n'VfeVv..;. I;.ri'v ' ri; I'' i-i I
" 7 '"' 11 i iT-riiMir I,,,,
AND W ES.ra-R: 1J::N:I'GN'
1, IB... B"1 - .13 13 V: :
fefia d ... i
' - i . . . ... . - . T I v . . . .1.-11 fe.A, . .
....... ;...,- . , ,
I I. : Jr..; '.--! ,.; , .;
Editor mid PnbllRlict-.
I had taken a place on the top of one of Iho
feoache which rim between .E.liurgh and
Ulusgow, for the purpose of commencing a iWt
tour in the Hfghlunds of Scotland. As"we rut
tied along Prince street? I had leisure to survey
my fellow travelers,. Immediately opposite mo
at two dandie of Mc fi,st order, drtssed in
white great coal and Belcher handkerchiefs,
and each with a cigar in his mouth which they
puffed uwny with marvelous Complacency.
Beside me sat a modest and comely youirg
eramaa, fc i vdow' dress, with an infant in her
arms. The appearance of the youthful ninn-n.
v ti" .. . . "
HANNIBAL, MO.; JANtrAIlY; 29, ;1852.
;VOL. 2-NO 22.
sir, while he ha
las strength to l.ihor hut I ..... ia .t.. ... i i
' mjnseir in poverty aday luborer on the Inot. hnurnv-r. t t tu? n
6 A t ,k .1 J , ... , H MobiIa T r naarly parallel"
... ..... ml nouicman it name the
young gentleman colored a lillle but it was ev
ident that his emotion was not of un unpleasant
' What is your father's name ? ' said he.
James Anderson, sir.' .
. " ' And his residence?
Well, I trust that desolate so far as thi.
world is concerned, you know something of Him
who is the Father of the fatherless, and the
and ,urance than the citizens of the neighbor
ing f"tites. The consequence is, that, the far-
lv narallel with
the greatest river on our continent, and must en
ter into competition with most of the great thorough-fares
of the West. AU the rivers of our
Kre.it valley tend from tin North to tlio South.
The Ohio and its tributaries on the one hand, the vety centre of that entire section, and will in ii mile of each side' of tho proposed route
an-l the Missouri, the Ar'anas, and tho Red 'bring ids hear market as some portions of the j of the Hannibal and St. Jonrph ruilroid Was, on
rieranu incir triDiitaries 02 llie otner, in con- ( Atlunui states. Uur larmcrs, stimulated bv
junction with the Mississippi, open up the ert- (fair prian for their produce, will open large
tire Vet to Naw Orioans aaJ t!ie Gulf of M?s j.?(r?!, nnr products will be multiplied many
lolit. -1 the soutliern and eastern states
ttiors vio' live in the interior of northern Mis
souri, ire almost as aireoUmlly shut out front all
cotnm-ce with oilier motions of country as
tfioufff.'! they live nt the ' North pole. ' Tike
IlanuitU and St. Joseph railroad U to penetrate
ded by its intrinsic' merits, but by the teuderey
it will have to benefit a large and most meritori
ous class of sur i-iticm1 wh are acattercd all
over the Union. .. ' : .r ,..:
Whntis the extent of the grant I ask? . I am
able to answer this question f roin official docu
ments. Tho whole amount of public lauds willi-
er ana her habe indicated that they belonged to l,lusoani1' an(1 tne -o of Host.' u his
Uie lower class of society; and although the iiui"e;' . ,, , ,
dandies occasionally cast a rudo glance at the I ' Jc ' 1 )lcss "0 t'lat through a pious
mother, the look of calm and settled sorrow Pnrenl, cares, I know something of Divine
Which she invariably, at such times, east linnn
her child, seemed to touch even them, and to
disarm their coarseness.
On the other side of the widow sat a young
gentleman of plain yet prepossessing exterior,
who seemeu especially to attract the notice of
.1-1' . .....
grace, and the consolations of the Gospel. My
husband, too, though a tradesman, was a man
wno icared Uod above many.'
' The remembrance of that must tend much to
alleviate your sorrow.'
It does, indeed, sir, at times, but at other
fuuius s !. aVit. lllll II .t: till. '
the dandies. His surtout was not absolutely ! , Bm .ready to lnk- My father's poverty
threadbare, but it had evidently endured more i ",,yanc "S ge my oaoy s nciplcssness, and
man one season, ana 1 coma perceive many
contemptuous looks thrown upon it by the gen
tlemen in Belcher handkerchiefs. The young
gentleman carried a small portmanteau in his
hand so small, indeed, that it could not possi-
Hlv hnvA rrtrtf ninort rnnro tVinn a ntit nrpn nt linnn
This article also appeared to arrest the eyes of Jimc! lh n8 of the whec,s Prevented me from
the prigs of fashion opposite, whose wardrobes,
my own delicate health, are frequently too much
for my feeble health.'
' Trust in God, and he will provide for you ;
be assured he will.'
By this time the coach was again in motion,
and though the conversation continued for some
ico. - Hut between tho AtlanUo seaboard and the
New States there is no direct natural channel of
vtntro3raniunicaf;aa.. Camtneree fan bo carried
on successfully between the old States and the
Mississippi valley only bv doubling Cape Sable
or through means of artificial avenues extending
i rora me Atlantic coast tar into the interior.
Hence if the last Congress was iustifiablo in
aiding the construction of a railroad from the
northern lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, we shall
be more than justified in aiding the construction
of a highway from the extreme confines of Mis
souri to the States this side of the AUeghanies
a highway which will open a direct, speedy,
saie, ana economical communication between
in all probability, were more voluminous ; wheth-
licarinsr it distinctly. I could see the l:.nrli.
lowever, exchanging looks with one another,
er they ever paid for it or not, might be another nn.J.at one, time, thc mo,r? forward of the two,
whispered something: to his companion, in which
the words Methodist parson,' was alone audi
ble. At Airdrie nothing particular occurred ; when
we got about half way between that town and
The coach having stopped at thc village of
Corstorphine, for the purpose of taking up an
inside passenger, the guard observed that the
..l! UCIILICllli.il ttll I ILU 111. iiuiiiiiaiiicuu 111 1113 ' I , t ,
hand, osked leave to put it in his boot, to which !!a,sgw, where we arrived at a cross-road, the
he immediately consented. wldow expressed a wish to be set down. The
Put : rrL it, ,.,. .,,,.,. young gentleman, therefore, desired the driver
... t til Sinn flnrl tnrtnmtin him.alF T .m tit. r r-.
j w "."I', .... oy. iiiing iiiiiiii. itum viiv mai.li)
itook the infant in his arms, and then alongr with
of the dandies
Why so, Tom ? ' enquired his companion.
It may capsize the coach,' rejoined the first ;
a sally at which both indulged in a burst of
laughter ; but of which the owner of thc port
manteau, though the blood mounted slightly in
to his check, took no notice whatever.
While we were changing horses at the town
of Uphal, an aged bcja;ar approached and held
out his hat tor alms. The t!tuuii luukcd t l:;r.;
with scorn. I gave him a few half pence, and
the young widow, poor as she seemed, was a
bout to do the same, when the young gentleman
in the surtout laid his hand gently on her arm,
and dropped a half crown into thc beggar's hat,
and made a sign for him to depart. The dandies
,c, . ir t i i m xno otner passenger wishing to atij;
. , o ' fi is:ime place, we were soon ag.un in rapid motion
Aye, aye, successful at our last bencfi t, you g ; emporiumo the west of Soot-
know, rejoined the other, and both again burst word Pwil, ,poken. The young
into a hoarse laugh. ... L-ntl-man sat xvith his arms crossed unon hi.
A I flu. i iitinn In In. .unnn.iin wrm essinn. P r
ni.uaiui. .... ...,.- ..,
the blood oeain mounted into the ce
check, but it was only for a moment, and
comiuucu siieni. u..,i:. .o...,,i i,;,n ,.,;ti. mn,nmnt
thc guard, assisted her to descend.
' May God reward you,' said she, as he re
turned the baby to her, for your kindness to
tho widow and fatherless this day.'
And may He bless you,' replied he, ' with
all spiritual consolation in Christ Jesus.'
So sayinp;, ho slipped something into her
ihandjthe widow opened it instinctively. She
saw two sovereigns glitter in her pulin ; slia
dropped a tear upon the money, and turned a
round to thank her benefactor, but he had alrea
dy resumed his seat upon thc coach. She cast
upon him an eloquent, grateful look pressed
her infant convulsively to her breast, and walked
JNo other passenercr wishing to alizht at thc
be finished to the town of Quiney, which is only
irv;ivG nines iroin minnioat; so that in the
course o"a few veal, we may 1 caooliau'iy expect
to see a railroad communication complete be
tween Philadelphia and the Mississippi river.
The construction of the Hannibal and St. Joseph
railroad will complete the connection as far west
as the Missouri. The same chain of railroads,
too, which will connect the western portions of
the State of Missouri with Philadelphia, will
unite with that great railway line already ex
tending from New York city to Cincinnati,
and also with the Biltimore and Ohio railroad,
and with the road from Louisville, bv wav of
'il 1 :flf l.. I... al. ,T.T.-t.llA-C I si . J.
.lnm,i. lorcasij ami, u I nugui juu;;o uy inu expression uiusnvme, 10 o.wannan. Georgia, and to tliarles
iiimiiaii s . m ,. :.i.ii. i ci ..v. r i mi .
iul ins t;uiiiiicii.iiii:i;, ua timciuiv icvuiviuk iuiij kiuuiii uiiuia. aiius, m a io w years
will sell .lock, provisions, and our other staples.
From ther. we will reoeive in return sugar, cot
ton, salt, ti?c, and iVuncs, As our ir.cani in
crease our tonsumption will increase also. We
will consume not only articles of domestic but
of foreign nanufacture, and thus, while we shall
add to the home trade, we shall ulso increase the
foreign comnorco of the country, and swell the
resources of the Government.
If a proposition were submitted to connect
New York oi Boston with the extreme settle
ments of Missouri, all would admit the impor
tance of the enterprise. Some would be willing,
no doubt, to coistruct the road at the expense
parts of the Union that now hold intercourse ! of the nation. No such charee upon the Treas.
only by the most circuitous, tardy, hazardous, jury is, howevet, required iu order to eonsumate
and expensive routes. The Hannibal and St. a railroad comminicution between the Missouri
Joseph railroad will form on important part of and the Atlantic seaboard. A railroad is nearly
such a line of intercommunication.
finished from New York city to Cincinnati. In-
The town of Hannibal is situated on the west ;diana is extending this road to her western
the lllh day of Annl. 1817. 1M(1 3i ? '
portion of these lands, Jiai passed into private
hands since that time. All of them have been
subject to private entry for 7my years mol
of liiern tixtecn years and upwards so tlurt
they have been called over and over njain, and
rejecw-j 3 worti lest than onde!!ar i 1 twen
ty-five cents per acre. The most that Missouri
can receive by the grant I ask u 320,131 acres
of refuse land. She would not probiblv receive
mora than 250,000 acres if the grant should pass
to-day. And in return for that, she not only
engages to construct a railroad which will en
hance your public domain two or three times as
much as tins grant will amount to, but to carry
your troops ind munitions of war Over the road
free of all chsgo forever, and to transport your
mails at such prices as you hal!"prcscribe.
When Missouri came into the Lnion,lho Fed
eral Government required her to promise not to
tux the public lands within her limits 'for the
term of five years from and after the day of sale'
In consideration of this promise, the United
states agreed to pay to Uie State of
Congress iuss been unintentional. " Thr Uei
tiinly no equity in treating Ohio, Indiana, awl
Illinois with K.irkC'1 kiiiJiu-j, while you turn
away from Missouri is from a step-child..
It is, however, objected, that the granU .of
land to tho new States for the purposes of in
ternal Improvement are hj.nluua to th eld
States. ' Iu what way? I inquire. It has been
shown that lhive grants do not diminish the rer-
emie of tho country, but largely increase them.
They 4i.fse th omfwt d etisywutnoe of
life intff many a fwhirution and family that ar
tiow i'hmiile.i. J.TliSj' sprsii ciscitiia in
telligence. Thy build up aohool-hwHsea and
ehurchesjand lh?y bring into communion and
friendly intercourse distant p-irts cf the Repub
lic. Surely there noviingin alitiii o which
any mombjr of the Union ought to complain.
Hut if the policy of granting land to the new
Slates for railroad purposes is to top, let justic
be dona to both ncotinr.sof tho Union. Hereto
fore those grants have b.?en confided almost exclu
sively i o lira free States.' Let Missouri Arkan
sas, Mississippi, and other Southern Statrs h
I pinned upon an equai footintf with Ohio. Indiuna,
ana Illinois, Detore you reluse uli grants. To"
uciuro ui;i is uonti would give rotor, at
least, to the chargo sometime mado, that th
mijority of this House cannot and wiil not do
justice to the Southern part of the Union.
The old States should not overlook ti
;lh;it they have received all tiie unanr.ronrmli.rf
Missouri j lands which were withi: their limits at the date
bank of the Mississippi river, in latitude 39 dee. j boundary. ' Illinois is extending it through her j five per cent, of the net proceeds of the sale of j of thc Revolution. Missichusetts and Maine-
45 min. north. The town of St. Josenh is mm itcrritory to the Mississippi river; and all that is
hundred and eighty miles due west of Hannibal, necessary to complete the entire chain of rail
on the east bank of the Missouri river. The 'road from Boston to St. Joseph indeed from
city of Philadelphia, and the seats of government 'Portland, Maine, to St. Joseph is to construct
of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, are nearly on the ja railroatl through the northern part of Missouri,
sama parallel of latitude with tho town of Han- The people of Missouri have, by an act of
nibal. So that a railroad running Hun .-pt tmm ! their Legislature, appropriated Hkl.500,000 to
Philadelphia would pass through the centre of ,lhe Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. Counties
the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, rros nnd individuals have taken a large amount of
of his countenance, was evidently revolving ton, South Carolinia. Thus, in a few
some scheme of benevolence in his mind. The ' may we hope to see the banks of the Missouri
,i i - i . i t. ' .. " . l. . ..i ti . l . i. r i . i i
... , , . i tt i i -1 i i i : u. minus rcifiiruuu nini wim niiatuiiiciii. x ucy ivci , nii.i iiik lcriuu country uoruerino' tnercon.
Wn hml not l.'ft Unhal many miles behind us, , , . h ., .... i , . ,. , j umuun , uicauu,
.. r- .j . . naa uiso seen tne goiu in me wiuow s nanu, ami orou?ni wiuun inree aays' travel or tlie metroo-
when the wind began to rise, and he gathering Memod o t)ink thuUhere was ,ore under that olis of the Union, and of the prcat cities of
clouds indicated an approaching shower, llie . illrtoutlhan their happy brains ' could Charleston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York,
dand.es began to prepare their umbrellas , and ;casi, ' njecture Tiwt in tlus thcy were ri ht, an.j B.)ston. Nor is this alu f h ; d f
the young gentleman in the surtout surveying J nmifnt: chlc tffl the mouth of lh(J ou . verisatIor0
the dress of the young widow, and perceiving w had enlereJ Gla5 ow an j were ap. compieted within a few years. The Hannibil
that she was indifferently provided for against Lroacj1jn ,j,e Buck's Head, the inn at which our and St. Joseph railroad will connect with the
the weather, enquired ot the guard if the coach 0B ce WM to stop an ope traveling car- Chicago and Cairo road, by means f the Snrinsr-
wai full inside. Being answered in ithe affinna- ed b v four bcautiful horses, drove up field, Illinois, railroad. In this way w II ba
tive, he addressed the mourner in a tone oi sjm- s it ' direction. The elczance of this opened to the South and to the northern LtW
nl i .... . . .. . .. . . '
pathy : told her there was every appearance oi elllinatre ,naje the dandies sprin2 to their feet.
smart shower: expressed his regret that sno w,t beautiful Aysr crei 0
could not be taken into me coacu , onu cohciuubu
by offering her the use of his cloak.
It will protect you so far,' said he, and, at
11 events, it win protect mo ouoy.
. 71 - I ... . . I
The widow thonked him inamouest, rcspecuiii Ti(j coac)l ftni, t)0 traveling carriage endeavor to trace out the line of railroads which
manner, ana saia iiiai, ior me mkw ......... sloppo(i at tie Bck', nead at the same moment, will most promote tho welfare of tho whole
he would be glad to have the cloak, if he would . r00tin n in hsced livery, springing behind country, and he will inevitably fall upon that
then ut the top jvery line of which the Hannibal and St. Joseph
is hat with a .railroad makes a part. That road is on the par
allel of latitude which passes midway between
re you all well at ico casne, uooerir- ime nonnern oounuary ot me unileu Slates and
nnt nrT.T for tho want of it himself.
He answered her that he should not, being ac
customed to all kinds of weather.
' His urtout won't spoil,' said one of the dan
!is, in a voice of effective tenderness, ond be
tides, my dear, the cloak will hold you both.'
The young gentleman turned quickly around,
nd addressed the speaacr in a
Whieh I shall never iorget
lono ui iwill
u , vuc
'I am not naturally quarrelsome, sir, uui. ui
it i quite possible you may provoke me too far.'
Both the exquisites turned as pale as death
orunk in spite of them into their natural insig
SBificiilce and they scarcely opened their lips,
ven to each other, during the remainder of the
tho Mississippi at Hannibal, and strike the Mis- i stock in the work. And now we ask Congress
souri at St. Joseph. Within eighteen months a 'to or us what they have so frequently dono
railroad will be completed from Philadelphia to ror olcr states, we ask you to give us olter
Pittsburg. Within the same time a railroad will nate sections of the public lands, through which
be finished from Pittsburg to Columbus, Ohio. jour roa( w'" P"i for six miles on each side of
A railroad is nearly finished between Terre it',e road, to aid us in the enterprise. This is
Haute, near the western line of Indiana, to In. :ota proposition to take money out of the Treas-
dianapolis, in that State. The Illinois cross-cut luiy wa would not advocate it. The
railroad is already finished from Spr ingfield to mot ot the proposition will be, in my opinion,
mo liuiiuis river, ana in less than two years will 1 u vmu ui mo uuvcruiuciu.
ka fiiii.lm 4. ll.n 1 ..... C r I . I . . I Anil iirn..9 anqnra K. filfarnnlA i.tinn. -n
served by the United States are not to be sold
for less than two dollars and a half per acre.
Now they arc liable to entry at one dollar and
twenty-five cents per acre. So that you will
receive as much, at least, from the public lands
if this grant be mado, as you will receive if it
fail. Do gentlemen fear that the value of the
public domain will not be enhanced by our road?
let me beg them to look at our condition, at our
soil, as fertile as any in the world; at our situa
tion, possessing none but the most expensive and
tardy means of reaching a market, and then to
reflect on the effect which similar roads have had
elsewhere. No such work has ever been made
even through thc most densely settled sections,
which has not greatly enhanced the real estate
in its neighborhood. How much greater en
hancement of lands must follow the construction
of a railroad through such a section as northern
Missouri. It is now occupied by some three
hundred thousand people; it is capable of sus
taining a population of several millions. The
making a railway through it will pour immi
grants into it until every foot of land shall be
occupied and improved. Its citizens now need
mills, schools, churches, and many of the comforts
of life. A railroad will secure to them all these
advantages at one and the same time. In view
of these facts, it is a most stubborn skepticism
which doubts that the construction of the Han
nibal and St. Joseph railroad will appreciate the
lands near it twofold or more. That apprecia
tion will not be confined to the lands within six
miles of the road. It will extend to the lands
even fifteen and twenty miles from it. Publin
lands that are not worth fifty cents an acre will
readily bring Uie minimum prioc. Lands that
soldiers will not locate with their warrants will
be eagerly sought for this purpose, and the in
come of the Government from the public lands
will be greatly augmented. This is not fancy.
During the last Congress millions of acres of
publio lands were given to soldiers. It was
lands lying within her limits, of which three ; even at tin's moment, pos.css a large domain
fifths was to ba applied to purposes of internal I that is undisposed of. Now ail of those land
improvements by her Legislature; a'nd "the I were acquired bv the common bhwi ami ir,.
other two fifths m defraying, under the direction ;ure of the nation. The lands of Maine, and
oi congress, tne experrses to ba mturrad in thc j V lrinia, and Georgia, which were unappropri
making of a road or roads, caml or" canal, luted at the time of our Revolution, were aa
leading to the said State." In order to discharge I mitch tin commDn acquisition of the whole
a public debt, the United Stales have grant.:.! .IVi'jn, n the jmblin lands in any of the Western
some d0,000,000 or 40,000,000 acres of land to ;Stats.- fl.it the cH S'afes, I reiterate, received
those who have been in our military service in every foot of ur.urtir.riated fan.t within fhir
a time of war. A lurere amount of those lands limits. And ret wlicn a n?w Smi alc fr .
lias been located there still. Those lands not jsmiill prt or the puUlic land within its limits, in
beins disposed of bv this Government for moiwv. idischanre of hiorh mJ .mtmrii.i.r .,.;.,.
ij -.r- i C C j. m.h i 1.., 1 I. It
tho State of Missouri receives nothing for cx- dered by it in the conduction ot railroad
empting them from taxation. The strict lelterjof through the Government, donruri, we hcaf the
j j , j - - - iivi k.lC 1IV
uerai npirit j.iaies on tno same looting with the old Sides,
give Mis--ond you avould give theiu all the waste U.hIs
jas well as to the Atlantic seaboard, all the fer-
grays: cried one; '1 wonaer tne country included within northern Missouri.
who thev can bclons to?' land all that immense country to the west of our
'He is a happy fellow, any how,' replied the State, which is distined in a few years to be the
other. 'I would give half of Yorkshire to call jhnme of multitudes of white men. Let any one.
1. 1 - 1 Li.- I.i.n In 111. nm ll.a TT-Tl l Ci..l . .1
inciii mine. i..i,iiiwwi .i v. iu? uiiiicu oiiii.es, min
pringing behind .country, and he will inevitably fall upon that
1 , ! 1j1 ..1 . 1 ! P 1 'V il . IT ! I (n'w
the latter, looted lirsi msiue ann
! of the former, when he lifted h
1 :i- r ,.if,,l rannnnf,nn
'Are vou all well at the castle, Robert?
'All well, inv lord,' replied tho footman. !the mouth of tho Mississippi river. It is on the
At the sound of that monosyllable, the faces lino which passes through the heart of Missouri,
ot the Mtiuisiles became visibly elongated, but Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. It is
. . .1 i- 1 . . e .1 .I.- 1: : .. U 1 .1
.1 'nnniuioni iv nrpnipaan nnrn nn-i a iwnirA iiinr inc oiu ouiiqs revolve iius mailer in inpir minus.
tout takin the s 11; uesi nonce oi 'iiem or on 1110 iiuo wiuuii passes ueiween me nomern : r . , . . . j .t. -n i- .1
lUUl 11.110 .1V b.. ... ... n..a. . t tm v.... ..An-- ...A ...A.il.l in n . .U. I HIXl I ftlTl .11 T A Ih.V Will lIl.miGI M rm A rtF I ha ATI.
ir coiirasion, the nob eman fiolitely wished .lakes and the Uhio river, at nearly an equal dis- ... " " ""''" " " - r 7 , ,
ir cuiuiiBiuii, v j j j Imi iLirw trranti. receive no mnn-v frnin (h niiS. Position Which they manifest towards donations
eooi mornine, ana aescenaing irom uie tance irum cacu. ms un ma une wnicn uivmea ;:. , f . ij. , ,i A . o. ..,
P . t i.7 i i i u ii-.tin r it..;.i Gi.... ..... ho lands, and vt we find that our revenurs from lot lands to the new States,
ir, wu. n u r ! ii- . . . - :. . iii.,. ..,. i ..,..i I.. l .:.!.: k t. .i....ni.. i s .i.f. .n
1 1 a fli.A.i Anna niP E 1 1 1. nn I II H nnn Ii n H nnnnAAl.nt- ' " . . . . . .. ......... ..... . . imuiii i uui liu ill luiiiu iihil R.l
, o Vlll-ll .llltl i.i iw. . ".. ...w ....w .....v... ..viiiii. via ill.
despised portmanteau in the carriage.
' J -i- U I.'.... ...IP nnrl In. fnAlman mnllim
sieppeti iuuj ik iiiiu.tii iim .iw iu". iiiaii 11.1,1.1. iq
meantime tho young gentleman, with
the same politeness and delicacy os if he had
een assisting a lady of quality with ler shawl,
proceeded to wrap the widow and her baby in
the cloak. Ho had hardly accomplished this,
when smart slower of ram, mingled with hail,
.mpnil. IleiiMT mvsclf provided with a
. . - I," : ii.. I .. o i .....
cloak, tho cape or wtuen was suiiicicuuy , , T1.er'. an cmj 0i an duince
to envelop and protect my head, I offered the : ij we(j lo Bl10ot on his estate.'
.1 l II.. ...l..nl. li A VAiiyliTv ' I . 1
voU'ig gentleman my umurcnu, wuiunno
accepted, but held it, a I remarked, in a man
ner better calcuhtted t defend the widow than
lumself. ... i
When we reached West Craig Inn, the tcc
sjjjj guMjrom Edinburgh, the rain ceased, and
the votmir gentleman politely returnea roy ui
it i . i. ..r.A. iho u'lilnw of Ins dnn-
d e,.a, oega - v - - t . Hall said
Wr.r;Tl uV theroilincr to intention to discirs
coacn, ana -"6 " ". tU.?. o
Then turnin2 to ma oung wiuow, no .-j
the same time with the great New York, Penn-
up behind, the coachman touched the leader very sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, nnd southern rail
slightly with hi whip, and the equipage and roads, and by means of which, therefore, more
their noble owner were soon oiu ui sigiu. uisuuu uuu nunc umueiuua juhils ui uio union
'Pry what noWeman is that?' said one ojf the can ba brought into ensy communicition than
dandies to the landlord, as we enterod the inn. any other which can be conceived.
The Earl of H- , sir,' replied 1 the knd- j T,C . of tho , royii belwMn
ilord; one ot the best men, as wca as.mc r.enes. Vastern w-jtern vliom of lhe Unio ,,M
'in Scotland. been a favorite object with our greatest slates-
I 'The EarUf II t repeated the dandy, a,moU from foun,,aUon ho ollr Govern-
turning to his companion, we ....v mpnti Th(J Cumbl5rlad turnpike w.is projected I
'(). ves! we may burn ovar letters of intro
duction when we please,' rejoined his compan
ion; and silently and crcst-iaiien, bom waitea
up stairs to their apartment.
by one of the "early Presidents," and Ins been
carried forward at the expense of millions of
dollars. In consequence of modern improve
ments, that work has become nearly useless.
Hut the time has been when (lie Cumberland
.road, by its promise of opening a way from the
old to the new iaiates, was a much-cherUhed
cently gone from the Western States to Oregon
and California. . '
There is another pieco of history in connec
tion wilh this matter, to which I must refer gen
tlemen of the committee. Tho only acts grant
ing lands to new Slates, besides the Illinois grant
of 1850, in which the price of tho alternate sec
tions reserved by Government was doubled, are
the compact does not, perhaps, entitle her to j cry, Injustice to th'cold States. Place the new
anything. Jiul surely a tair and liuer
.1 I -1 WT-..J - . 'il
uii hid m i ui. me uiiucu oiaies win eive ;uis- anu vou wouiu trt
souri some equivalent ior nor laxmg me lands wiiniu tneir limits This we do not ask. We
within her limits which have been and will be are not so rapacious as the Atlantic States were
located by military warrants. Missouri sup- 'when ility 'occupied osr' pesitio AH i!t we
posed that she was to receive a valuable consid- jask is a small appropriation, which, whiie u in"
eraiiou fot 2ic aiti vuiubUt Zt i5" til thl "ub'.ic """ .-wwiinl. nt Ut Tmuurv. strillattord .
mnas "tor me termot live years from and alter isome remuneration lor our services in the nation)
the day of sole." Tho United States so under- at large. : .
stood it. Now, suppose all the publio domain " No other espenditure of public money has re" '
in Missouri sliould be absorbed by land war-Jsulted in souiuch and j gentral rood as ti?t
rants, what would she receive for not taxing the j which has had for its object the settlement of th
lands of this Government? Nothing, nhsohite-i West. Sener.it th ih-vb Kr.it. t'nm n
ly nothing. And would that be a fair and bona ones; strike off the Valley of the Mississippi,
fide execution of her compact with thc United even in imagination, from the Atlantic seaboard.
amies on me pan ot ma . iatier Un the con- j ana you will possibly form somw sm dl eoneep-
trary, would not.the United States be obnoxious jtlon of the benefits which the settlement acd
to the charge of ''paltering in a double sense?" j improvement of the. public lands have had upon
of keeping "the word of promise to our car and 'our national v ealth, greatness, and prosperity.
breaking it to our hopci" (The fortilication of ymtr coast, yir Navy, your
Missouri does not ask that the land given to Army, are all useful; but no statesman will pro
soldiers should be treated absolutely as land sold tend that any ono or all of these combined has
for cash. 'All she asks is, that inasmuch as the contributed one tenth as m icli to our reputation
policy of granting bounty land is for the benefit j abroad, or our security at hma, as the settle
of citizens of every State, each State shall bear im?nt of tho great West. Now, while the settle-
its proportion of whatever expense and burden ment of the. West bus heen of Rreatr advantage
that policy costs. Missouri is willing to give ts thc wl.ols csCntry than almost anything else
up a part of her three per cent., but !ie does which has transpired in our history it has repaid
not think she should be required to relinquish i by millioni all the expenses it has occasioned to
all. And it appears to 1 me that this Govern- ! tho Government. Your public domain has cost
ment cannot discharge the equitable demands of you $74,757.87, 53. Up to this time it has yield
.Missouri on better terms to tho nitionthan by jed you $133,337,093 1 .just $00,381,213 19
masuig me grann am urging. - more man it cost yoiu, i: the XV ivy, besides pro-
vhcn .Missouri makes a road through the tecting our commerce, had yielded to the Treas
land of her citizens, the landed nronrictors iurv double the money it has ooat. how irrMUti-
benefitedby the work are compellcdHo piy their Iblo would be en applioation for an annronriaj
share towards it construction, in Uie form of ttion to that branch of the service! Hut tho set
taxes. As the value of their land i increased, jtlement of the publio doratin ha operated in that
their taxes are increased also. Now, thi Go- manner. It has increased the general welfare,
vernmeni is a great lanuen proprietor, and owns it has augmented resources and multiplied tho
liiio uuiiiuiu in me ouilc ot iij.isK.mri. is ii power ot ino country, ana u nas at ine
right, is it just, is it fair, under these circuta- jtiraa repaid to the Government two
stances, that while private individuals are com- every one it hat cost.
pelled to pay for improvements which add to the 1 W ill not gentlemen La instructed by the his
value of their estates, the Federal Government jtory of the pas'.? Experience has taught u that
should receive precisely the same benefits and every foot of land brought under cultivation irr
not contribute one dollar? Let gentlemen from 'a new State adds to the wealth and prosperity of
.. .i , i
"The current of emija'ion, from one port of
tho Union tothe other from the old to the new
States roll twwk a gnldi-u tide of trade and
business. The old States now supply nearly
all the wants of the farmers of the Valley of tho
West, and henea it prosperity wonderfully
promotes the welfare of the older States, of the
Union. The poor emigrant from the old State,
who establishes a farm in the West, soon con
tributes more tothe wealth and commerce of tho
State he left than if he hvd remained there in
dependent poverty. The prosperity of the new
States reacts, through the channel of trade and
business, in f.ivor of the old States, and hence
the wonderful growth of tho whole country."
Tin is a fair statement or the fact. Every man
of observation knows it to be true, and still you'
last year, and are still rapidly increasing. Why States receive five per cent, of the net proceeds
is tinsr ooieiy oecacause numerous raiiroausare or the sales of the publio lands within their lnn
projectcd in the new States through the public jits, for the purposes of internd improvements,
domain. Some of these roads are now construe-I except Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio,
ting. They have so largely appreciated the jThey reoeive but three per cent. ar that o'j'ct,
public lands that millions of acres aro now bought j the other two percent, being retained, in the
which until recently were a drug in the market. Treasury for constructing, under the dirction of
This fact, and this alone, explains why it is that : Congress, a road or roads, a canal or c uials, lead
the receipts from the publio lands have increased, ling towards the limi's of tho enumerated States.
i: .1... 1 i.. - i.. rv. i. a ii .i.. i. i i .i . .
i-.iii w ii iiai Ainu liv Liin u.iiiiiLV ui i ill liih 1:11. i ..in innii i i in iir rpmpm nprp I mm nil. n.iriiAn
I" --.. -- ,.-r. 1" 1 ......v..
Krc.s uuu mo iiiiuiciao i:iuiji iiiiuu n men 11.1. ic
of the public lands is not given to the new States
as a gratirty. It is given in return for thc non-
taxation or tne puutic domain lor a term ot "Uve i
years from ond alter the day of sale." Tbi ar
rangement hat never been a favorite with the
new States. It originated with Congress, and
hesitate to be liberal to the now Suites no, air
not liberal, but just.
Mr. Ciiairmati, Congress should either gradu-
UlT. .llll lUllU". " . t' . 1
l 1.1 i,a 0.111 r..rrshmrnt. and
quirea it sno wouiu "j ,
?. i,.j...u,.r;.. in the neiutive. he procecd-
UAJII I'1' I ..'A ... O ...
I . . . . ' Wl. iw.r n. iol-
ed to enter ito conversation WittA ptr,
was forced upon the Western States us condi- late the priced the public lands, or aid in enhanc
lion to their admission into the Union. .From if? the value of those which have been for a
.1 ... 1. 1 :.. .1 1.. ti i. 1 ,l..i ' l.-iniv tinA in riMirAr Atl th Tiiitilin l.n,l. n
,,riNT n IT If f I ' uum icni,u wj uuiLiiiiuuuv nM UVUUlon, .IB UlC .UII'UIUIII JUU 111UIIV, U Will UB nclCCIVCU UIW i"(J - - fiunv ... "
PiSECli Oc IIO-N. W. 1. HALL. ;objeot, with a large portion of the Amerioan those relating to certain land in Ohio. The a- Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, stand on lour navigable rivers are readily old and settled.
t peopie. iv is i.ow proposca iu eaeci mo snme mount of those reserved sections is j!J,43.yo precisely the same groumls, so far as their rom-4no u is wmi uie ocsi ianas in tne interior
Mr. Chairm-n, it is not my purpose by the greatest ot modern improvement acres, of which, up to the 30th of September last, Ipacts w ith the United State are conomicd. H' c pub'.tctar;? 7oorrr r)! rewam
the President messase. without the cost of a dollar to the Oovernment nearly one half had been sold for two dollars H.it how different, how widely different.. the pied forty year after they have heen u!j
f the committee. I desizn to without thc exercise or any dangerous or douat- and fifty cent per acre. No returns have been tr dm-nt whioh Contrress Iws meted out to them. I private entry, uiiuinsr neie'liborhoods,
'riiiht of way and a
' iv. f.i. nn il.i. rnnd. n;'am ? ' to aid in the cunsiruou
0 '4 Ann,, .irieen mile, farther, sir. I leave the nibal to St. Joseph.
say a few words with refenoe to a bill I intro- ful power, by the mere appropriation of
. a . . .1 II ..... Tlt-. Kill r.n' i.ill rt itl tAll'.Iirt A i Irl t If. fl 11.1111
.1,... 0,1 ii.tn il- House on vesterdav. That bill poraon of the public domain in a
nronoses to irrant to tho Sute of Alissouri tho will cover it with an industrious au I active pop-
received as yet from the lands reservej by the i In Ohio $2, 812,034 ill have bcn expanded on jsettlements sparse, an! rendering it impossible,
grant of the lust Congress to the State of Illinois, 'the Cumberland road. In Indiana LLiShlj! 'very frequently, for our people ta enjoy even
portion of the publio domain ulat'nm, und convert it from a wilderness to culti
lotion of a railroad from Han- vated funn and nourishing villages. There is
no nartion. of this vast cauutry wluc i eon'ains
. i -r r . .:i.. I r :' i:....
. . . L V .1 il . .M nf Air. tied at 1 10 pro ee.t. 1 ttsSMre them H is IlOinillg so largo an h ui iuuuo uuu, iu j.i u iui mi m
coach about x mile, on the other side of Air- tied at uie P s f mftM aitflie, Missouri;' Yet
d"6, -. , . lV k .(. iirv It is only ahout fifteen months sinca Can- ,thut fertile rd beautiful region is, to a great de-
. Do your fr.ond. dwell thereabout. ? .try. K3 ., d , . . bwaUf . it t no eS.ne,
. Ve., sir. they do. I am on my way to mj grw. . M fha c0Ultimion wI . ?or tht transportation of iu pro.lct.. It. citi-
tasher'. house. - Cjiroad from Chicago to Mobile bay. I am not sen. are almost entirely dependent upon tlr
-I'm ka ir Tin iifr sir - - ,
t V- sir.' said the poor womr.n, raising hi
ti.nWerchief to her eyes, and sobbing audibly
' I am returning to him a desolate widow, after
i .. . V. - nn a a t linn vn.ry '
s your father in good c ircumsf ancei P
i ii will v, suffer me or my baby to want
liut the oase of the Ohio grant show that the 33 lisve been spent on the same work. In Mis,- 'lhe blesMags of common schools. In order to
doubling oi the price ot the alternate sections 'souri mlo:ie single, cent has been expended by Vemtxly thi-evil, lhe new States have beenap
reserved to the Uiiitod States in interna'; tin-'ibis Government on any , like utttrpi !to. Ba.. plying to Congress fr more than a quarter of
provement grants is not a nullity. Il a reali- 'side this, Um ha reef ive.1 upward of elevn century t" giann ue vue price ot in piiuius o-
ecures iho Uovernment from air hundred thousand acres of publio land for the majn. uus nr. iwcu sicuiiy rwase-.!. in aw,
order u seiuo inir wu.ic iuihu, wo asu jo
aiit m increasing it value, by grant to ril-
i . tr ' : r . . ... ia . -m-a
V. i i.t oTiint ha riiineU Or SOnoiWIV 111- .Dll.soun river uir frvuin ( u miuremi iiuw .rum
'lured either tlii i Government, or any Suto, or the market, of the country. Thii liver U elobed
3 lureueiim r iiu. i . . U. .i..,.kil. f,i rmir ..i,tni i. -r-r vi.
any individua'. un tne coiururj, 4 .-""'-- - -
!, l .. , a.I k.-.fli ' ' At all events, the Muring the remainder of the time it 1. sodiOivuU
u lull mil
J 11I1IVII ...V VVIlllllillllil .11111 011 llllll.ll V.1I l.'.-... W.1V 1. I'UIIU IUIIU IV, HIV f
loss. ipurpose of in'cnwl improvement'. " Indium h.is jia order to seuio aur waste land, we
1 trust it will bo borne in mind. tV.at underthe Vpc-ied unwards of thrca mitliims'of acres .for-i to ail in increasing it value, by irrant
act. granting lanl to .oldiers, warrant em be !evnal and railroad.-.' MtasouxLhasrtaied no'road, which will pnable Government to tell tho
located only on land subject to private entrv. thing. Why this diuVeue, in the . policy . of publia domain at ns present minimum in all
Now, all the lands in northern Mi&ouri .r iib-C meres, toward these femi Siatos? , I. not jc wos, ed at dcuh.e the minimui in many ia-
I road it was
intended to promote will be or of 'of navigation that. thoo who shi i by it are .u
up, and is destinnd to exert most jnot to much higher, charges fori iransporUii
ioct to urivate entrv. and hva heen for sixteen 'fimniirl faithful In th ilii-hr.a of her u.iUes ' stance.
year, and more. Whatever, therefore, adds to 'u the Union?' Ii .he not 'upright in her eti- I hope trenrictnea wiH not opes &t dlf
tho value or these lands 1. ro the bene! I or 'tniT-Mctits With nr misters. Is she not worthy (because uie new maics mi v m , 1 wm' -
soldier, havina land warrnnt.. whether InMiine. Iin mtmerhir in tlu Canfederacv? 1 nave benrfit iaries. What would be
Virginia, or Texas. So that tho lUnnibai and I nerer heard any . sut-H charge made
ion Su Joseph Railroad grant i. not only reeommcn-Missouri, and I mut trurit that the nsjleet of ,au import t sap
against 1 est should v-ta agnrnti propo
.. t.anvtiiif tiunnn tirntuiB mm 1
ei'ghi l1 t
iijcn to for;
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