per
son euuid ttut uv convoke! a our p!sa,.s
therefore I proposed tliat every community shouli
Lselcct person to represent them. These were
my principles, . Cheers. 1 -1 made no eneroaciw
ment on men's rights either is thir family, or j
bn communities. I wished that the governmer
IIWUMI tM, tlllH:.VIIMY U!4Ufc4M MM.taM.. MM - .
necessity, and to enforce obedience tphe J
but not to interfere with the sociaj (
rights of men. We proposed f Gunsmi r
councils of Government could hom the mstt i
Isrtonsible, the executive should of our o-. ,
memoeri rcsponsiuie vt niriSj jj
These -were, the proposal, Baii ,
wjth several others, with the . V F. II. "
sliall not detain you. .We es-r-j inter-
sible ministry, tmnncioated otNew M&b..
dained that the nobles shouid1n.Aeuu, "
the peasantry in all ."public! dutie "1
should have the franchise both ., ., 'If
Parliament and for county rrf ; "a. .
laws were brought by a deputatiower iiOX:
Arcnduke 1'alatine, up to V lenn, ,p.
in the name of the future of Hurif0'' L J '
peace of Austria, that these te' ne,Ple
granted. We were ordered to b 'V Vnited
before the Emperor, of Austria, Jtl might0 aa .
hjm to "give Jo our fettered brethrB a
their rights. At that time there y9T -.)'
hesitation in every country except .r .
having made one glorious revojuti .
principle then established sugiciec
every necessary change, ricre, '
thing was quiet, while on the contiLi n-.
rln,-ofn.n TV,- fl.. 1 I.!?1 U" T .
...... x.i li.. . .110 UUIllllUtU. WCli
cede these just claim I. went inyter. .
Imperiuf Palace, and told the Emrror,---ie
persisted, I could not guarantee what V ff
the consequence, with thcsS tiovcmC
rope, and when the people of IlunlS'
their just claims resisted. They told V M
I . ' " " " J
I 1 ' 111. S a St V r- - taaiA
joe kept qmet, and that it Rhould not mvdw
of the vicissitudes of human life, in wViick
self, an humble, son of rhotlest HuiigarT,,
in a position to hold the destinies o tli lit
of Hapsburg and all its crowns in these bav
fM. koisuih here made powerful imprea
by the energy of his mnnrjer, stretching '
both his hands as he'-fuus'ed iie aepiencn-'
said, "Be just to my raJWrlarid, aid I will,'
peace and tranquillity Vienna." Tlioy prf
ed to be just, aud bef jro twenty -four hours I
and before tlie. Eternal flod. whoUlnuJi
responsible uf soul before history, the inde
pendent julge of events have a right to
.that the House of Hatwbunr owes its ti is tehee
na a i vrntiv m rIT.cl..,. -i l
.-- - i-t w .iuw.. .ng.j
At last the seotiGa of the Government wai
ini-t. t i, .:t : -
f ' " " w.v uu ,5 w . Wilf-
i in the promises of the EuipercY in one roues'
,e Archduchess SopUa, the mother of the pre:
lent Kintr. and sister at the last; tm in in.jKf,
. . . . - . . z z .
i nlottinir with all
ipromises. Heary-lur. In a ttW weeks the
King came to Presburg, when I was First Kit
!is?er. ait ofTi. e wbieh I .
I Louis Bathany M. Kossuth waa here affected
to tears J by the hand, and said to the peonli,
"lWt cheer me, he must be the first president
of Hstv." He declined unless 1 troukl en.
tor office with him, And thus I Ws4 f dreed to n.v
ter, Hear, hear. . Iu a fe;t tfttt it
;Serbs revolted, stirred up as it appeared by the
'Camarilla of Vienna. They took tor the Mutant
'that by ancient diploma, that wrt of Hunearr
iwhich thev oeeut.iKil i tK j
hree huu'dred tliousaiul people, had i(Un .
to them. No body denied this, but they wt!
;that it should b iw.i:iw..tw ..-,...r r,' -
- Wry, and form separate ban JL; JNe.a!th't -M
nhi, bauat it. which ihe I,.!. .t.!n-.i f.
aoO,U0 people, the Serbs number only SOC.tXX)
co-ieno oy ,oth hob.
4 y '
" " r. ,. e'""